Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. While the practice of wine tasting is as ancient as its production, a more formalized methodology has become established from the 14th century onwards. Modern, professional wine tasters use a evolving specialized terminology, used to describe the range of perceived flavors and general characteristics of a wine. More informal, recreational tasting may use similar terminology involving a much less analytical process for a more general, personal appreciation. Results contradicting the reliability of wine tasting in both experts and consumers have surfaced through scientific blind wine tasting, such as inconsistency in identifying wines based on region and price; the Sumerian stories of Gilgamesh in the 3rd millennium BCE differentiate the popular beers of Mesopotamia, as well as wines from Zagros Mountains or Lebanon. In the fourth century BCE, Plato listed the main flavors of wine, classified the aromas as "species", or families. Aristotle proposed a sensory tasting defined by the four elements further deepened by the Roman noblewoman Lucretia in the first century BCE.
Although the practice of tasting is as old as the history of wine, the term "tasting" first appeared in 1519. The methodology of wine tasting was formalized by the 18th century when Linnaeus and others brought an understanding of tasting up to date. In 2004, Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for their contribution to the knowledge of the senses of taste and smell; the results of the four recognized stages to wine tasting: appearance "in glass" the aroma of the wine "in mouth" sensations "finish" – are combined in order to establish the following properties of a wine: complexity and character potential possible faultsA wine's overall quality assessment, based on this examination, follows further careful description and comparison with recognized standards, both with respect to other wines in its price range and according to known factors pertaining to the region or vintage. Whereas wines are tasted in isolation, a wine's quality assessment is more objective when performed alongside several other wines, in what are known as tasting "flights".
Wines may be deliberately selected for their vintage or proceed from a single winery, to better compare vineyard and vintages, respectively. Alternatively, in order to promote an unbiased analysis and glasses may be disguised in a "blind" tasting, to rule out any prejudicial awareness of either vintage or winery. To ensure impartial judgment of a wine, it should be served blind – that is, without the taster having seen the label or bottle shape. Blind tasting may involve serving the wine from a black wine glass to mask the color of the wine. A taster's judgment can be prejudiced by knowing details of a wine, such as geographic origin, reputation, color, or other considerations. Scientific research has long demonstrated the power of suggestion in perception as well as the strong effects of expectancies. For example, people expect more expensive wine to have more desirable characteristics than less expensive wine; when given wine that they are falsely told is expensive they always report it as tasting better than the same wine when they are told that it is inexpensive.
French researcher Frédéric Brochet "submitted a mid-range Bordeaux in two different bottles, one labeled as a cheap table wine, the other bearing a grand cru etiquette." Tasters described the supposed grand cru as "woody and round" and the supposed cheap wine as "short and faulty." People have expectations about wines because of their geographic origin, vintage and many other factors. For example, when Brochet served a white wine he received all the usual descriptions: "fresh, honeyed, lively." He served the same wine dyed red and received the usual red terms: "intense, supple, deep."One of the most famous instances of blind testing is known as the Judgment of Paris, a wine competition held in 1976 where French judges blind-tested wines from France and California. Against all expectations, California wines bested French wines according to the judges, a result which would have been unlikely in a non-blind contest; this event was depicted in the 2008 movie Bottle Shock. Another well-publicized double-blind taste test was conducted in 2011 by Prof. Richard Wiseman of the University of Hertfordshire.
In a wine tasting experiment using 400 participants, Wiseman found that general members of the public were unable to distinguish expensive wines from inexpensive ones. "People just could not tell the difference between cheap and expensive wine". In 2001, the University of Bordeaux asked 54 undergraduate students to test two glasses of wine: one red, one white; the participants commented on its crushed red fruit. The participants failed to recognize; the only difference was. For 6 years, Texas A&M University invited people to taste wines labeled "France", "California", "Texas", while nearly all ranked the French as best, in fact, all three were the same Texan wine; the contest is built on the simple theory that if people do not know what they are drinking, they award points differently than if they do know what they are drinking. Vertical and horizontal wine tastings are
Royal warrant of appointment
Royal warrants of appointment have been issued for centuries to tradespeople who supply goods or services to a royal court or certain royal personages. The royal warrant enables the supplier to advertise the fact that they supply to the issuer of the royal warrant. Royal families of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Denmark and Japan among others, allow tradesmen to advertise royal patronage. Suppliers having a royal warrant charge for the goods and services supplied. Royal warrants are advertised on company hoardings, letter-heads and products by displaying the coat of arms or the heraldic badge of the royal personage issuing the royal warrant. Warrants granted by members of the British royal family include the phrase "By Appointment to…" followed by the title and name of the royal customer, what goods are provided. Royal warrant holders of the Court of Australia: Hardy Brothers In Belgium the title of'Purveyor to the Court' is granted to businesses who provide services or goods to the royal court.
The list of'purveyors to the Court' is updated every year. The king himself makes the decision; some of the'Purveyors to the Court' include: Armani BMW Belgium Luxembourg Mercedes-Benz Belgium Luxembourg Brussels Airlines Neuhaus Leonidas Godiva Jules Destrooper Delvaux Natan Couture Purveyors to the Royal House of Bulgaria: Ballarino Gioielli – jewellery Purveyors to the Royal Danish Court: Purveyors to the Imperial Household Ministry. They need not supply goods to the court; the status is renewable every 25 years. At present there are at least 387 companies. For large, multinational enterprises and for non-governmental organizations the use of the designation koninklijke can be awarded; these enterprises are allowed to incorporate a crown in their logo. Examples are KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, KPN, Royal Dutch Shell, Royal Philips Electronics, Royal Vopak. Purveyors to the Royal Court of the Norway: the status'purveyor to the court' is no longer awarded. Karl August Anderson – photographer Farris – mineral water Foss Bryggeri – Brewery Hans H. Holm – Felt hats King Oscar – Sea food H. C.
Reiersen – Tailor Christian Rohde & Søn – Tailor M. Selmer – photographer O. Sørensen Vogn- og Karosserifabrikk – Automobil L. Szaciński – photographer Purveyors to the Romanian Royal House: BMW Farina gegenüber – eau de Cologne to Carol I Steinway & Sons – pianos M. Welte & Söhne – orchestrions, reproducing pianos Murfatlar SA – wines to Michael Frottirex – bath towels and bedding to Michael Doina Levintza – clothing and accessories to Michael Dan Coma – clothing and accessories to Michael Halewood International – Rhein extra sparkling wines to Michael SC Transavia SA – chicken meat to Michael Principal Company SA – Salonta sausage products to Michael Biborţeni – mineral water to Michael Exotique Romania – Exotic furniture and decorative items Carol Parc Hotel – Hotelier and catering services RUE DU PAIN – Boulangerie Artisanale – bakery and confectionery products BRIDGE PRINTING GROUP - Printing Company, Offset lithography, Hot-foil stamping and special finishings The Royal House of Bunyoro-Kitara awards royal warrants to businesses that deliver goods and services to the royal house on a regular basis.
The royal warrant can be awarded by either the King, the Queen or the Crown Prince. The Board of the Royal Warrant Holder Society advises the Grantors but each Grantor makes the final decision to grant a Warrant. A business may only receive one Warrant from a Grantor; the warrants of the Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom are valid for one year. Augarten porcelain – porcelain and china J. A. Baczewski – vodka Bakalowits – crystal chandeliers Matthäus Bauer – accordions Jan Becher – herbal bitter Lucas Bols – liqueurs Ignaz Bösendorfer – pianos Carl Suchy & Söhne - watches Christofle – silverware Courvoisier – cognac Demel – chocolate and confectionery Farina gegenüber – eau de Cologne to Franz Joseph I E. Fessler – ovens Móric Fischer de Farkasházy, owner of Herend Porcelain Manufactory – porcelain Café Gerbeaud – cakes and pastries Gräf & Stift – carriages Hancocks & Co – jewelry L. & C. Hardtmuth – ovens and pencils Antoni Hawełka – catering J. A. Henckels – knives Hotel Imperial – catering Liebig's Extract of Meat Company – processed meats J. & L. Lobmeyr – crystal and glassware Löblich & Co. – heating Lohner-Werke – carriages Girolamo Luxardo – apéritif and digestif Rémy Martin – champagne Moët et Chandon – champagne Moser – glass and crysta
The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, northeast Germany, Poland and the North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53 ° N from 10 ° E to 30 ° E longitude. A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat by way of the straits of Øresund, the Great Belt, the Little Belt, it includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the Bay of Gdańsk. The Baltic Proper is bordered on its northern edge, at the latitude 60°N, by the Åland islands and the Gulf of Bothnia, on its northeastern edge by the Gulf of Finland, on its eastern edge by the Gulf of Riga, in the west by the Swedish part of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula; the Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal. Administration The Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area includes the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat, without calling Kattegat a part of the Baltic Sea, "For the purposes of this Convention the'Baltic Sea Area' shall be the Baltic Sea and the Entrance to the Baltic Sea, bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at 57°44.43'N."Traffic history Historically, the Kingdom of Denmark collected Sound Dues from ships at the border between the ocean and the land-locked Baltic Sea, in tandem: in the Øresund at Kronborg castle near Helsingør.
The narrowest part of Little Belt is the "Middelfart Sund" near Middelfart. Oceanography Geographers agree that the preferred physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill and Langeland; the Drogden Sill is situated north of Køge Bugt and connects Dragør in the south of Copenhagen to Malmö. By this definition, the Danish Straits are part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg and the Bay of Kiel are parts of the Baltic Sea. Another usual border is the line between Falsterbo and Stevns Klint, Denmark, as this is the southern border of Øresund. It's the border between the shallow southern Øresund and notably deeper water. Hydrography and biology Drogden Sill sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill, a limit to the Belt Sea; the shallow sills are obstacles to the flow of heavy salt water from the Kattegat into the basins around Bornholm and Gotland. The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea have a rich biology; the remainder of the Sea is poor in oxygen and in species.
Thus, the more of the entrance, included in its definition, the healthier the Baltic appears. Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people of the Suebi, Ptolemy Sarmatian Ocean after the Sarmatians, but the first to name it the Baltic Sea was the eleventh-century German chronicler Adam of Bremen; the origin of the latter name is speculative and it was adopted into Slavic and Finnic languages spoken around the sea likely due to the role of Medieval Latin in cartography. It might be connected to the Germanic word belt, a name used for two of the Danish straits, the Belts, while others claim it to be directly derived from the source of the Germanic word, Latin balteus "belt". Adam of Bremen himself compared the sea with a belt, stating that it is so named because it stretches through the land as a belt, he might have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder. Pliny mentions an island named Baltia with reference to accounts of Xenophon.
It is possible. Baltia might be derived from belt and mean "near belt of sea, strait." Meanwhile, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning "white, fair". This root and its basic meaning were retained in both Latvian. On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian. Another explanation is that, while derived from the aforementioned root, the name of the sea is related to names for various forms of water and related substances in several European languages, that might have been associated with colors found in swamps, yet another explanation is that the name meant "enclosed sea, bay" as opposed to open sea. Some Swedish historians believe. In the Middle Ages the sea was known by a variety of names; the name Baltic Sea became dominant only after 1600. Usage of Baltic and similar terms to denote the region east of the sea started only in 19th century.
The Baltic Sea was known in ancient Latin language sources as Mare Suebicum or Mare Germanicum. Older native names in languages that used to be spoken on the shores of the sea or near it indicate the geographical location of the sea, or its size in relation to smaller gulfs, or tribes associated with it. In modern lang
Champagne Pommery is a Champagne house located in Reims. The house was founded as Pommery & Greno in 1858 by Alexandre Louis Pommery and Narcisse Greno with the primary business being wool trading. Under the guidance of Alexandre's widow, Louise Pommery, the firm was dedicated to Champagne production and soon became one of the region's largest Champagne brands. Champagne Pommery was the first house to commercialize a brut Champagne in 1874, it is possible to visit this Champagne cellar and the Villa Demoiselle, just in front of Champagne Pommery House in Reims. Pommery is owned by the Vranken-Pommery Monopole Group, which owns Heidsieck & Co Monopole and Vranken, Château la Gordonne, Domaine Royal de Jarras, Rozès in their portfolio. List of Champagne houses Official website http://www.chicagotribune.com/dining/recipes/sc-food-0417-giants-pommery-20150413-story.html
Aging of wine
The aging of wine is able to improve the quality of wine. This distinguishes wine from most other consumable goods. While wine is perishable and capable of deteriorating, complex chemical reactions involving a wine's sugars and phenolic compounds can alter the aroma, color and taste of the wine in a way that may be more pleasing to the taster; the ability of a wine to age is influenced by many factors including grape variety, viticultural practices, wine region and winemaking style. The condition that the wine is kept in after bottling can influence how well a wine ages and may require significant time and financial investment; the quality of an aged wine varies bottle-by-bottle, depending on the conditions under which it was stored, the condition of the bottle and cork, thus it is said that rather than good old vintages, there are good old bottles. There is a significant mystique around the aging of wine, as its chemistry was not understood for a long time, old wines are sold for extraordinary prices.
However, the vast majority of wine is not aged, wine, aged is aged for long. The Ancient Greeks and Romans were aware of the potential of aged wines. In Greece, early examples of dried "straw wines" were noted for their ability to age due to their high sugar contents; these wines were kept for many years. In Rome, the most sought after wines—Falernian and Surrentine—were prized for their ability to age for decades. In the Book of Luke, it is noted that "old wine" was valued over "new wine"; the Greek physician Galen wrote that the "taste" of aged wine was desirable and that this could be accomplished by heating or smoking the wine, though, in Galen's opinion, these artificially aged wines were not as healthy to consume as aged wines. Following the Fall of the Roman Empire, appreciation for aged wine was non-existent. Most of the wines produced in northern Europe were pale in color and with low alcohol; these wines did not have much aging potential and lasted a few months before they deteriorated into vinegar.
The older a wine got the cheaper its price became as merchants eagerly sought to rid themselves of aging wine. By the 16th century and more alcoholic wines were being made in the Mediterranean and gaining attention for their aging ability. Riesling from Germany with its combination of acidity and sugar were demonstrating their ability to age. In the 17th century, two innovations occurred that radically changed the wine industry's view on aging. One was the development of the cork and bottle which again allowed producers to package and store wine in a air-tight environment; the second was the growing popularity of fortified wines such as Port and Sherries. The added alcohol was found to act as a preservative, allowing wines to survive long sea voyages to England, The Americas and the East Indies; the English, in particular, were growing in their appreciation of aged wines like Port and Claret from Bordeaux. Demand for matured wines had a pronounced effect on the wine trade. For producers, the cost and space of storing barrels or bottles of wine was prohibitive so a merchant class evolved with warehouses and the finances to facilitate aging wines for a longer period of time.
In regions like Bordeaux and Burgundy, this situation increased the balance of power towards the merchant classes. There is a widespread misconception that wine always improves with age, or that wine improves with extended aging, or that aging potential is an indicator of good wine; some authorities state. Aging changes does not categorically improve it or worsen it. Fruitness deteriorates decreasing markedly after only 6 months in the bottle. Due to the cost of storage, it is not economical to age cheap wines, but many varieties of wine do not benefit from aging, regardless of the quality. Experts vary on precise numbers, but state that only 5–10% of wine improves after 1 year, only 1% improves after 5–10 years. In general, wines with a low pH have a greater capability of aging. With red wines, a high level of flavor compounds, such as phenolics, will increase the likelihood that a wine will be able to age. Wines with high levels of phenols include Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah; the white wines with the longest aging potential tend to be those with a high amount of extract and acidity.
The acidity in white wines, acting as a preservative, has a role similar to that of tannins in red wines. The process of making white wines, which includes little to no skin contact, means that white wines have a lower amount of phenolic compounds, though barrel fermentation and oak aging can impart some phenols; the minimal skin contact with rosé wine limits their aging potential. After aging at the winery most wood-aged ports, vins doux naturels, vins de liqueur, basic level ice wines, sparkling wines are bottled when the producer feels that they are ready to be consumed; these wines will not benefit much from aging. Vintage ports and other bottled-aged ports and sherries will benefit from some additional aging. Champagne and other sparkling wines are infrequently aged, have no vintage year, but vintage champagne may be aged. Aged champagne has traditionally been a peculiarly British affectation, thus has been referred to as le goût anglais "the English taste
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown for winemaking, but raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture. A vineyard is characterised by its terroir, a French term loosely translating as "a sense of place" that refers to the specific geographical and geological characteristics of grapevine plantations, which may be imparted in the wine; the earliest evidence of wine production dates from between 6000 and 5000 BC. Wine making technology improved with the ancient Greeks but it wasn't until the end of the Roman Empire that cultivation techniques as we know them were common throughout Europe. In medieval Europe the Church was a staunch supporter of wine, necessary for the celebration of the Mass. During the lengthy instability of the Middle Ages, the monasteries maintained and developed viticultural practices, having the resources, security and interest in improving the quality of their vines, they owned and tended the best vineyards in Europe and vinum theologium was considered superior to all others.
European vineyards were planted with a wide variety of the Vitis vinifera grape. However, in the late 19th century, the entire species was nearly destroyed by the plant louse phylloxera accidentally introduced to Europe from North America. Native American grapevines include varieties such as Vitis labrusca, resistant to the bug. Vitis vinifera varieties were saved by being grafted onto the rootstock of Native American varieties, although there is still no remedy for phylloxera, which remains a danger to any vineyard not planted with grafted rootstock; the quest for vineyard efficiency has produced a bewildering range of systems and techniques in recent years. Due to the much more fertile New World growing conditions, attention has focussed on managing the vine's more vigorous growth. Innovation in palissage and pruning and thinning methods have replaced more general, traditional concepts like "yield per unit area" in favor of "maximizing yield of desired quality". Many of these new techniques have since been adopted in place of traditional practice in the more progressive of the so-called "Old World" vineyards.
Other recent practices include spraying water on vines to protect them from sub-zero temperatures, new grafting techniques, soil slotting, mechanical harvesting. Such techniques have made possible the development of wine industries in New World countries such as Canada. Today there is increasing interest in developing organic, ecologically sensitive and sustainable vineyards. Biodynamics has become popular in viticulture; the use of drip irrigation in recent years has expanded vineyards into areas which were unplantable. For well over half a century, Cornell University, the University of California and California State University, among others, have been conducting scientific experiments to improve viticulture and educate practitioners; the research includes investigating pest control. The International Grape Genome Program is a multi-national effort to discover a genetic means to improving quality, increasing yield and providing a "natural" resistance to pests; the implementation of mechanical harvesting is stimulated by changes in labor laws, labor shortages, bureaucratic complications.
It can be expensive to hire labor for short periods of time, which does not square well with the need to reduce production costs and harvest often at night. However small vineyards, incompatible widths between rows of grape vines and steep terrain hinder the employment of machine harvesting more than the resistance of traditional views which reject such harvesting. Numbers of New World vineyard plantings have been increasing as fast as European vineyards are being uprooted. Between 1990 and 2003, the number of U. S. vineyards increased from 1,180 to 3,860 km2 or 292,000 to 954,000 acres, while Australian vineyard numbers more than doubled from 590 to 1,440 km2 and Chilean vineyards grew from 654 to 1,679 km2. The size of individual vineyards in the New World is significant. Europe's 1.6 million vineyards are an average of 0.2 km2 each, while the average Australian vineyard is 0.5 km2, providing considerable economies of scale. Exports to Europe from New World growers increased by 54% in the six years up to 2006.
There have been significant changes in the kinds of grapes that are grown. For example, in Chile, large areas of low-quality grapes have been replaced with such grapes as Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon. In Argentina, due to an economic down-turn, acreage of Malbec was reduced in the 1980s, but in the 1990s, during the quality revolution incited by Malbec Pioneer Nicolás Catena Zapata, growers started planting more Malbec, most notably in higher altitudes where cooler temperatures and more intense sunlight yields more concentrated yet smoother and more complex malbecs. Grape changes are in response to changing consumer demand but sometimes result from vine pull schemes designed to promote vineyard change. Alternatively, the development of "T" budding now permits the grafting of a different grape variety onto existing rootstock in the vineyard, making it possible to switch varieties within a two-year period. Local legislation dictates which varieties are selected, how they are grown, whether vineyards can be irrigated and when grapes can be harvested, all of which in serves to rein
Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, the bottling of the finished liquid. The history of wine-making stretches over millennia; the science of wine and winemaking is known as oenology. A winemaker may be called a vintner; the growing of grapes is viticulture and there are many varieties of grapes. Winemaking can be divided into two general categories: still wine production and sparkling wine production. Red wine, white wine, rosé are the other main categories. Although most wine is made from grapes, it may be made from other plants, see fruit wine. Other similar light alcoholic drinks include mead, made by fermenting honey and water, kumis, made of fermented mare's milk. There are five basic stages to the wine making process which begins with picking. After the harvest, the grapes are prepared for primary ferment. At this stage red wine making diverges from white wine making. Red wine is made from the must of red or black grapes and fermentation occurs together with the grape skins, which give the wine its color.
White wine is made by fermenting juice, made by pressing crushed grapes to extract a juice. White wine is made from red grapes. Rosé wines are either made from red grapes where the juice is allowed to stay in contact with the dark skins long enough to pick up a pinkish color or by blending red wine with white wine. White and rosé wines extract little of the tannins contained in the skins. To start primary fermentation yeast may be added to the must for red wine or may occur as ambient yeast on the grapes or in the air. Yeast may be added to the juice for white wine. During this fermentation, which takes between one and two weeks, the yeast converts most of the sugars in the grape juice into ethanol and carbon dioxide; the carbon dioxide is lost to the atmosphere. After the primary fermentation of red grapes the free run wine is pumped off into tanks and the skins are pressed to extract the remaining juice and wine; the press wine is blended with the free run wine at the winemaker's discretion. The wine is kept warm and the remaining sugars are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
The next process in the making of red wine is malo-lactic conversion. This is a bacterial process which converts "crisp, green apple" malic acid to "soft, creamy" lactic acid softening the taste of the wine. Red wine is sometimes transferred to oak barrels to mature for a period of months; the wine must be settled or clarified and adjustments made prior to bottling. The time from harvest to drinking can vary from a few months for Beaujolais nouveau wines to over twenty years for wine of good structure with high levels of acid, tannin or sugar. However, only about 10% of all red and 5% of white wine will taste better after five years than it will after just one year. Depending on the quality of grape and the target wine style, some of these steps may be combined or omitted to achieve the particular goals of the winemaker. Many wines of comparable quality are produced using similar but distinctly different approaches to their production. Variations on the above procedure exist. With sparkling wines such as Champagne, an additional, "secondary" fermentation takes place inside the bottle, dissolving trapped carbon dioxide in the wine and creating the characteristic bubbles.
Sweet wines or off-dry wines are made by arresting fermentation before all sugar has been converted into ethanol and allowing some residual sugar to remain. This can be done by chilling the wine and adding sulphur and other allowable additives to inhibit yeast activity or sterile filtering the wine to remove all yeast and bacteria. In the case of sweet wines, initial sugar concentrations are increased by harvesting late, freezing the grapes to concentrate the sugar, allowing or encouraging botrytis cinerea fungus to dehydrate the grapes or allowing the grapes to raisin either on the vine or on racks or straw mats. In these high sugar wines, the fermentation stops as the high concentration of sugar and rising concentration of ethanol retard the yeast activity. In fortified wines, such as port wine, high proof neutral grape spirit is added to arrest the ferment and adjust the alcohol content when the desired sugar level has been reached. In other cases the winemaker may choose to hold back some of the sweet grape juice and add it to the wine after the fermentation is done, a technique known in Germany as süssreserve.
The process produces wastewater and lees that require collection and disposal or beneficial use. Synthetic wines, engineered wines or fake wines, are a product that do not use grapes at all and start with water and ethanol and adds acids, amino acids and organic compounds; the quality of the grapes determines the quality of the wine more than any other factor. Grape quality is affected by variety as well as weather during the growing season, soil minerals and acidity, time of harvest, pruning method; the combination of these effects is referred to as the grape's terroir. Grapes are harvested from the vineyard from early September until early November in the northern hemisphere, mid February until early March in the southern hemisphere. In some cool areas in the southe