The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
A walking stick is a device used to facilitate walking, for fashion, or for defensive reasons. Walking can be sought by collectors; some kinds of walking sticks may be used by people with disabilities as a crutch. The walking stick has historically been known to be used as a defensive or offensive weapon and may conceal a knife or sword as in a swordstick. Walking sticks known as trekking poles, pilgrim's staffs, hiking poles, or hiking sticks, are used by hikers for a wide variety of purposes: to clear spider webs or part thick bushes or grass obscuring the trail. Known as an alpenstock, from its origins in mountaineering in the Alps, such a walking stick is equipped with a steel point and a hook or pick on top. A walking stick can be improvised from nearby felled wood. More ornate sticks are made for avid hikers and adorned with small trinkets or medallions depicting "conquered" territory. Wood walking sticks are used for outdoor sports, healthy upper body exercise, club and family memorials.
They can be individually handcrafted from a number of woods and may be personalised in many ways for the owner. A collector of walking sticks is termed a rabologist. Around the 17th or 18th century, a stout rigid stick took over from the sword as an essential part of the European gentleman's wardrobe, used as a walking stick. In addition to its value as a decorative accessory, it continued to fulfil some of the function of the sword as a weapon; the standard cane was rattan with a rounded metal grip. The clouded cane was made of malacca and showed the patina of age: Sir Plume, of amber snuff-box justly vain, And the nice conduct of a clouded cane; some canes had specially weighted metalwork. Other types of wood, such as hickory, are suitable; the most common accessory, before or after purchase or manufacture, is a hand strap, to prevent loss of the stick should the hand release its grip. These are threaded through a hole drilled into the stick rather than tied around. A clip-on frame or similar device can be used to stand a stick against the top of a table.
In cold climates, a metallic cleat may be added to the foot of the cane. This increases traction on ice; the device is designed so it can be flipped to the side to prevent damage to indoor flooring. Different handles are available to match grips of varying sizes. Rubber ferrules give extra traction on most surfaces. Nordic walking poles are popular in Europe. Walking with two poles in the correct length radically reduces the stress to the knees and back; these special poles come with straps resembling a fingerless glove, durable metal tips for off-road and removable rubber tips for pavement and other hard surfaces. Various staffs of office derived from walking sticks or staffs are used by both western and eastern Christian churches. In Islam the walking stick is considered a Muslims are encouraged to carry one; the Imam traditionally delivers the Khutbah while leaning on a stick. Ashplant – an Irish walking stick made from the ash tree. Blackthorn – an Irish walking stick, or shillelagh, made from the blackthorn.
Devil's walking stick – Made from Hercules plant. Shooting stick – It can fold out into a single-legged seat. Supplejack – Made from a tropical American vine serves as a cane. Penang lawyer – Made from Licuala. After the bark was removed with only a piece of glass, the stick was straightened by fire and polished; the fictional Dr. Mortimer owned one of these in The Hound of the Baskervilles. So did Fitzroy Simpson, the main suspect in "The Adventure of Silver Blaze", whose lead weighted stick was assumed to be the murder weapon. Makila – Basque walking stick or staff made from medlar wood, it features a gold or silver foot and handle, which may conceal a steel blade. The Makila's elaborate engravings are carved into the living wood allowed to heal before harvesting. Kebbie – a rough Scottish walking stick, similar to an Irish shillelagh, with a hooked head. Whangee – Asian, made of bamboo a riding crop; such a stick was owned by Charlie Chaplin's character The Tramp. Malacca – Malay stick made of rattan palms.
Pike Staff – Pointed at the end for slippery surfaces. Scout staff – Tall stick traditionally carried by Boy Scouts, which has a number of uses in an emergency Waddy – Australian Aboriginal walking stick or war club, about one metre in length, sometimes with a stone head affixed with string and beeswax. Ziegenhainer – Knotty German stick, made from European cornel used as a melee weapon by a duellist's second; the spiral groove caused by a parasitic vine was imitated by its maker if not present. In North America, a walking cane is a walking stick with a curved top much like a shepherd's staff, but shorter. Thus, although they are called "canes", they are made of material heavier than cane, such as wood or metal. In the United States, presidents have carried canes and received them as gifts; the Smithsonian has a cane given to George Washington by Benjamin Franklin. It features a gold handle in the shape of a Phrygian cap. In modern times, walking sticks are only seen with formal attire. Retractable canes that reveal such properties as hidden compartments, pool sticks, or blades are popular among collectors.
Handles have been made from many substances, both manmade. Carved and decorated canes have turned the function
The mitre or miter, is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial head-dress of bishops and certain abbots in traditional Christianity. Mitres are worn in the Orthodox Church, Roman Catholic Church, as well as in the Anglican Communion, some Lutheran churches, bishops and certain other clergy in the Eastern Catholic Churches and the Oriental Orthodox Churches; the Metropolitan of the Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church wears a mitre during important ceremonies such as the Episcopal Consecration. Μίτρα, mítra is Greek, means a piece of armour a metal guard worn around the waist and under a cuirass, as mentioned in Homer's Iliad. It refers to a kind of hairband, such as: the victor's chapter at the games; the camelaucum, the headdress, that both the mitre and the Papal tiara stem from, was a cap used by officials of the Imperial Byzantine court. "The tiara developed from the Phrygian cap, or frigium, a conical cap worn in the Graeco-Roman world. In the 10th century the tiara was pictured on papal coins."
Other sources claim. In the late Empire it developed into the closed type of Imperial crown used by Byzantine Emperors. Worn by a bishop, the mitre is depicted for the first time in two miniatures of the beginning of the eleventh century; the first written mention of it is found in a Bull of Pope Leo IX in the year 1049. By 1150 the use had spread to bishops throughout the West. In its modern form in Western Christianity, the mitre is a tall folding cap, consisting of two similar parts rising to a peak and sewn together at the sides. Two short lappets always hang down from the back. In the Catholic Church, ecclesial law gives the right to use the mitre and other pontifical insigna to bishops and cardinals and those canonically equivalent to diocesan bishops who do not receive episcopal ordination; the principal celebrant presents the mitre and other pontifical insignia to a newly ordained bishop during the Rite of Ordination of a Bishop and to a new abbot during the Rite of Blessing of an Abbot.
In the case of a person, canonically equivalent to a diocesan bishop but does not receive episcopal ordination, this presentation occurs during a public installation as the ordinary of his jurisdiction. Catholic ecclesial law permits former Anglican bishops received into full communion and subsequently ordained to the order of presbyter in the Catholic Church to obtain permission to use pontifical insignia as a mark of recognition of their previous ministry, but former Anglican bishops have not requested permission to use pontifical insignia under this provision. Three types of mitres are worn by Roman Catholic clergy for different occasions: The simplex is made of undecorated white linen or silk and its white lappets traditionally end in red fringes, it is worn most notably at funerals, Lenten time, on Good Friday and by concelebrant bishops at a Mass. Cardinals in the presence of the Pope wear a mitre of white linen damask; the auriphrygiata is of plain gold cloth or white silk with gold, silver or coloured embroidered bands.
The pretiosa is decorated with precious stones and gold and worn on the principal Mass on the most solemn Sundays and feast days. This type of mitre is decorated with precious stones today, the designs have become more varied and original merely being in the liturgical colour of the day; the proper colour of a mitre is always white, although in liturgical usage white includes vestments made from gold and silver fabrics. The embroidered bands and other ornaments which adorn a mitre and the lappets may be of other colours and are. Although coloured mitres are sometimes sold and worn at present, this is due to the maker’s or wearer’s lack of awareness of liturgical tradition. On all occasions, an altar server may wear a shawl-like veil, called a vimpa, around the shoulders when holding the bishop's mitre; the vimpa is used to hold the mitre so as to avoid the possibility of it being soiled by the natural oils in a person's hand as well as symbolically showing that the person does not own the mitre, but holds it for the prelate.
The person wearing a vimpa is occasionally referred to as a vimpa. When a vimpa holds the crosier, he holds the crook facing inward, as another sign that the person does not hold the authority of the crosier. With his inauguration as pope, Benedict XVI broke with tradition and replaced the papal tiara on his papal coat of arms with a papal mitre and pallium. Prior to Benedict XVI, each pope's coat of arms always contained the image of the papal tiara and St. Peter's crossed keys tho
The Solovetsky Monastery is a fortified monastery located on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea in northern Russia. It was one of the largest Christian citadels in northern Russia before it was converted into a Soviet prison and labor camp in 1926–39, served as a prototype for the camps of the Gulag system; the monastery has experienced military sieges. Its most important structures date from the 16th century, when Filip Kolychev was its hegumen; the Solovetsky Monastery was founded in 1436 by the monk Zosima, monks German and Savvatiy from the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery lived on the island from 1429 to 1436, are considered to be co-founders of the monastery. Zosima became the first hegumen of the monastery. After Marfa Boretskaya, wife of the posadnik of Novgorod, donated her lands at Kem and Summa to the monastery in 1450, the monastery enlarged its holdings, situated strategically on the shores of the White Sea. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the monastery extended its commercial activities, becoming an economic and political center of the White Sea region.
This included saltworks, fishing, mica works, pearl works, among others. Archmandrites of the monastery were appointed by the patriarch. By the 17th century, the Solovetsky Monastery had about 350 monks, 600-700 servants and peasants. In the 1650s and 1660s, the monastery was one of the strongholds of the Old Believers of the Raskol in the Russian Orthodox Church; the Solovetsky Monastery Uprising of 1668–1676 was aimed at Patriarch Nikon's ecclesiastic reform and took on an anti-feudal nature. In 1765, the monastery became stauropegic. Together with the Sumskoy and Kemsky stockades, the Solovetsky Monastery served as an important frontier fortress with dozens of cannons and a strong garrison. In the 16th to 17th centuries, the monastery succeeded a number of times in repelling the attacks of the Livonian Order and the Swedes. During the Crimean War, the Solovetsky Monastery was attacked by three British ships. After nine hours of shelling on the 6 and 7 July 1855 the vessels left with nothing.
Between the 16th and the early 20th centuries, the monastery was a place of exile for the opponents of autocracy and official Orthodoxy and a center of Christianization in the north of Russia. The monastery had a large library of manuscripts and books; the monastery garden had some exotic flora, such as the Tibetan wild roses presented to the monks by Agvan Dorzhiev, a Lama. After the Bolshevik Revolution and Russian Civil War, the Soviet authorities closed down the monastery and incorporated many of the buildings into Solovki prison camp, one of the earliest forced-labor camps of the gulag during the 1920s and 1930s. "In the earliest years of the Soviet prison system, the Solovetsky Special Prison Camp was home to a large group of... imprisoned writers." The camp main activity was logging, when most of the surrounding area had been deforested, the camp was closed. Before the Second World War, a naval cadet school was opened on the island. A small brotherhood of monks has re-established activities in the monastery after the collapse of communism, it houses about ten monks.
The monastery has recently been extensively repaired, but remains under reconstruction. The Solovetsky Monastery is an historical and architectural museum, it was one of the first Russian sites to have been inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Solovetsky Monastery is located on the shores of the Prosperity Bay on Solovetsky Island; the monastery is surrounded by massive walls with a thickness of 4 to 6 m. The wall incorporates 7 gates and 8 towers, made of huge boulders up to 5 m in length. There are religious buildings on the monastery's grounds with the principal structures interconnected with roofed and arched passages, they are in turn surrounded by multiple household buildings and living quarters, including a refectory with the Uspensky Cathedral, Preobrazhensky Cathedral, Church of Annunciation, stone chambers, bell tower, Church of Nicholas. Solovki museum Official site of Solovetsky monastery Solovetsky Monastery in the 19th century Photo album at NYPL Digital Gallery Foundation of Solovki Monastery Miracle of Light: the Solovetsky Transfiguration Monastery Brumfield, William.
Solovki: Architectural Heritage in Photographs ASIN B002P5OP1I OCLC 255613915
A crosier is a stylized staff carried by high-ranking Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and some Lutheran, United Methodist and Pentecostal prelates. Other typical insignia of many of these prelates are the mitre, the pectoral cross, the episcopal ring. A crosier staff is a part of the tradition of Jewish Christianity; the origin of the crozier as a staff of authority is uncertain, but there were many secular and religious precedents in the ancient world. One example is the lituus, the traditional staff of the ancient Roman augurs, as well as the staff of Moses in the Hebrew Bible. Many other types of the staff of office were found in periods, some continuing to the modern day in ceremonial contexts. In the Western Church the usual form has been a shepherd's crook, curved at the top to enable animals to be hooked; this relates to the many metaphorical references to bishops as the shepherds of their "flock" of Christians, following the metaphor of Christ as the Good Shepherd.
The Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholic crosier is found in two common forms. One is tau-shaped, with curved arms, surmounted by a small cross; the other has a top comprising a pair of sculptured serpents or dragons curled back to face each other, with a small cross between them. The symbolism in the latter case is of the bronze serpent made by Moses as related in Numbers 21:8-9, it is reminiscent of the caduceus of Hermes or the rod of the ancient Greek god Asclepius, whose worship was centered around the Aegean, including Asia Minor, indicating the role of the bishop as healer of spiritual diseases. The staff of Moses is first mentioned in the Book of Exodus, when God appears to Moses in the burning bush. God asks what Moses has in his hand, Moses answers "a staff"; the staff is miraculously transformed into a snake and back into a staff. The staff is thereafter referred to as the "rod of God" or "staff of God". "And thou shalt take this rod in thine hand, wherewith thou shalt do signs."
And Moses went and returned to Jethro, his father in law, said unto him, "Let me go, I pray thee, return unto my brethren which are in Egypt and see whether they be yet alive." And Jethro said to Moses, "Go in peace." The LORD said unto Moses in Midian, "Go, return into Egypt: for all the men are dead which sought thy life." And Moses set them upon an ass. Moses and Aaron appear before the pharaoh; the pharaoh's sorcerers are able to transform their own rods into serpents, but Aaron's swallows them. Aaron's rod is again used to turn the Nile blood-red, it is used several times on God's command to initiate the plagues of Egypt. During the Exodus, Moses stretches out his hand with the staff to part the Red Sea. While in the "wilderness" after leaving Egypt, Moses does not follow God's command to " speak ye unto the rock before their eyes" instead he strikes the rock with the rod to create a spring for the Israelites from which to drink; because Moses did not sanctify God before them but said "Hear now, ye rebels.
Thus, Moses not God. For not doing what God commanded, God punished Moses by not letting him enter into the Promised Land. Moses uses the staff in the battle at Rephidim between the Israelites and the Amalekites; when he holds up the "rod of God", the Israelites "prevail". When he drops it, their enemies gain the upper hand. Aaron and Hur help him to keep the staff raised; the crosier is the symbol of the governing office of Apostle. In Western Christianity, the crosier is shaped like a shepherd's crook. A bishop or church head bears this staff as "shepherd of the flock of God" the community under his canonical jurisdiction, but any bishop, whether or not assigned to a functional diocese, may use a crosier when conferring sacraments and presiding at liturgies; the Catholic Caeremoniale Episcoporum says that, as a sign of his pastoral function, a bishop uses a crosier within his territory, but any bishop celebrating the liturgy solemnly with the consent of the local bishop may use it. It adds that, when several bishops join in a single celebration, only the one presiding uses a crosier.
A bishop holds his crosier with his left hand, leaving his right hand free to bestow blessings. The Caeremoniale Episcoporum states that the bishop holds the crosier with the open side of the crook forward, or towards the people, it states that a bishop holds the crosier during a procession and when listening to the reading of the Gospel, giving a homily, accepting vows, solemn promises or a profession of faith, when blessing people, unless he must lay his hands on them. When the bishop is not holding the crosier, it is put in the care of an altar server, known as the "crosier bearer", who may wear around his shoulders a shawl-like veil called a vimpa, so as to hold the crosier without touching it with his bare hands. Another altar server wearing a vimpa, holds the mitre when the bishop is not wearing it. In the Anglican tradition, the crosier may be carried by someone else walking before the bishop in a procession; the crosier is conferred upon a bishop during his ordination to the episcopacy.
It is presented to an abbot at his blessing, an ancient custom symbolizing his shepherding of the monastic community. Although there is no provision for the presentation of a crosier in th
A nun is a member of a religious community of women living under vows of poverty and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery. Communities of nuns exist in numerous religious traditions, including Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism. In the Buddhist tradition, female monastics are known as Bhikkhuni, take several additional vows compared to male monastics. Nuns are most common in Mahayana Buddhism, but have more become more prevalent in other traditions. Within Christianity, women religious, known as nuns or religious sisters, are found in Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Lutheran traditions among others. Though the terms are used interchangeably, nuns take solemn vows and live a life of prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent, while sisters take simple vows and live an active vocation of prayer and charitable works in areas such as education and healthcare. Examples include the monastic Order of Saint Clare founded in 1212 in the Franciscan tradition, or the Missionaries of Charity founded in 1950 by Mother Teresa to care for people living in grave poverty.
All Buddhist traditions have nuns. The Buddha is reported to have allowed women into the sangha only with great reluctance, predicting that the move would lead to Buddhism's collapse after 500 years, rather than the 1,000 years it would have enjoyed otherwise. Ordained Buddhist nuns have more Patimokkha rules than the monks; the important vows are the same, however. As with monks, there is quite a lot of variation in nuns' dress and social conventions between Buddhist cultures in Asia. Chinese nuns possess the full bhikkuni ordination, Tibetan nuns do not. In Theravada countries it is believed that the full ordination lineage of bhikkunis died out, though in many places they wear the "saffron" colored robes, observing only ten precepts like novices. In Thailand, a country which never had a tradition of ordained nuns, there developed a separate order of non-ordained female renunciates called mae ji. However, some of them have played an important role in dhamma-practitioners' community. There are in Thai Forest Tradition foremost nuns such as Mae Ji Kaew Sianglam, the founder of the Nunnery of Baan Huai Saai, believed by some to be enlightened as well as Upasika Kee Nanayon.
At the beginning of the 21st century, some Buddhist women in Thailand have started to introduce the bhikkhuni sangha in their country as well if public acceptance is still lacking. Dhammananda Bhikkhuni the successful academic scholar Dr. Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, established a controversial monastery for the training of Buddhist nuns in Thailand; the active roles of Taiwanese nuns were noted by some studies. Researcher Charles Brewer Jones estimates that from 1952 to 1999, when the Buddhist Association of the ROC organized public ordination, female applicants outnumbered males by about three to one, he adds: "All my informants in the areas of Taipei and Sanhsia considered nuns at least as respectable as monks, or more so. In contrast, Shiu-kuen Tsung found in Taipei county that female clergy were viewed with some suspicion by society, she reports that while outsiders did not regard their vocation as unworthy of respect, they still tended to view the nuns as social misfits."Wei-yi Cheng studied the Luminary order in southern Taiwan.
Cheng reviewed earlier studies which suggest that Taiwan's Zhaijiao tradition has a history of more female participation, that the economic growth and loosening of family restriction have allowed more women to become nuns. Based on studies of the Luminary order, Cheng concluded that the monastic order in Taiwan was still young and gave nuns more room for development, more mobile believers helped the order; the August 2007 International Congress on Buddhist Women's Role in the Sangha, with the support of H. H. XIVth Dalai Lama, reinstated the Gelongma lineage, having been lost, in India and Tibet, for centuries. Gelongma ordination requires the presence of ten ordained people keeping the same vows; because ten nuns are required to ordain a new one, the effort to establish the Dharmaguptaka bhikkhu tradition has taken a long time. It is permissible for a Tibetan nun to receive bhikkhuni ordination from another living tradition, e.g. in Vietnam. Based on this, Western nuns ordained in Tibetan tradition, like Thubten Chodron, took full ordination in another tradition.
The ordination of monks and nuns in Tibetan Buddhism distinguishes three stages: rabjung-ma, getshül-ma and gelong-ma. The clothes of the nuns in Tibet are the same as those of monks, but there are differences between novice and gelong robes. Hokke-ji in 747 was established by the consort of the Emperor, it took charge of provincial convents, performed ceremonies for the protection of the state, became the site of pilgrimages. Aristocratic Japanese women became Buddhist nuns in the premodern period, it was thought they could not gain salvation because of the Five Hindrances, which said women could not attain Buddhahood until they changed into men. However, in 1249, 12 women received full ordination as priests. In the Roman Catholic tradition, there are a large number of religious institutes of nuns and sisters, each with its own charism or special character. Traditionally, nuns are members of enclosed religious orders and take solemn religious vows, while sisters do not live in the papal enclosu
A lubok is a Russian popular print, characterized by simple graphics and narratives derived from literature, religious stories, popular tales. Lubki prints were used as decoration in inns. Early examples from the late 17th and early 18th centuries were woodcuts engravings or etchings were typical, from the mid-19th century lithography, they sometimes appeared in series, which might be regarded as predecessors of the modern comic strip. Cheap and simple books, similar to chapbooks, which consisted of pictures, are called lubok literature or. Both pictures and literature are referred to as lubki; the Russian word lubok derives from lub - a special type of board. Russian lubki became a popular genre during the last half of the 17th century. Russian lubok was influenced by the "woodcuts and engravings done in Germany and France during the early part of the 15th century", its popularity in Russia was a result of how inexpensive and simple it was to duplicate a print using this new technique. Luboks were sold at various marketplaces to the lower and middle classes.
This type of art was popular with these two social classes because they provided them with an inexpensive opportunity to display artwork in their houses. The original lubki were woodcuts; the Koren Picture-Bible, 1692-1696 established the most prominent style, an "Old Russian" rendering of international iconography and subjects, most related to the frescos of the Upper Volga. By mid-18th century, the woodcuts were replaced with engraving or etching techniques, which enabled the prints to be more detailed and complex. After printing on paper, the picture would be hand-colored with diluted tempera paints. While the prints themselves were very simplistic and unadorned, the final product, with the tempera paint added, was bright with vivid colors and lines; the dramatic coloring of the early woodcut prints was to some extent lost with the transfer to more detailed engravings. In addition to the images, these folk prints included a short story or lesson that correlated to the picture being presented.
Russian scholar Alexander Boguslavsky claims that the lubok style "is a combination of Russian icon and manuscript painting traditions with the ideas and topics of western European woodcuts". The lubok's artist would include minimal text, supplementary to the larger illustration that would cover the majority of the engraving. Folklorist Dmitri Rovinsky is known for his work with categorizing lubok, his system is detailed and extensive, his main categories are: "icons and Gospel illustrations. Jewish examples exist, as well from Ukraine. Many luboks can be classified into multiple categories. Russian lubok, it is used to present Napoleon in a satirical manner while portraying the Russian peasants as the heroes of the war. This inspired other Russians to help fight the war by attempting to, “…redefine Russian national identity in the Napoleonic era”; the luboks presented a manner for the Russians to mock the French enemy, while at the same time display the ‘Russianness” of Russia. “These war luboks satirized Napoleon and depicted French culture as degenerate”.
The lubok was a means of reinforcing the idea of defeating the French invaders and displaying the horrible destruction Napoleon and his army caused Russia. To help rekindle the Russian spirit the luboks displayed “The experience of the invasion and subsequent Russian winter rendered Napoleon and his troops powerless, the luboks illustrated this view by depicting the French leader and soldiers as impotent when confronted by peasant men and Cossacks”. All the different representation of the Russian heroes helped define and spread the belief in Russian identity; the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905 began on February 8, 1904, at Port Arthur with a surprise attack by the Imperial Japanese Navy. At the time, “Russia was an established European power with a large industrial base and a regular army of 1.1 million soldiers. Japan, with few natural resources and little heavy industry, had an army of only 200,000 men”; because of the staggering difference in military defense, Russia assumed itself to have the upper hand before the war ensued.
Luboks depicting the overconfidence of the Russian army were created because censorship laws at the time did not allow satirical magazines to subsist. With the use of satirical racist cartoons, luboks displayed pictures such as, “a Cossack soldier thrashing a Japanese officer, a Russian sailor punching a Japanese sailor in the face”; these luboks, produced in Moscow and St. Petersburg, were anonymously created and recorded much of the Russo-Japanese War. Due to the Russians' overconfidence, “During the battle, the Japanese generals were able to size up their opponent and predict how he would react under certain circumstances; that knowledge enabled them to set a trap and defeat a numerically superior enemy”. Therefore, the Russian government stepped