Covent Garden is a district in London on the eastern fringes of the West End, between St Martins Lane and Drury Lane. It is associated with the former fruit-and-vegetable market in the square, now a popular shopping and tourist site, and with the Royal Opera House. The area was settled in the 7th century when it became the heart of the Anglo-Saxon trading town of Lundenwic. By 1200 part of it had been walled off by Westminster Abbey for use as arable land, referred to as the garden of the Abbey and Convent, and the Covent Garden, it was seized by Henry VIII and granted to the Earls of Bedford in 1552. The 4th Earl commissioned Inigo Jones to build fine houses to attract wealthy tenants. Jones designed the Italianate arcaded square along with the church of St Pauls, the design of the square was new to London and had a significant influence on modern town planning, acting as the prototype for new estates as London grew. By 1654 a small open-air fruit-and-vegetable market had developed on the side of the fashionable square.
Gradually, both the market and the area fell into disrepute, as taverns, coffee-houses. By the 18th century it had become a well-known red-light district, an Act of Parliament was drawn up to control the area, and Charles Fowlers neo-classical building was erected in 1830 to cover and help organise the market. The market grew and further buildings were added, the Floral Hall, Charter Market, by the end of the 1960s traffic congestion was causing problems, and in 1974 the market relocated to the New Covent Garden Market about three miles south-west at Nine Elms. With the postcode WC2, Covent Garden falls within the London boroughs of Westminster and Camden, the area has been served by the Piccadilly line at Covent Garden tube station since 1907, the journey from Leicester Square, at 300 yards, is the shortest in London. What would become the Strand on the boundary of the future Covent Garden was used during the Roman period as part of a route to Silchester. Excavations in 2006 at St Martin-in-the-Fields revealed a late Roman grave and these revealed Covent Garden as the centre of a trading town called Lundenwic, developed around 600 AD, which stretched from Trafalgar Square to Aldwych.
Alfred the Great gradually shifted the settlement into the old Roman town of Londinium from around 886 AD onwards, leaving no mark of the old town, a document from 1200 AD mentions a walled garden owned by the Benedictine monks of the Abbey of St Peter, Westminster. A document, dated between 1250 and 1283, refers to the garden of the Abbot and Convent of Westminster. By the 13th century this had become a 40-acre quadrangle of mixed orchard, meadow and arable land and this is how it was recorded from on. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1540, Henry VIII took the land belonging to Westminster Abbey for himself and his son, Edward VI, granted it to John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford, in 1552. The Russell family, who in 1694 were advanced in their peerage from Earl to Duke of Bedford, held the land until 1918
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
The Nigger of the 'Narcissus'
The Nigger of the Narcissus, A Tale of the Sea is a novella by Joseph Conrad. The authors preface to the novel, regarded as a manifesto of literary impressionism, is considered one of Conrads most significant pieces of non-fiction writing. This preface begins with the line, A work that aspires, however humbly, the title character, James Wait, is a dying West Indian black sailor on board the merchant ship Narcissus sailing from Bombay to London. Wait, suffering from tuberculosis, becomes ill during the voyage. However, the ships master Captain Alistoun and an old sailor named Singleton remain concerned primarily with their duties, Alistoun refuses to allow the masts to be severed, which might allow the hull to right itself. Five of the men, realizing that Wait is unaccounted for, climb down to his cabin, when the storm passes and a wind returns, Alistoun directs the weary men to catch the wind, which succeeds in righting the ship. Later in the voyage Alistoun prevents a near-mutiny led by a slippery Cockney named Donkin, Wait eventually succumbs and dies within sight of land, as Singleton had predicted he would.
The work, written in 1896 and partly based on Conrads experiences of a voyage from Bombay to London, began as a short story, as it grew, Conrad began to think of its being serialized. Some years later, in 1904, Conrad described this acceptance as the first event in my life which really counted. In 2009, WordBridge Publishing published a new edition titled The N-Word of the Narcissus, according to the publishers, the offensive word may have led readers to avoid the book, and thus by getting rid of it the work was made more accessible. Although praised by some, others denounced the change as censorship, the novel can be seen as an allegory about isolation and solidarity, the ships company serving as a microcosm of a social group. In his critical study of Conrad, John G. Peters said of the work in 2006, in fact, were it not for the books title, it undoubtedly would be read more often than it is currently. At one time, it was one of Conrads most frequently read books, in part because of its brevity, in part because of its adventure qualities, and in part because of its literary qualities, the novel used to attract a good deal of attention.
The film director Ridley Scott, an admirer of Conrad, named the lifeboat in his science fiction movie Alien, and he named the ship in the movie after Conrads Nostromo
Sir Thomas Henry Hall Caine CH KBE, usually known as Hall Caine, was a British author. He is best known as a novelist and playwright of the late Victorian, in his time, he was exceedingly popular, and, at the peak of his success, his novels outsold those of his contemporaries. Many of his novels were made into films. His novels were romances, involving love triangles, but addressed some of the more serious political and social issues of the day. Caine acted as secretary to Dante Gabriel Rossetti and at one time he aspired to become a man of letters, to this end he published a number of serious works, but these had little success. He was a lover of the Isle of Man and Manx culture, for a time he was a Member of the House of Keys, but he declined to become more deeply involved in Manx politics. A man of striking appearance, he travelled widely and used his travels to provide the settings for some of his novels to good effect. He came into contact with, and was influenced by, many of the personalities of the day.
Caines novels are considered outdated by creators of English literature curricula today, some of his more popular novels have been published as paperbacks in recent years, predominantly for the Manx market catering for tourists to the Isle of Man. Thomas Henry Hall Caine was born on 14 May 1853 at 29 Bridgewater Street, Cheshire, Sarah was born in Whitehaven and descended from an old Quaker family of Ralph Halls, china manufacturer. After living for years in Cumbria the Hall family moved to Liverpool where Sarah. As her husband was a member of the Anglican Church and not a Quaker she lost her connection with the Society of Friends, throughout her life she retained the Quaker simplicity of life and dress. John Caine, a blacksmith, came from the Isle of Man, in the absence of work he emigrated to Liverpool, where he trained as a shipsmith. At the time of Caines birth, he was working temporarily in Runcorn docks, within a few months the family were back in Liverpool, where Caine spent his childhood and youth.
They rented rooms at 14 Rhyl Street, convenient for Liverpool Docks, by 1858 they had moved to number 21. Early in 1862 they moved to 5 Brougham Street, during his childhood Caine was occasionally sent to stay with his grandmother and uncle, William, a butcher-farmer, in their thatched cottage at Ballaugh on the Isle of Man. His grandmother nicknamed him Hommy-Beg, Manx for Little Tommy, the island has a long history of folklore and superstition, passed from generation to generation. When Caine was nine he lost two of his sisters within a year
Henry Graham Greene OM CH, better known by his pen name Graham Greene, was an English novelist regarded by some as one of the great writers of the 20th century. Combining literary acclaim with widespread popularity, Greene acquired an early in his lifetime as a major writer. He was shortlisted, in 1966 and 1967, for the Nobel Prize for Literature, through 67 years of writings, which included over 25 novels, he explored the ambivalent moral and political issues of the modern world, often through a Catholic perspective. Greene was born in Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire into a large, influential family that included the owners of the Greene King Brewery and he boarded at Berkhamsted School in Hertfordshire, where his father taught and became headmaster. Unhappy at the school, he attempted several times. He went up to Balliol College, Oxford, to study history, after graduating, Greene worked first as a private tutor and as a journalist – first on the Nottingham Journal and as a sub-editor on The Times.
He converted to Catholicism in 1926 after meeting his future wife, in life he took to calling himself a Catholic agnostic, or even at times a Catholic atheist. He published his first novel, The Man Within, in 1929 and he supplemented his novelists income with freelance journalism, and book and film reviews. His 1937 film review of Wee Willie Winkie, commented on the sexuality of the nine-year-old star and this provoked Twentieth Century Fox to sue, prompting Greene to live in Mexico until after the trial was over. While in Mexico, Greene developed the ideas for The Power, Greene had a history of depression, which had a profound effect on his writing and personal life. In a letter to his wife, Vivien, he told her that he had a character profoundly antagonistic to ordinary life, and that unfortunately. William Golding described Greene as the chronicler of twentieth-century mans consciousness. He died in 1991, at age 86, of leukaemia, Henry Graham Greene was born in 1904 in St. John’s House, a boarding house of Berkhamsted School, where his father was housemaster.
He was the fourth of six children, his brother, became Director-General of the BBC, and his elder brother, Raymond. Charles Greene was second master at Berkhamsted School, where the headmaster was Dr Thomas Fry, another cousin was the right-wing pacifist Ben Greene, whose politics led to his internment during World War II. In his childhood, Greene spent his summers with his uncle, Sir William, in Greenes description of his childhood, he describes his learning to read there, It was at Harston I found quite suddenly I could read — the book was Dixon Brett, Detective. Graham attended the school as a boarder and profoundly depressed, he made several suicide attempts, including, as he wrote in his autobiography, by Russian roulette and by taking aspirin before going swimming in the school pool. In 1920, aged 16, in what was a step for the time, he was sent for psychoanalysis for six months in London
Frank Nelson Doubleday
Frank Nelson Doubleday, known to friends and family as “Effendi”, founded the eponymous Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897, which operated under other names. Starting work at the age of 14 after his fathers business failed and his son Nelson Doubleday, son-in-law John Turner Sargent, Sr. and grandson Nelson Doubleday, Jr. all worked in the company and led it through different periods. In 1986, after years of changes in the business, his grandson Nelson Doubleday. Frank Doubleday was a native of Brooklyn, New York, the son of William Edwards Doubleday, Frank Doubledays ancestors came to Boston in the early 17th century. Early in life, he became fascinated with the printing business, by the age of ten, he had saved up enough money to buy his own printing press. He earned back the cost by printing advertising and news circulars for local businesses, franks distant relative Ulysses F. Doubleday was a book publisher earlier in the 19th century. When Doubleday was 14, his fathers business failed, the youth had to leave school and find a full-time job.
He went to work at the firm of Charles Scribners Sons in Manhattan for the salary of $3 a week, Doubleday worked 18 years at Scribners, eventually rising to become the publisher of Scribners Magazine and head of Scribners subscription book department. When his relationship with Scribners soured, Doubleday left the company to go into partnership with Samuel S. McClure and they formed the Doubleday & McClure Co. in March 1897. The following year, Doubleday and McClure accepted a contract to manage the publishing house of Harper & Brothers, at the instigation of their banker. On taking control, Doubleday dug thoroughly through Harpers books and decided that the finances were in a shambles, he convinced McClure. On December 31,1899, growing tension between Doubleday and McClure led the two men to dissolve their partnership, the following year, Doubleday invited Walter Hines Page, former editor of The Atlantic Monthly, to join him, the new firm was Doubleday, Page & Co. In 1921, Doubleday bought a controlling interest in the English publisher William Heinemann, in 1927, Doubleday purchased the publishing house of George H.
Doran, and his company became Doubleday, Doran & Co. An anglophile, Frank Doubleday spent many working vacations in England exploring authors and publishers for U. S. editions. His personal friends included James Barrie, Andrew Carnegie, Alfred Harcourt, Edward Mandell House, Rudyard Kipling, T. E. Lawrence, Christopher Morley, through a cousin, he met John D. Rockefeller and either edited or ghost-wrote Rockefellers autobiography. His nickname Effendi was given to him by Rudyard Kipling, who derived it from his initials, Doubleday first married Neltje De Graff, who published several books on gardens and birds. They adopted a boy Felix Doty, had a son Nelson, Nelson Doubleday followed his father into the publishing business and served for years as president of the company, to be followed in 1978 by his own son, Nelson Doubleday, Jr. After Neltjes death, Doubleday married Florence Van Wyck
Nicholas Murray Butler
Nicholas Murray Butler was an American philosopher and educator. Butler was president of Columbia University, president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and he became so well known and respected that The New York Times printed his Christmas greeting to the nation every year. Butler was born in Elizabeth, New Jersey to Mary Butler and he enrolled in Columbia College and joined the Peithologian Society. He earned his bachelor of degree in 1882, his masters degree in 1883. Butlers academic and other achievements led Theodore Roosevelt to call him Nicholas Miraculous, in 1885, Butler studied in Paris and Berlin and became a lifelong friend of future Secretary of State Elihu Root. Through Root he met Roosevelt and William Howard Taft, in the fall of 1885, Butler joined the staff of Columbias philosophy department. From 1890 to 1891, Butler was a lecturer at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, throughout the 1890s Butler served on the New Jersey Board of Education and helped form the College Entrance Examination Board.
In 1901, Butler became acting president of Columbia University, among the many dignitaries in attendance at his investiture was President Roosevelt. Butler was president of Columbia for 43 years, the longest tenure in the universitys history, as president, Butler carried out a major expansion of the campus, adding many new buildings and departments. These additions included Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, the first academic center in the world. In 1937 he was admitted as a member of the New York Society of the Cincinnati. In 1941, the Pulitzer Prize fiction jury selected Ernest Hemingways For Whom the Bell Tolls, during his lifetime, Columbia named its philosophy library for him, after he died, its main academic library, previously known as South Hall, was rechristened Butler Library. A faculty apartment building on 119th Street and Morningside Drive was renamed in Butlers honour, an in-depth look at Butlers time at Columbia University can be found in the The Goose-Step, a Study of American Education, by Upton Sinclair.
Butler was a delegate to each Republican National Convention from 1888 to 1936, in 1912, when Vice President James S. Sherman died a few days before the presidential election, Butler was designated to receive the electoral votes that Sherman would have received. In 1916, Butler tried to secure the Republican presidential nomination for Elihu Root, Butler sought the nomination for himself in 1920 and 1928, without success. Butler believed that Prohibition was a mistake, with effects on the country. He became active in the effort for Repeal in 1933. He credited John W. Burgess along with Alexander Hamilton for providing the basis of his Republican principles
Sarah Grand was an Irish feminist writer active from 1873 to 1922. Her work revolved around the New Woman ideal, Sarah Grand was born Frances Elizabeth Bellenden Clarke in Rosebank House, County Down, Ireland of English parents. Her father was Edward John Bellenden Clarke and her mother was Margaret Bell Sherwood, when her father died, her mother took her and her siblings back to Bridlington, England to be near her family who lived at Rysome Garth near Holmpton in East Yorkshire. Grands education was sporadic, yet she managed with perseverance to make a career for herself as an activist and writer, drawing on her travels. Grand was sent to a school in Kensington, London. Grand and McFalls only child, David Archibald Edward McFall, was born in Sandgate, Kent and he became an actor and took the name Archie Carlaw Grand. From 1873 to 1878 the family travelled in the Far East, in 1879 they moved to Norwich, and in 1881 to Warrington, Lancashire where her husband retired. Upon returning to England and her husband became sexually estranged by her husbands bizarre sexual appetites, Grand felt constrained by her marriage.
She turned to writing, but her first novel, self-published in 1888, enjoyed limited success, she trusted in her new career to support her in her decision to leave her husband in 1890 and move to London. Recently enacted laws that allowed women to retain their property after marriage were an encouraging factor in her decision. Later works would have a sympathetic stance to males, such as Babs the Impossible in which the single noble women would feel resurgence in their worth encouraged by an idealistic self made man. Through her husbands work as a surgeon, Grand learned of the anatomical physiology of the nature of sexually transmitted diseases. She used this knowledge in her 1893 novel The Heavenly Twins, warning of the dangers of syphilis, Clarke renamed herself Sarah Grand in 1893 with the publication by Heinemann of her novel The Heavenly Twins. This feminine pen name represented the archetype of the New Woman developed by her and her female colleagues, Grand established the phrase New Woman in a debate with Ouida in 1894.
Although it gained her mixed and often angry criticism, her work was received by notable authors as George Bernard Shaw. In 1920 she moved to Crowe Hall at Widcombe in Bath, when her home was bombed in 1942, Grand was persuaded to move to Calne in Wiltshire, where she died the following year on 12 May 1943, a month before her 89th birthday. She is buried in Lansdown Cemetery, Somerset, alongside her sister and her son Archie outlived her by only a year, dying in a London air raid in 1944. Her work dealt with the New Woman in fiction and in fact, Grand wrote treatises on the subject of the failure of marriage, the New Woman novel was a development of the late 19th century