Libya the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, Tunisia to the northwest. The sovereign state is made of three historical regions: Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. With an area of 1.8 million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world; the largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over one million of Libya's six million people. The second-largest city is Benghazi, located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age; the Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire.
Libya was an early centre of Christianity. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area of Libya was occupied by the Vandals until the 7th century, when invasions brought Islam to the region. In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 19th centuries. Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted in the temporary Italian Libya colony from 1911 to 1947. During the Second World War, Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign; the Italian population went into decline. Libya became independent as a kingdom in 1951. A military coup in 1969 overthrew King Idris I; the "bloodless" coup leader Muammar Gaddafi ruled the country from 1969 and the Libyan Cultural Revolution in 1973 until he was overthrown and killed in the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Two authorities claimed to govern Libya: the Council of Deputies in Tobruk and the 2014 General National Congress in Tripoli, which considered itself the continuation of the General National Congress, elected in 2012.
After UN-led peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli governments, a unified interim UN-backed Government of National Accord was established in 2015, the GNC disbanded to support it. Parts of Libya remain outside either government's control, with various Islamist and tribal militias administering some areas; as of July 2017, talks are still ongoing between the GNA and the Tobruk-based authorities to end the strife and unify the divided establishments of the state, including the Libyan National Army and the Central Bank of Libya. Libya is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the OIC and OPEC; the country's official religion is Islam, with 96.6% of the Libyan population being Sunni Muslims. The Latin name Libya referred to the region west of the Nile corresponding to its central location in North Africa visited by many Mediterranean cultures which referred to its original inhabitants as the "Libúē." The name Libya was introduced in 1934 for Italian Libya, reviving the historical name for Northwest Africa, from the ancient Greek Λιβύη.
It was intended to supplant terms applied to Ottoman Tripolitania, the coastal region of what is today Libya having been ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania. The name "Libya" was brought back into use in 1903 by Italian geographer Federico Minutilli. Libya gained independence in 1951 as the United Libyan Kingdom, changing its name to the Kingdom of Libya in 1963. Following a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi in 1969, the name of the state was changed to the Libyan Arab Republic; the official name was "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1977 to 1986, "Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1986 to 2011. The National Transitional Council, established in 2011, referred to the state as "Libya"; the UN formally recognized the country as "Libya" in September 2011, based on a request from the Permanent Mission of Libya citing the Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration of 3 August 2011. In November 2011, the ISO 3166-1 was altered to reflect the new country name "Libya" in English, "Libye" in French.
In December 2017 the Permanent Mission of Libya to the United Nations informed the United Nations that the country's official name was henceforth the "State of Libya". The coastal plain of Libya was inhabited by Neolithic peoples from as early as 8000 BC; the Afroasiatic ancestors of the Berber people are assumed to have spread into the area by the Late Bronze Age. The earliest known name of such a tribe was the Garamantes, based in Germa; the Phoenicians were the first to establish trading posts in Libya. By the 5th century BC, the greatest of the Phoenician colonies, had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa, where a distinctive civilization, known as Punic, came into being. In 630 BC, the ancient Greeks colonized the area around Barca in Eastern Libya and founded the city of Cyrene. Within 200 years, four more important Greek cities were established in the area that became known as
Ophellas or Ophelas was an Ancient Macedonian soldier and politician. Born in Pella in Macedonia, he was a member of the expeditionary army of Alexander the Great in Asia, acted as Ptolemaic governor of Cyrene, his father's name was Seilenus. Ophellas's name is first mentioned as a trierarch of the fleet of Alexander the Great on the Indus in 326 BC. After the death of Alexander, he followed the fortunes of Ptolemy I Soter, by whom he was sent, in 322 BC, at the head of a considerable army, to take advantage of the civil war which had broken out in Cyrenaica; this he accomplished. Having defeated Thimbron and the party that supported him, he helped establish Ptolemaic control over Cyrene itself and its dependencies; the character of the new pro-Ptolemaic regime at Cyrene is illuminated by a lengthy constitutional document from Cyrene, preserved on stone, whose precise date remains controversial. Ophellas' career is somewhat obscure. Justin styles Ophellas "rex Cyrenarum", king of Cyrene, but it seems improbable that he had assumed the regal title.
He was married to Eurydice of Athens, a descendant of Miltiades, appears to have maintained friendly relations with Athens. It seems that he was left by Ptolemy as governor of Cyrene, which he continued to hold on behalf of Ptolemy until 309/8 BC: his name is not mentioned in the account given by Diodorus of the revolt of the Cyrenaeans in 313 BC, suppressed by Ptolemy, he is next heard of in 309/8 BC, when Agathocles of Syracuse turned his attention towards Ophellas as to prove a useful ally in his war against the Carthaginians. In order to gain him over he promised to cede to him whatever conquests their combined forces might make in Africa, reserving to himself only the possession of Sicily. Ophellas gathered a powerful army from the homeland of his wife Euthydike Athens, where many citizens felt disgruntled after having lost their voting rights. Notwithstanding all the natural obstacles which presented themselves on his route, succeeded in reaching the Carthaginian territories after a toilsome and perilous march of more than two months' duration.
He was received by Agathocles with every demonstration of friendship, the two armies encamped near each other: but not many days had elapsed when Agathocles betrayed his new ally, attacked the camp of the Cyrenaeans, had Ophellas himself killed. The Cyrenean troops, left without a leader, went over to Agathocles. Sometime after his death, the control of Cyrene was handed over to Magas of Cyrene, first a governor for the province before claiming independence from the Ptolemaic Kingdom and becoming king in 276 BC. Habicht, Christian. Ελληνιστική Αθήνα. Athens: Odysseas. ISBN 960-210-310-8; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Ophellas". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
Alexander II of Epirus
Alexander II was a king of Epirus, the son of Pyrrhus and Lanassa, the daughter of the Sicilian tyrant Agathocles. He succeeded his father as king in 272 BC, continued the war which his father had begun with Antigonus II Gonatas, whom he succeeded in driving from the kingdom of Macedon, he was, dispossessed of both Macedon and Epirus by Demetrius II of Macedon, the son of Antigonus II. By their assistance and that of his own subjects, who entertained a great attachment for him, he recovered Epirus, it appears. Alexander married his paternal half-sister Olympias, by whom he had two sons, Ptolemy and a daughter, Phthia. On the death of Alexander, around 242 BC, Olympias assumed the regency on behalf of her sons, married Phthia to Demetrius. There are extant copper coins of this king; the former bear a youthful head covered with the skin of an elephant's head. The reverse represents Pallas holding a spear in one hand and a shield in the other, before her stands an eagle on a thunderbolt. Connop Thirlwall, History of Greece, vol. viii Johann Gustav Droysen, Hellenismus Benediktus Niese, Geschichte der griechischen und makedonischen Staaten Karl Julius Beloch, Griechische Geschichte vol. iii
The Tusculanae Disputationes is a series of five books written by Cicero, around 45 BC, attempting to popularise Greek philosophy in Ancient Rome, including Stoicism. It is so called as it was written at his villa in Tusculum, his daughter had died and in mourning Cicero devoted himself to philosophical studies. The Tusculan Disputations consist of five books, each on a particular theme: On the contempt of death. In the year 45 BC, when Cicero was around 61 years of age, his daughter, died following childbirth, her loss afflicted Cicero to such a degree that he abandoned all public business and left the city retiring to Asterra, a country house that he had near Antium. There he devoted himself to philosophical studies, it was his custom to take some friends with him into the country for intellectual discussion. His Tusculan villa had a gallery called the Academy, which Cicero had built for the purpose of philosophical conversation, it is agreed that Cicero wrote the Tusculan Disputations in the summer and/or autumn of 45 BC. Cicero addresses the Disputationes to his friend Brutus, a fellow politician of note, assassin of Julius Caesar.
In the first book Cicero sets up the fiction that they are the record of five days of discussions with his friends written after the recent departure of Brutus. The second book includes the detail that Cicero and his friends spent their mornings in rhetorical exercises and their afternoons in philosophical discussions; the conversations are however one-sided—the anonymous friend of each dialogue acts to supply the topic for the day and to provide smooth transitions within the topic. The Tusculanae Disputationes consist of five books: "On the contempt of death" "On bearing pain" "On grief of mind" "On other perturbations of the mind" "Whether virtue alone be sufficient for a happy life"The purpose of Cicero's lectures is to fortify the mind with practical and philosophical lessons adapted to the circumstances of life, to elevate us above the influence of all its passions and pains. In each of the dialogues, one of the guests, called the Auditor, sets up a topic for discussion; each dialogue begins with an introduction on the excellence of philosophy, the advantage of adopting the wisdom of the Greeks into the Latin language.
In the first dialogue the auditor asserts that death is an evil, which Cicero proceeds to refute: Whichsoever of the opinions concerning the substance of the soul be true, it will follow, that death is either a good, or at least not an evil—for if it be brain, blood, or heart, it will perish with the whole body—if fire, it will be extinguished—if breath, it will be dissipated—if harmony, it will be broken—not to speak of those who affirm that it is nothing. Cicero offers Platonist arguments for the soul's immortality, its ascent to the celestial regions where it will traverse all space—receiving, in its boundless flight, infinite enjoyment, he dismisses the gloomy myths concerning the Greek underworld. But if death is to be considered as the total extinction of sense and feeling, Cicero still denies that it should be accounted an evil; this view he supports from a consideration of the insignificance of the pleasures of which we are deprived. He illustrates this with the fate of many historical characters, who, by an earlier death, would have avoided the greatest ills of life.
In the second dialogue the same guest announces. Cicero argues that its sufferings may be overcome, not by the use of Epicurean maxims,—"Short if severe, light if long," but by fortitude and patience. Pain can be neutralized only when moral evil is regarded as the sole evil, or as the greatest of evils that the ills of body and of fortune are held to be infinitesimally small in comparison with it. In the third book, Cicero treats of the best alleviations of sorrow. Cicero's treatment of this is parallel to that of pain, he observes that grief is postponed or omitted in times of stress or peril, he notes that grief is put on or continued because the world expects it. People have a false estimate of the causes of grief: deficiencies in wisdom and virtue, which ought to be the objects of the profoundest sorrow, occasioning less regret than is produced by comparatively slight disappointments or losses. To foresee calamities, be prepared for them, is either to repel their assaults, or to mitigate their severity.
After they have occurred, we ought to remember that grieving cannot help us, that misfortunes are not peculiar to ourselves, but are the common lot of humanity. Pain and grief may be met and overcome so as not to interfere with our happiness and our permanent well-being; the fourth book treats those vexations which Cicero considers as diseases of the soul. These Cicero classes under the four Stoic divisions: grief, excessive gladness, immoderate desire, they all result from false opinions as to good. Grief and fear arise from the belief that their objects are great evils; the only preventive or remedy is the regarding, with the Stoics, of virtue as the sole good, vice as the sole evil, or, at the least, with the Peripatetics, considering
Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales
Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales is a French research institution teaching languages that span Central Europe, Asia and Oceania. It is informally called Langues O’ or more by the acronym Inalco. 1669 Colbert founds the École des jeunes de langues language school 1795 The École spéciale des langues orientales is established 1873 The two schools merge 1914 The school is renamed the École nationale des langues orientales vivantes 1971 The school is renamed the Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales or Inalco 1982 Études Océan Indien journal begins publication. These courses lead to career paths in international business, international relations and intercultural training, language teaching and multilingual computing. Bachelor’s degrees: courses by language and region that can include a professional specialization. Master’s degrees: regional programs targeting a research discipline or professional direction. Doctorate: PhD research at Inalco’s Doctoral School.
Diplomas: certificates, introductory diplomas and civilization diplomas, professional master's degrees. INALCO is considered as being the most difficult institution in which to learn oriental languages in France. Although the Institute does not make any selection by exam, endemic failure rates every year show the difficulty of most programs. Failure rates are significant among students studying Japanese, Chinese and Arabic the largest departments. Below is a table with approximate students numbers, successful students numbers and failure rates in the first and third year of the Department of Japanese Studies. Research at Inalco combines academic fields. Researchers study languages and civilizations that are in the spotlight — Africa, the Middle East, as far as the Arctic — and are central to the major issues of the 21st century. Fourteen research teams partnered with other research organizations, PhD programs, a publishing service form the backbone of research at Inalco. Inalco has a project management and knowledge transfer service.
The research teams, administration offices and doctoral school are housed in a building dedicated to research, with access to a full range of support functions: assistance in preparing research proposals and grant applications, organizing scientific events, looking for partnerships and funding, publication support, internal funding, communication. 270 faculty members 300 PhD students 14 research teams 100 scientific events per year Inalco conducts research projects in over one hundred countries and offers joint programs with foreign universities. This allows Inalco students and the students of international partners to complement their studies with an immersion experience. Inalco offers distance courses via videoconferencing and online learning content: Inuktitut and soon Swahili. Inalco is an active member of Sorbonne Paris Cité, with 120,000 students, 8,500 faculty members, 6,000 technical and administrative staff. Branches have been opened in Buenos Aires and São Paulo; the foundation strives to develop the preservation, transmission and interaction of languages and culturess in France and around the world with projects involving the Institute’s expertise: education, advancing knowledge and skills in a globalized world.
More than 120 nationalities are represented by Inalco faculty and students. The Institute, along with its teachers and partners, organizes over a hundred cultural events a year. Inalco participates in several international film festivals and makes every effort to share its knowledge and expertise with society. Inalco official website Alumni website
Dharma is a key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions like Hinduism, Jainism and others. There is no single-word translation for dharma in Western languages. In Hinduism, dharma signifies behaviors that are considered to be in accord with Ṛta, the order that makes life and universe possible, includes duties, laws, virtues and "right way of living". In Buddhism, dharma means "cosmic law and order", is applied to the teachings of Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy, dhamma/dharma is the term for "phenomena". Dharma in Jainism refers to the teachings of tirthankara and the body of doctrine pertaining to the purification and moral transformation of human beings. For Sikhs, the word dharm means the path of proper religious practice; the word dharma was in use in the historical Vedic religion, its meaning and conceptual scope has evolved over several millennia. The ancient Tamil moral text of Tirukkural is based on aṟam, the Tamil term for dharma; the antonym of dharma is adharma. The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma or the Prakrit Dhaṃma are a derivation from the root dhṛ, which means "to hold, keep", takes the meaning of "what is established or firm", hence "law".
It is derived from an older Vedic Sanskrit n-stem dharman-, with a literal meaning of "bearer, supporter", in a religious sense conceived as an aspect of Rta. In the Rigveda, the word appears as an n-stem, dhárman-, with a range of meanings encompassing "something established or firm". Figuratively, it means "sustainer" and "supporter", it is semantically similar to the Greek Themis. In Classical Sanskrit, the noun becomes thematic: dharma-; the word dharma derives from Proto-Indo-European root *dʰer-, which in Sanskrit is reflected as class-1 root dhṛ. Etymologically it is related to Avestan dar-, Latin firmus, Lithuanian derė́ti, Lithuanian dermė and darna and Old Church Slavonic drъžati. Classical Sanskrit word dharmas would formally match with Latin o-stem firmus from Proto-Indo-European dʰer-mo-s "holding", were it not for its historical development from earlier Rigvedic n-stem. In Classical Sanskrit, in the Vedic Sanskrit of the Atharvaveda, the stem is thematic: dhárma-. In Prakrit and Pāli, it is rendered dhamma.
In some contemporary Indian languages and dialects it alternatively occurs as dharm. Ancient translationsWhen the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka wanted in the 3rd century BCE to translate the word "Dharma" into Greek and Aramaic, he used the Greek word Eusebeia in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription and the Kandahar Greek Edicts, the Aramaic word Qsyt in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription. Dharma is a concept of central importance in Indian religion, it has multiple meanings in Hinduism and Jainism. It is difficult to provide a single concise definition for dharma, as the word has a long and varied history and straddles a complex set of meanings and interpretations. There is no equivalent single-word synonym for dharma in western languages. There have been numerous, conflicting attempts to translate ancient Sanskrit literature with the word dharma into German and French; the concept, claims Paul Horsch, has caused exceptional difficulties for modern commentators and translators. For example, while Grassmann's translation of Rig-veda identifies seven different meanings of dharma, Karl Friedrich Geldner in his translation of the Rig-veda employs 20 different translations for dharma, including meanings such as "law", "order", "duty", "custom", "quality", "model", among others.
However, the word dharma has become a accepted loanword in English, is included in all modern unabridged English dictionaries. The root of the word dharma is "dhri", which means "to support, hold, or bear", it is the thing that regulates the course of change by not participating in change, but that principle which remains constant. Monier-Williams, the cited resource for definitions and explanation of Sanskrit words and concepts of Hinduism, offers numerous definitions of the word dharma, such as that, established or firm, steadfast decree, law, custom, right, virtue, ethics, religious merit, good works, character, property. Yet, each of these definitions is incomplete, while the combination of these translations does not convey the total sense of the word. In common parlance, dharma means "right way of living" and "path of rightness"; the meaning of the word dharma depends on the context, its meaning has evolved as ideas of Hinduism have developed through history. In the earliest texts and ancient myths of Hinduism, dharma meant cosmic law, the rules that created the universe from chaos, as well as rituals.
In certain contexts, dharma designates human behaviours considered necessary for order of things in the universe, principles that prevent chaos and action necessary to all life in nature, family as well as at the individual level. Dharma encompasses ideas such as duty, character, religion and all behaviour considered appropriate, correct or morally upright; the antonym of dharma is adharma, meaning that, "not dharma"
Aristippus of Cyrene was the founder of the Cyrenaic school of Philosophy. He was a pupil of Socrates, but adopted a different philosophical outlook, teaching that the goal of life was to seek pleasure by circumstances to oneself and by maintaining proper control over both adversity and prosperity, his outlook came to be called "ethical hedonism." Among his pupils was his daughter Arete. There are indications that he was conflated with Aristippus the Younger. Aristippus, the son of Aritades, was born in Cyrene, Ancient Libya, c. 435 BCE. He came to Greece to be present at the Olympic games, where he asked Ischomachus about Socrates, by his description was filled with so ardent a desire to see Socrates, that he went to Athens for the purpose, remained with him up to the time of his execution in 399. Diodorus dates him to 366, which agrees well with the facts known about him, with the statement, that Lais, the courtesan with whom he was intimate, was born in 421. Though a disciple of Socrates, Aristippus wandered far both in principle and practice from the teaching and example of his great master.
He lived luxuriously, was happy to seek sensual gratification and the company of the notorious Lais. He took money for his teaching, the first of Socrates' disciples to do so and told Socrates that he resided in a foreign land in order to escape the trouble of involving himself in the politics of his native city, he passed part of his life at the court of Dionysius I of Syracuse or Dionysius the Younger, is said to have been taken prisoner by Artaphernes, the satrap who drove the Spartans from Rhodes in 396. He appears, however, at last to have returned to Cyrene, there he spent his old age. In Book VI of De architectura, Vitruvius describes Aristippus: It is related of the Socratic philosopher Aristippus that, being shipwrecked and cast ashore on the coast of the Rhodians, he observed geometrical figures drawn thereon, cried out to his companions: "Let us be of good cheer, for I see the traces of man." With that he made for the city of Rhodes, went straight to the gymnasium. There he fell to discussing philosophical subjects, presents were bestowed upon him, so that he could not only fit himself out, but could provide those who accompanied him with clothing and all other necessaries of life.
When his companions wished to return to their country, asked him what message he wished them to carry home, he bade them say this: that children ought to be provided with property and resources of a kind that could swim with them out of a shipwreck. The anecdotes which are told of Aristippus by no means give us the notion of a person, the mere slave of his passions, but rather of one who took a pride in extracting enjoyment from all circumstances of every kind, in controlling adversity and prosperity alike, they illustrate and confirm the two statements of Horace, that to observe the precepts of Aristippus is "to endeavour to adapt circumstances to myself, not myself to circumstances" and that, "every complexion of life, every station and circumstance sat gracefully upon him." Thus when reproached for his love of bodily indulgences, he answered, that "it is not abstinence from pleasures, best, but mastery over them without being worsted". When Dionysius, provoked at some of his remarks, ordered him to take the lowest place at table, he said, "You wish to dignify the seat".
"Wise people though all laws were abolished, would still lead the same life" is the single most popular quotation of his on the Internet, where it is and erroneously, attributed to the comic poet Aristophanes. Whether Aristippus was a prisoner to a satrap, grossly insulted and spit upon by a tyrant, enjoying the pleasures of a banquet or reviled for faithlessness to Socrates by his fellow-pupils, he maintained the same calm temper, he seemed insulting to Xenophon and Plato, as seen from the Memorabilia, where he maintains a discussion against Socrates in defence of voluptuous enjoyment, from the Phaedo, where his absence at the death of Socrates, though he was only at Aegina, 200 stadia from Athens, is doubtless mentioned as a reproach. Aristotle, calls him a sophist, notices a story of Plato's speaking to him, with rather undue vehemence, of his replying with calmness. Aristippus imparted his doctrine to his daughter Arete who, in turn, imparted it to her son, Aristippus the Younger, said to have reduced it to a system.
Diogenes Laërtius, on the authority of Sotion and Panaetius, gives a long list of books whose authorship is ascribed to Aristippus, though he states that according to Sosicrates of Rhodes, Aristippus never wrote anything. Some letters attributed. Although his dubious reputation has survived into modern times, his philosophy of ethical hedonism, as its name implies, was not amoral, he admonished his students to never harm others, cautioned that the pursuit of pleasure ought to be moderated by moral self-restraint. One work attributed to "Aristippus" in ancient times was a scandalous work entitled On Ancient Luxury; this work, judging by the quotations preserved by Diogenes Laërtius, was filled with spicy anecdotes about philosophers and their supposed taste for courtesans and young boys. Thus the author supports his claims for Plato's various erotic relationships through his quotation of epigrams attributed to the philosopher, makes an extreme allegation that Periander committed incest with his own mother.
That this work cannot have been written by Aristippus of Cyrene has long been realised, not least because the author mentions Theophrastus who lived a generation af