Heidelberg is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 12 km north-east of Melbourne's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Banyule. In 2016, Heidelberg had a population of 6,225. Once a large town on Melbourne's outskirts, Heidelberg was absorbed into Melbourne as part of the latter's northward expansion after World War II. Heidelberg once had its own historic central business district including its own municipality in the former City of Heidelberg. Heidelberg lends its name to the Heidelberg School, an impressionist art movement that developed in and around the suburb in the late 19th-century; the land at Heidelberg was sold by Crown auction in 1838, making it one of the earliest rural allotments in Australia, as Melbourne was founded only three years earlier. By 1840, Warringal had been established as a surveyed township, the name referring to an Aboriginal term for eagle's nest. Warringal was changed to Heidelberg by a land agent, after the German city of Heidelberg.
Following Anti-German sentiment during World War I the Heidelberg City Council proposed to change the name to a British-sounding name, with the most prominent suggestion being Georgetown after British Prime Minister David Lloyd George. However despite public debates and a community naming competition, the name Heidelberg remained unchanged; when it was settled, Heidelberg was reached by track from Melbourne via North Fitzroy, in 1841 the Heidelberg Road Trust was formed. As a form of Local Government, it preceded the Melbourne Town Council. By the late 1840s, the road had a toll bar at Merri Creek, a Macadam surface, it became a tourist attraction, enhancing Heidelberg's reputation as a desirable place for views and rural estates. Cattle overlander Joseph Hawdon built his gothic Banyule Homestead in 1846, overlooking the Yarra Valley; the Post Office opened on 19 October 1853 as Warringal, was renamed Heidelberg in 1865. Heidelberg was proclaimed a Shire on 27 January 1871. Heidelberg's rural scenery attracted artists during the 1880s, due to the absence of public utilities or a railway, causing houses to be vacant, available at low rents.
Tom Roberts, Arthur Streeton, Frederick McCubbin and other members of the Box Hill artists' camp relocated to Eaglemont in 1888, forming what was subsequently named the "Heidelberg School" of Australian art. Two years the Chartersville Homestead was occupied for similar purposes. Heidelberg was proclaimed a city on 11 April 1934; the Heidelberg Town Hall was built in 1937. Subdivision and settlement clustered around Heidelberg Road and the Melbourne to Hurstbridge railway line, which bisected the municipality in a north-east direction. Along that line are Darebin, Eaglemont, Rosanna, Macleod and Greensborough. Mont Park was reached by a spur line from Macleod. Heidelberg West and now unserved by a railway, was sparsely settled until the 1950s, when it was built on by the Housing Commission of Victoria, it provided the site for the athletes' village for the 1956 Melbourne Olympic Games. By the 1970s, the residential development of the Heidelberg Municipality was complete, except for some areas in Viewbank and Lower Plenty.
The shopping areas were strips, but a free-standing centre was built in Heidelberg West in 1956, to a design by the Housing Commission which drew on American trends. The population of the Heidelberg Municipality was 8,610, 34,401, 60,007; the population in 1991 was 60,468. On 15 December 1994 most of Heidelberg City was united with part of Eltham Shire to form Banyule City. Evidence of Heidelberg's long history and early settlement can be found throughout the Municipality; the cemetery on Upper Heidelberg Road contains some of the oldest graves in Victoria. An older cemetery, the size of a house block near the corner of St James Road and Hawdon Street, contains graves dating back before the establishment in 1851 of the Victorian Colony; the local primary school opened in 1854. Banyule Homestead, which still stands today, was built in 1846 and the Old England Hotel on Lower Heidelberg Road first opened its doors in 1848; the administration of Austin Health is based in Heidelberg at the Austin Hospital.
The Austin Hospital site has undergone extensive renovations, now contains the Mercy Hospital for Women. These two facilities combined measure up to be largest hospital in Victoria; the Heidelberg Shopping Centre, known as "Burgundy Street" has been revived. It had become rundown in the 1980s, but a new supermarket, many trendy cafes have made the area much more liveable. "Burgundy Street" is now known as Heidelberg Central Shopping Precinct and has over 230 retail/commercial and professional businesses. Over $1 million has been spent over the last 7 years to upgrade the infrastructure of the Precinct e.g. Aerial bundling of overhead power lines, resurfacing of the footpaths and roadways, installation of trees, bollards, bike racks and rubbish bins and painting of all street furniture in the Precinct to'Burgundy' to suggest the boundaries of the retail strip. New large anchor businesses. Heidelberg Central is home to the historic Old England Hotel; the Northern Melbourne Institute of TAFE has a campus at Heidelberg, as well as the private TAFE college KAL Multimedia Training.
The Austrian Club Melbourne in Fitzroy took up its current Hei
Ernest Lalor "Ern" Malley was a fictitious poet and the central figure in Australia's most famous literary hoax. He and his entire body of work were created in one day in 1943 by conservative writers James McAuley and Harold Stewart in order to hoax Max Harris and his modernist magazine Angry Penguins, which Harris co-edited with John Reed of Heide, Melbourne. Imitating the modernist poetry they despised, the hoaxers deliberately created what they thought was bad verse and submitted sixteen poems to Angry Penguins under the guise of Ethel, Ern Malley's surviving sister. Harris and other members of the Heide Circle fell for the hoax, enraptured by the poetry, devoted the next issue of Angry Penguins to Malley; the hoax was revealed soon after, resulting in a cause célèbre and the humiliation of Harris, put on trial and fined for publishing the poems on the grounds that they contained obscene content. Angry Penguins folded in 1946. In the decades that followed, the hoax proved to be a significant setback for modernist poetry in Australia.
Since the 1970s, the Ern Malley poems, though known to be a hoax, became celebrated as a successful example of surrealist poetry in their own right, lauded by poets and critics such as John Ashbery, Kenneth Koch and Robert Hughes. The poems of Ern Malley are now more read than those of his creators, the affair has inspired works by major Australian writers and artists, such as Peter Carey and Sidney Nolan. American poet and anthologist David Lehman called Ern Malley "the greatest literary hoax of the twentieth century". James McAuley and Harold Stewart were both, in 1944, in the Army Directorate of Research and Civil Affairs. Before the war they had been part of Sydney's Bohemian arts world. McAuley had sung in left-wing revues at Sydney University. Both preferred early Modernism to its forms. McAuley, for example, claimed that T. S. Eliot's The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock was genius, but the subsequent The Waste Land, regarded by many as Eliot's finest achievement, was an incoherent mess.
Both men lamented "the loss of craftsmanship" in poetry. They despised the well-funded modernist poetry magazine Angry Penguins and were resentful of the precocious success of Max Harris, the magazine's founder and editor. Harris was a 22-year-old avant-garde poet and critic in Adelaide, who in 1940, at the age of 18, had started Angry Penguins. McAuley and Stewart decided to perpetrate a hoax on Harris and Angry Penguins by submitting to the magazine nonsensical poetry, which they felt captured the worst of modernist tendencies, under the guise of a fictional poet, they came up with a fictional biography for the poet "Ernest Lalor Malley", they claimed, had died the year before at the age of 25. The name is a "highly Australian-sounding handle": "Malley" is a pun on the word mallee, denoting a class of Australian vegetation and a bird, the native malleefowl, "Lalor" recalls Peter Lalor, leader of the 1854 Eureka Rebellion. In one afternoon, they wrote his entire body of work: 17 poems, none longer than a page, all intended to be read in sequence under the title The Darkening Ecliptic.
Their writing style, as they described it, was to write down the first thing that came into their heads, lifting words and phrases from the Concise Oxford Dictionary, a Collected Shakespeare, a Dictionary of Quotations: "We opened books at random, choosing a word or phrase haphazardly. We wove them in nonsensical sentences. We made false allusions. We deliberately perpetrated bad verse, selected awkward rhymes from a Ripman's Rhyming Dictionary." They included many bits of their own poetry, though in a deliberately disjointed manner. The first poem in the sequence, Durer: Innsbruck, 1495, was an unpublished serious effort by McAuley, edited to appeal to Harris: David Brooks theorises in his 2011 book, The Sons of Clovis: Ern Malley, Adoré Floupette and a Secret History of Australian Poetry, that the Ern Malley hoax was modelled on the 1885 satire on French Symbolism and the Decadent movement, Les Déliquescences d'Adoré Floupette by Henri Beauclair and Gabriel Vicaire. Stewart claimed to have never heard of Floupette at the time of the Ern Malley hoax, while there is no evidence McAuley had, his Masters thesis titled "Symbolism: an essay in poetics", included a study of French Symboliste poetry and poetics.
According to his inventors' fictitious biography, Ernest Lalor Malley was born in Liverpool, England, on 14 March 1918. His father died in 1920, Malley's mother migrated to Petersham, a suburb of Sydney, with her two children: Ern, his older sister Ethel. After his mother's death in August 1933, Ern Malley left school to work as an auto mechanic. Shortly after his seventeenth birthday, he moved to Melbourne where he lived alone and worked as an insurance salesman, as a watch repairman. Diagnosed with Graves' disease sometime in the early 1940s, Malley refused treatment, he returned to Sydney, moving in with his sister in March, 1943, where he became ill until his death at the age of 25 on 23 July of that same year. Malley's life as a poet became known only after his sister Ethel found a pile of unpublished poems among his belongings; these poems featured a brief preface, which explained that they had been composed over a period of five years, but it left no instructions as to what was to be done with them.
Ethel Malley knew nothing about poetry, but showed the poems to a friend, who suggested that she send the poems to someone who could examine them. Max Harris of Angry Penguins was to be that someone. McAuley and Stewart sent Harris a letter, purported to
Edward "Ned" Kelly was an Australian bushranger, gang leader and convicted police murderer. One of the last bushrangers, by far the most famous, he is best known for wearing a suit of bulletproof armour during his final shootout with the police. Kelly was born in the British colony of Victoria as the third of eight children to Irish parents, his father, a transported convict, died shortly after serving a six-month prison sentence, leaving Kelly aged 12, as the eldest male of the household. The Kellys were a poor selector family who saw themselves as downtrodden by the Squattocracy and as victims of police persecution. While a teenager, Kelly was arrested for associating with bushranger Harry Power, served two prison terms for a variety of offences, the longest stretch being from 1871 to 1874 on a conviction of receiving a stolen horse, he joined the "Greta mob", a group of bush larrikins known for stock theft. A violent confrontation with a policeman occurred at the Kelly family's home in 1878, Kelly was indicted for his attempted murder.
Fleeing to the bush, Kelly vowed to avenge his mother, imprisoned for her role in the incident. After he, his brother Dan, two associates—Joe Byrne and Steve Hart—shot dead three policemen, the Government of Victoria proclaimed them outlaws. Kelly and his gang eluded the police for two years, thanks in part to the support of an extensive network of sympathisers; the gang's crime spree included raids on Euroa and Jerilderie, the killing of Aaron Sherritt, a sympathiser turned police informer. In a manifesto letter, Kelly—denouncing the police, the Victorian government and the British Empire—set down his own account of the events leading up to his outlawry. Demanding justice for his family and the rural poor, he threatened dire consequences against those who defied him. In 1880, when Kelly's attempt to derail and ambush a police train failed, he and his gang, dressed in armour fashioned from stolen plough mouldboards, engaged in a final gun battle with the police at Glenrowan. Kelly, the only survivor, was wounded by police fire and captured.
Despite thousands of supporters attending rallies and signing a petition for his reprieve, Kelly was tried and sentenced to death by hanging, carried out at the Old Melbourne Gaol. His last words were famously reported to have been, "Such is life". Historian Geoffrey Serle called Kelly and his gang "the last expression of the lawless frontier in what was becoming a organised and educated society, the last protest of the mighty bush now tethered with iron rails to Melbourne and the world". In the century after his death, Kelly became a cultural icon, inspiring numerous works in the arts, is the subject of more biographies than any other Australian. Kelly continues to cause division in his homeland: some celebrate him as Australia's equivalent of Robin Hood, while others regard him as a murderous villain undeserving of his folk hero status. Journalist Martin Flanagan wrote: "What makes Ned a legend is not that everyone sees him the same—it's that everyone sees him. Like a bushfire on the horizon casting its red glow into the night."
Kelly's father, John Kelly, was born in 1820 in Ireland, to Thomas and Mary. At the age of 21, he was found guilty of stealing two pigs and was transported on the Prince Regent, arriving at Hobart Town, Van Diemen's Land on 2 January 1842. After he received his Certificate of Freedom on 11 January 1848, Red Kelly moved to Victoria and found work at James Quinn's farm at Wallan Wallan as a bush carpenter, he subsequently turned his attention to gold-digging, at which he was successful and which enabled him to purchase a small freehold for £615 in Beveridge, just north of Melbourne. On 18 November 1850, at the age of 30, Red Kelly married Ellen Quinn, his employer's 18-year-old daughter, at St Francis Church by Father Gerald Ward. Edward Kelly was his parents' third child, named after Red's closest brother; the exact date of his birth is not known, but a number of lines of evidence, including a 1963 interview with family descendants Paddy and Charles Griffiths, a record from his mother, a note from a school inspector, all suggest his birth was in December 1854.
Ned Kelly was baptised by an Augustinian priest, Charles O'Hea, who administered last rites to Kelly before his execution. In 1864, the Kelly family moved to Avenel, near Seymour, where they soon attracted the attention of local police; as a boy Kelly became familiar with the bush. In Avenel he risked his life to save another boy from drowning in Hughes Creek. In 1865, Red was imprisoned for having meat in his possession. Unable to pay the twenty-five pound fine, he was sentenced to six months with hard labour, served at Kilmore jail. Once released, Red drank which had an fatal effect on his health. In November 1866 his body started to swell from dropsy and he died at Avenel on 27 December 1866, he and his wife had eight children: Mary Jane, Margaret, Dan, James and Grace. The saga surrounding his father and his treatment by the police made a strong impression on the young Kelly. A few years the family selected 88 acres of uncultivated and untitled farmland at Eleven Mile Creek near the Greta area of Victoria.
In the dispute with the established graziers on whose land the Kellys were encroaching, they were suspected many times of cattle or horse stealing, but never convicted. In all, eighteen charges were brought against members
Australian art is any art made in or about Australia, or by Australians overseas, from prehistoric times to the present. This includes Aboriginal, Landscape, early-twentieth-century painters, print makers and sculptors influenced by European modernism, Contemporary art; the visual arts have a long history in Australia, with evidence of Aboriginal art dating back at least 30,000 years. Australia has produced many notable artists of both Western and Indigenous Australian schools, including the late-19th-century Heidelberg School plein air painters, the Antipodeans, the Central Australian Hermannsburg School watercolourists, the Western Desert Art Movement and coeval examples of well-known High modernism and Postmodern art; the first ancestors of Aboriginal Australians are believed to have arrived in Australia as early as 60,000 years ago, evidence of Aboriginal art in Australia can be traced back at least 30,000 years. Examples of ancient Aboriginal rock artworks can be found throughout the continent.
Notable examples can be found in national parks, such as those of the UNESCO listed sites at Uluru and Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory, the Bradshaw rock paintings in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Rock art can be found within protected parks in urban areas such as Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park in Sydney; the Sydney rock engravings are 5000 to 200 years old. Murujuga in Western Australia has the Friends of Australian Rock Art advocating its preservation, the numerous engravings there were heritage listed in 2007. In terms of age and abundance, cave art in Australia is comparable to that of Lascaux and Altamira in Europe, Aboriginal art is believed to be the oldest continuing tradition of art in the world. There are three major regional styles: the geometric style found in Central Australia, the Kimberley and Victoria known for its concentric circles and dots; these designs carry significance linked to the spirituality of the Dreamtime. William Barak was one of the last traditionally educated of the Wurundjeri-willam, people who come from the district now incorporating the city of Melbourne.
He remains notable for his artworks which recorded traditional Aboriginal ways for the education of Westerners. Margaret Preston was among the early non-indigenous painters to incorporate Aboriginal influences in her works. Albert Namatjira is an Arrernte man, his landscapes inspired the Hermannsburg School of art. The works of Elizabeth Durack are notable for their fusion of indigenous influences. Since the 1970s, indigenous artists have employed the use of acrylic paints - with styles such as the Western Desert Art Movement becoming globally renowned 20th-century art movements; the National Gallery of Australia exhibits a great many indigenous art works, including those of the Torres Strait Islands who are known for their traditional sculpture and headgear. The Art Gallery of New South Wales has an extensive collection of indigenous Australian art. In May 2011, the Director of the Place and Rock Art Heritage Unit at Griffith University, Paul Taçon, called for the creation of a national database for rock art.
Paul Taçon launched the "Protect Australia’s Spirit" campaign in May 2011 with the regarded Australian actor Jack Thompson. This campaign aims to create the first resourced national archive to bring together information about rock art sites, as well as planning for future rock art management and conservation; the National Rock Art Institute would bring together existing rock art expertise from Griffith University, Australian National University, the University of Western Australia if they were funded by philanthropists, big business and government. Rock Art Research is published twice a year and covers international scholarship of rock art. Early Western art in Australia, from 1788 onwards, is narrated as the gradual shift from a European sense of light to an Australian one; the lighting in Australia is notably different from that of Europe, early attempts at landscapes attempted to reflect this. It has been one of transformation, where artistic ideas originating from beyond gained new meaning and purpose when transplanted into the new continent and the emerging society.
The first artistic representations of the Australia scene by European artists were natural history illustrations, depicting the distinctive flora and fauna of the land for scientific purposes, the topography of the coast. Sydney Parkinson, the Botanical illustrator on James Cook's 1770 voyage that first charted the eastern coastline of Australia, made a large number of such drawings under the direction of naturalist Joseph Banks. Many of these drawings were met with skepticism when taken back to Europe, for example claims that the platypus was a hoax. In the form of copies and reproductions, George Stubbs' 1772 paintings Portrait of a Large Dog and The Kongouro from New Holland—depicting a dingo and kangaroo respectively—were the first images of Australian fauna to be disseminated in Britain. Despite Banks' suggestions, no professional natural-history artist sailed on the First Fleet in 1788; until the turn of the century all drawings made in the colony were crafted by soldiers, including British naval officers George Raper and John Hunter, convict artists, including Thomas Watling.
However, many of these drawings are by unknown artists, most notably the Port Jackson P
Sunday Reed was notable for supporting and collecting Australian art with her husband John Reed. Born on a Sunday, Sunday Reed was the daughter of Arthur Sydney Baillieu and his wife, Ethel Mary née Ham, her parents had three other children. She was a member of Melbourne's Baillieu family – the niece of William Baillieu, one of Australia's richest men, she grew up in Sorrento. Educated at home, she attended St Catherine's School, Toorak in 1920–22, she married an Irish-American Catholic, Leonard Quinn, on 31 December 1926. The marriage lasted three years, she married John Reed on 13 January 1932. In the 1930s, Sunday studied art under George Bell in his Bourke Street Studio School in Melbourne, her only remaining work is a landscape drawing, showing her skill with form. In 1934, the Reeds purchased a former dairy farm on the Yarra River at Heidelberg, now Bulleen, which became known as Heide; the talented artists at Heide "helped shape Australian art from the 1930s on." The Reeds lived on the property until their deaths in 1981, a short time after the property became the Heide Museum of Modern Art, still popularly known as Heide.
Sunday was unable to have children following a hysterectomy. The Reeds took over care of and adopted Joy Hester's child Sweeney after Hester was diagnosed with Hodgkin's Lymphoma in 1947. John Reed died on 5 December 1981. Sunday Reed died ten days on 15 December. Sunday Reed was the aunt of Ted Baillieu. A number of modernist artists came to live and work at Heide at various times during the 1930s, 40s and 50s, it became the place where many of the most famous works of the period were painted; these artists were known as the Heide Circle and included Sam Atyeo and his wife Moya Dyring, Albert Tucker, Sidney Nolan, Joy Hester, John Perceval, Laurence Hope among others, all worked at Heide. Nolan painted all but one of theNed Kelly series on the dining room table; the Heide Circle is well known for the intertwined personal and professional lives of the people involved. Sam Atyeo had an affair with Sunday and his wife Moya Dyring had an affair with John. Art historian Janine Burke has suggested that Sunday and Nolan had a close collaborative and inspiring relationship.
She writes that Sunday helped Nolan to find his artistic voice and in the process she developed from being a studio assistant to painting sections of the works, in particular the red and white squares in The Trial. "The Kellys are Sunday and Nolan's swansong," Burke writes, "the last brilliant burst of their creative duet." Burke's evidence is convincing because she discovered, in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art at Heide, a small watercolour by Nolan, dedicated to Sunday, that reads, "For the one who paints such beautiful squares". Kendrah Morgan, curator at Heide MoMA confirmed Burke's thesis in the programme Can We Help?. Nolan left the famous 1946–47 series of 27 Ned Kelly pictures at Heide, when he left it in charged circumstances in 1947, he had lived in a ménage à trois with the Reeds for several years and although he spoke to them, visited Heide, but once again in their lifetimes, the years there together has been seen as a dominating factor in the subsequent lives of them all.
Although he once wrote to Sunday Reed to tell her to take what she wanted, he subsequently demanded all his works back. Sunday Reed returned 284 other paintings and drawings to Nolan, but she refused to give up the 25 remaining Kellys because she saw the works as fundamental to the proposed Heide Museum of Modern Art, she gave them to the National Gallery of Australia in 1977. The relationship between Sunday Reed and Nolan is the basis for Alex Miller's 2011 novel Autumn Laing. Philippe Mora's film "Absolutely Modern" premiered in 2013. Based on 1940s Heide, it tells of the female muse and the role of sexuality in Art. David Rainey’s 2014 play "The Ménage at Soria Moria" is a fictitious performance piece exploring the relationship between the Reeds and Sidney Nolan – both the heady days at Heide during the 1940s, the less well known degeneration over the next 35 years. In the 1950s, Heide was once again the centre of a brilliant circle of younger poets. Friends from that period include Charles Blackman, Robert Dickerson, Judith Wright, Barrett Reid, Charles Osborne, Laurence Hope and Nadine Amadio.
Sunday was the first person to extensively buy Blackman's work. In the 1960s, Sweeney Reed, Joy Hester's son, whom Sunday and John had adopted, was a young gallery director, he invited his circle of artist and poet friends to Heide who included Les Kossatz, Allan Mitelman, Shelton Lea and Russell Deeble. Nicole Kidman and Keith Urban named Sunday Rose, born in 2008, after Reed. Dr Antony Kidman, Ms Kidman's father, suggested the name. Lesley Harding & Kendrah Morgan Modern love: the lives of John & Sunday Reed, Victoria The Miegunyah Press, an imprint of Melbourne University Publishing Limited, in association with Heide Museum of Modern Art, State Library Victoria. ISBN 9780522862812Janine Burke Dear Sun: the Letters of Joy Hester and Sunday Reed. William Heinemann, Port Melbourne, Victoria, 1995. Sunday Reed on aCOMMENT – a site publishing well-researched essays and articles to encourage informed debate on John and Sunday Reed, other Heide habitués
Sir Sidney Robert Nolan was one of Australia's leading artists of the 20th century. His oeuvre is among the most prolific in all of modern art, he is best known for his series of paintings on legends from Australian history, most famously Ned Kelly, the bushranger and outlaw. Nolan's stylised depiction of Kelly's armour has become an icon of Australian art. Sidney Nolan was born in Carlton, at that time an inner working-class suburb of Melbourne, on 22 April 1917, he was the eldest of four children. His parents and Dora, were both fifth generation Australians of Irish descent. Nolan moved with his family to the bayside suburb of St Kilda, he attended the Brighton Road State School and Brighton Technical School and left school aged 14. He enrolled at the Prahran Technical College, Department of Design and Crafts, in a course which he had begun part-time by correspondence. From 1933, at the age of 16, he began six years of work for Fayrefield Hats, producing advertising and display stands with spray paints and dyes.
From 1934 he attended night classes sporadically at the National Gallery of Victoria Art School. Nolan was a close friend of the arts patrons John and Sunday Reed, is regarded as one of the leading figures of the so-called "Heide Circle" that included Albert Tucker, Joy Hester, Arthur Boyd and John Perceval. Boyd and Perceval were members of the Boyd artistic family who were centered at "Open Country", Murrumbeena. In 1938, he met and married his first wife, graphic designer Elizabeth Paterson, with whom he had a daughter, but his marriage soon broke up because of his increasing involvement with the Reeds, he joined the Angry Penguins in the 1940s, after deserting from the army during World War II. The Ern Malley hoax poems were seen by Nolan and Sunday Reed as being uncannily prescient in touching on their own personal circumstances; the Malley poems remained a real presence to him throughout his life. He painted and drew hundreds of Malley-themed works and in 1975 said it inspired him to paint his first Ned Kelly series: "It made me take the risk of putting against the Australian bush an utterly strange object."He lived for some time at the Reeds' home, "Heide" outside Melbourne.
Here he painted the first of his famous, iconic "Ned Kelly" series with input from Sunday Reed. Nolan conducted an open affair with Sunday Reed at this time although he married John Reed's sister, Cynthia in 1948, after Sunday refused to leave her husband, he had lived in a ménage à trois with the Reeds for several years and although he spoke to them, visited Heide, but once again in their lifetimes, the years there together have been seen as a dominating factor in the subsequent lives of them all. In November 1976, Cynthia Nolan ended her life by taking an overdose of sleeping pills in a London hotel. In 1978, Nolan married Mary née Boyd, youngest daughter within the Boyd family and married to John Perceval. Nolan painted a wide range of personal interpretations of historical and legendary figures, including explorers Burke and Wills, Eliza Fraser. With time his paintings of Mrs Fraser came to be associated with his growing animus towards Sunday Reed. However, when first painted on Fraser Island in 1947 after he had left Heide, he remained on friendly terms with the Reeds and sent them photos of the works for their approval.
Indeed, he gave one Fraser Island painting to Sunday Reed as a Christmas gift that year. His most famous work is a series of stylised descriptions of the bushranger Ned Kelly in the Australian bush. Nolan left the famous 1946–47 series of 27 Ned Kellys at "Heide", when he left it in charged circumstances. Although he once wrote to Sunday Reed to tell her to take what she wanted, he subsequently demanded all his works back. Sunday Reed returned 284 other paintings and drawings to Nolan, but she refused to give up the 25 remaining Kellys because she saw the works as fundamental to the proposed Heide Museum of Modern Art; because she collaborated with Nolan on the paintings. She gave them to the National Gallery of Australia in 1977 and this resolved the dispute. Nolan's Ned Kelly series follow the main sequence of the Kelly story; however Nolan did not intend the series to be an authentic depiction of these events. Rather, these episodes/series became the setting for the artist's meditations upon universal themes of injustice and betrayal.
The Kelly saga was a way for Nolan to paint the Australian landscape in new ways, with the story giving meaning to the place. Although the Depression and World War II happened during this period, Nolan decided to concentrate on something other than people struggling in life. Nolan wanted to retell the story of a hero. A hero which now has become a metaphor for humankind—the fighter, the victim, the hero—resisting tyranny with a passion for freedom. Nolan recognised that the conceptual image of the black square had been part of modern art since World War I. Nolan just placed a pair of eyes into Kelly's helmet which animates its formal shape; as in most of the series, Kelly's steel head guard dominates the composition. Nolan concentrates on the Australian outback and shows a different landscape in nearly every painting. Nolan's paintings give the audience an insight into the history of Australia but show others from the world how beautiful Australia is; the intensity of the colours of the land and bush along wit
Albert Tucker (artist)
Albert Lee Tucker, was an Australian artist, member of the Heide Circle, a group of modernist artists and writers that centred on the art patrons John and Sunday Reed, whose home, "Heide", located in Bulleen, near Heidelberg, was a haven for the group. Tucker left school at 14 to help support his family and had no formal art training, but obtained work as a house painter and commercial illustrator, in an advertising agency before joining the commercial artist John Vickery. For seven years he attended the Victorian Artists' Society evening life drawing class three nights a week. Tucker's main inspirations include post-impressionists and social realists, as well as personal experience. Tucker's work was influenced by the realistic reflections of two important émigré artists, Josl Bergner and Danila Vassilieff, who arrived in Melbourne in the late 1930s about the same time that Tucker began to explore images of the Great Depression. Tucker met Sunday and John Reed, members of the Contemporary Art Society, set up in 1938 by George Bell, in opposition to the government Australian Academy of Art, believed to promote conservative art and not the modernists.
Tucker's first significant works were produced during his involvement in the army. In 1940, Tucker was called up for army service and spent most of his time working in Heidelberg Military Hospital drawing patients suffering from wounds and mental illnesses as a result of war, he produced three important works at this stage, Man at Table, a pen and ink illustration of a man whose nose had been sliced off by a shell fragment, The Waste Land, an image of death sitting on a stool watching and waiting, Floating Figures, of two figures floating down a hall, a third with a demented smile. All of these images illustrated the horror and madness of war, but in a style reflecting his social realists surrealistic and expressionistic style. In 1942, Tucker was returned to Melbourne. An impression of Australian soldiers, clutching young women was the catalyst for his series of works known as the Images of Modern Evil, Victory Girls, depicting Melbourne nightlife. Tucker took to photography, both of his own paintings, to record the ideas and scenes he used to compose them, inadvertently created a document of his time.
Tucker associated with John and Sunday Reed, who saw connections between Tucker's work and other artists, angry at the social situation. This so-called "Angry Decade" of the 1940s, saw artists Tucker become associated with the Angry Penguins, a group of modernist artists including Joy Hester, Sidney Nolan, John Perceval, Arthur Boyd and Noel Counihan; the Reeds' property at Heide was a major outlet for the expression of avant-garde ideas. The modernists and social realists shared the same concerns; these artists wrote for the publication Angry Penguins, published by Max Harris. Tucker’s original influences and Vassilieff, were part of this group. In early 1947, Tucker traveled to Japan with the Australian army as an art correspondent, he produced. In 1954 he met Sidney Nolan in Rome, when he produced Apocalyptic Horse and began painting Australia from memory, he was exhibited in the Venice Biennale in 1956 and spent two years in London painting the Thames Series. He moved to New York in 1958 and his subjects switched from the city to outback Australia.
Where some works of Sidney Nolan and Russell Drysdale had reached international level, Tucker rejected them as being nationalistic. He depicted the landscape as being a harsh and sterile wasteland, he distorted stereotypes and icons of the Australian bush, including convicts and Wills and the Kelly Gang. He was influenced by the sheer barrenness and hopelessness that the outback conveyed, added these icons as pawns to the outback’s deadly game. In 1959, Tucker won the Australian Women's Weekly Prize, which enabled him to spend two years in New York producing the Manhattan Series and Antipodean Heads. In 1960 he was awarded the Kurt Geiger Award by MOMA Australia which he used to return to Australia and mount his first Australian solo exhibition, he subsequently settled in Victoria and in 1964 he married his second wife Barbara Bilcock. In 1990 the National Gallery of Australia held a retrospective of his work. In 1941, Tucker married fellow artist Joy Hester, they had a son, Sweeney, it emerged many years that Tucker was not the boy's biological father—it was Australian jazz drummer Billy Hyde, with whom Hester had had a brief affair.
His marriage broke down in 1947 and Tucker travelled to Japan and Europe, leading a bohemian life, painting and taking odd jobs. When Hester was diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma, she gave Sweeney into the care of the Reeds, who adopted him. Joy Hester died in 1960, Sweeney committed suicide in 1979. In his years in the 1980s, after the deaths of John and Sunday Reed, Tucker took on the task of recording the history of the artists circle he had known:...the thing I became aware of was that there was no human face for that period. So this is; because when I thought of John and Sunday and Joy gone the rest of us of course would follow in rotation. There’s no escaping that simple brute reality of existence, so I developed this tremendous urge...to try and get what I could done in painting what I knew of them all. The result was the series of portraits known as Faces I Have Met. In each one I was trying to free myself as far as I could of any negative emotion or from the tensio