Gaius Julius Caesar, known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, military general, historian who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He wrote Latin prose. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed the First Triumvirate, a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years, their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar rose to become one of the most powerful politicians in the Roman Republic through a number of his accomplishments, notably his victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC. During this time, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the English Channel and the Rhine River, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. Caesar's wars extended Rome's territory to past Gaul; these achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC.
With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Leaving his command in Gaul meant losing his immunity from being charged as a criminal for waging unsanctioned wars; as a result, Caesar found himself with no other options but to cross the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. This began Caesar's civil war, his victory in the war put him in an unrivaled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar, he gave citizenship to many residents of far regions of the Roman Empire. He initiated land support for veterans, he centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic and was proclaimed "dictator for life", giving him additional authority. His populist and authoritarian reforms angered the elites. On the Ides of March, 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Marcus Junius Brutus and Decimus Junius Brutus, who stabbed him to death.
A new series of civil wars broke out and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, the era of the Roman Empire began. Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns and from other contemporary sources the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust; the biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history, his cognomen was subsequently adopted as a synonym for "Emperor". He has appeared in literary and artistic works, his political philosophy, known as Caesarism, inspired politicians into the modern era. Gaius Julius Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas the son of the goddess Venus.
The Julii were of Alban origin, mentioned as one of the leading Alban houses, which settled in Rome around the mid-7th century BC, after the destruction of Alba Longa. They were granted patrician status, along with other noble Alban families; the Julii existed at an early period at Bovillae, evidenced by a ancient inscription on an altar in the theatre of that town, which speaks of their offering sacrifices according to the lege Albana, or Alban rites. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor, born by Caesarean section; the Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name. Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesar's father called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia, his sister Julia, Caesar's aunt, married Gaius Marius, one of the most prominent figures in the Republic.
His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesar's childhood. In 85 BC, Caesar's father died so Caesar was the head of the family at 16, his coming of age coincided with a civil war between his uncle Gaius Marius and his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Both sides carried out bloody purges of their political opponents whenever they were in the ascendancy. Marius and his ally Lucius Cornelius Cinna were in control of the city when Caesar was nominated as the new Flamen Dialis, he was married to Cinna's daughter Cornelia. Following Sulla's final victory, Caesar's connections to the old regime made him a target for the new one, he was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry, his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding. The threat against hi
The Gutenberg Bible was among the earliest major books printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe. It marked the start of the age of printed books in the West; the book is valued and revered for its high aesthetic and artistic qualities as well as its historic significance. It is an edition of the Vulgate printed in the 1450s in Latin by Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, in present-day Germany. Forty-nine copies have survived, they are thought to be among the world's most valuable books, although no complete copy has been sold since 1978. In March 1455, the future Pope Pius II wrote that he had seen pages from the Gutenberg Bible displayed in Frankfurt to promote the edition, it is not known. The 36-line Bible, said to be the second printed Bible, is referred to sometimes as a Gutenberg Bible, but may be the work of another printer; the Gutenberg Bible is named after Johannes Gutenberg. Johannes Gutenberg was born in Mainz, Germany on June 24, 1398, he aspired to be a goldsmith when he was a child.
Nothing else is known about Gutenberg's upbringing. In the mid-1400’s, Gutenberg created the printing press, he created the printing press in order to spread the Holy Bible in a more efficient manner, saying that “through it, God will spread His word.” In December of 1452, Gutenberg went into heavy debt after attempting to open a printing shop. He borrowed money from Johann Fust. For the rest of his life, Gutenberg struggled with the debt. There is very little known about the months leading up to Gutenberg’s death. However, it is believed. Gutenberg died at the age of 70 on February 3, 1468; the Gutenberg Bible, an edition of the Vulgate, contains the Latin version of both the Hebrew Old Testament and the Greek New Testament. It is the work of Jerome who began his work on the translation in 380 AD, with emendations from the Parisian Bible tradition, further divergences; the Bible was not Gutenberg's first work. Preparation of the Bible began soon after 1450, the first finished copies were available in 1454 or 1455.
It is not known how long the Bible took to print. The first datable printing is the Gutenberg's 31-line Indulgence, known to exist on 22 October 1454. Gutenberg made three significant changes during the printing process; the first sheets were rubricated by being passed twice through the printing press, using black and red ink. This was soon abandoned, with spaces being left for rubrication to be added by hand; some time after more sheets had been printed, the number of lines per page was increased from 40 to 42 to save paper. Therefore, pages 1 to 9 and pages 256 to 265 the first ones printed, have 40 lines each. Page 10 has 41, from there on the 42 lines appear; the increase in line number was achieved by decreasing the interline spacing, rather than increasing the printed area of the page. The print run was increased, necessitating resetting those pages, printed; the new sheets were all reset to 42 lines per page. There are two distinct settings in folios 1-32 and 129-158 of volume I and folios 1-16 and 162 of volume II.
The most reliable information about the Bible's date comes from a letter. In March 1455, the future Pope Pius II wrote that he had seen pages from the Gutenberg Bible, being displayed to promote the edition, in Frankfurt, it is not known how many copies were printed, with the 1455 letter citing sources for both 158 and 180 copies. Scholars today think that examination of surviving copies suggests that somewhere between 160 and 185 copies were printed, with about three-quarters on paper and the others on vellum. However, some books say that about 180 copies were printed and it took about three years to produce them. In a legal paper, written after completion of the Bible, Johannes Gutenberg refers to the process as Das Werk der Bücher, he had copied the technology of the printing press and was the first European to print with movable type, but his greatest achievement was arguably demonstrating that the process of printing produced books. Many book-lovers have commented on the high standards achieved in the production of the Gutenberg Bible, some describing it as one of the most beautiful books printed.
The quality of both the ink and other materials and the printing itself have been noted. The paper size is'double folio', with two pages printed on each side. After printing the paper was folded once to the size of a single page. Five of these folded sheets were combined to a single physical section, called a quinternion, that could be bound into a book; some sections, had as few as four leaves or as many as 12 leaves. Some sections may have been printed in a larger number those printed in the publishing process, sold unbound; the pages were not numbered. The technique was not new, since it had been used to make blank "white-paper" books to be written afterwards. What was new was determining beforehand the correct placement and orientation of each page on the five sheets to result in the correct sequence when bound; the technique for locating the printed area on each page was new. The 42-line Bible was printed on the size of paper know
Popular prints is a term for printed images of low artistic quality which were sold cheaply in Europe and the New World from the 15th to 18th centuries with text as well as images. They were some of the earliest examples of mass media. After about 1800, the types and quantity of images increased, but other terms are used to categorise them. From about 1400, there began a "visual revolution that inundated Europe with images during the fifteenth century" as the woodcut technique was applied to paper, now manufactured in Christian Europe, instead of being imported from Islamic Spain. In the 15th century, the great majority of these images were religious, if playing cards are excluded, they were sold at churches and places of pilgrimage. Most were coloured crudely, by hand or by stencil. One political cartoon relating to events in 1468-70 has survived in several different versions. Old master print is a term that at this period includes popular prints, but is restricted to more expensive and purely artistic prints.
Although early information as to prices is non-existent, it is clear from a number of sources that small woodcuts were affordable by at least the urban working-class, much of the peasant class as well. During the middle of the century, the quality of the images became very low, but there was an improvement towards the end because it was necessary to keep pace with the quality of images in engravings. Engravings were always much more expensive to create, as they needed greater skill to create the plate, which would last for far fewer impressions than a woodcut, they did not come into the popular prints category until the 19th century, when different techniques made them much cheaper. Broadsheets known as broadsides, were a common format, they were single sheets of paper of various sizes sold by street-vendors. Another format was the chapbook a single sheet cut or folded to make a small pamphlet or book. In Spain there were pliegos, in Portugal the papel volante, in other countries other names.
These covered a great variety of material, including pictures, popular history, political comment or satire, almanacs and songs. They could be influential politically, were subsidized by political factions for propaganda purposes. See Broadside for their musical use; the Reformation hugely increased the market for satirical and polemical prints in all counties affected. In France the Wars of Religion, in England the English Civil War and the political convulsions after the Restoration all produced huge quantities of propaganda and polemic, in images as well as text. Despite being issued in large numbers, their survival rate was low, they are now rare, with most having not survived at all; this has been demonstrated by analysis of the records of the London Stationers Company from 1550 onwards. They were commonly pasted to the walls of rooms. Paper was still sufficiently expensive that all available spare pieces tended to be used in the toilet. One of the biggest surviving collections with 439 prints is Wickiana at the Zentralbibliothek Zürich.
Newspapers began as an upmarket and expensive form of broadsheet. The first in English came in 1620. During this century books became much cheaper, began to replace some types of popular print; these trends continued during the next century, although most of the traditional types of popular print lived on until the 19th century or beyond, they were by part of a much wider print culture, the term is not used of them. One type of publication continuing into the 20th century is the Brazilian cordel literature that continue to use woodcuts, is part of a continuous tradition going back to the Portuguese papel volante of the 17th century. Lubok prints in Russia were another local variant. Political caricature prints for sale as single sheets are found as early as the 15th century, but reached the peak of their popularity in much of Europe in the 18th and early 19th century, before the form migrated into newspapers and magazines. Above all they were popular in England, where a high degree of freedom of the press meant that dedicated print-shops also acting as the publishers, could sell and display scathing images of the Royal Family and government politicians, a business that had to remain "under the counter" in much of Europe.
Old master prints, which covers artistic prints. Line engraving is relevant. Printmaking for all the printmaking techniques. Field, Richard. Fifteenth Century Metalcuts. National Gallery of Art Mayor, A. Hyatt. Prints & people: a social history of printed pictures. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00326-2 Watt, Tessa. Cheap print and popular piety: 1550-1640. Cambridge studies in early modern British history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-38255-6 Prints & People: A Social History of Printed Pictures, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Johannes Mentelin, sometimes spelled Mentlin, was a pioneering German book printer and bookseller active during the period during which incunabula were printed. In 1466, he published the first printed Bible in the Mentelin Bible. In 1447, Johannes Mentelin gained the rights of a Strasbourg citizen, he was first worked in addition as an episcopal notary. When and where he learned the technique of book printing is not known. Since at the end of the 1450s, when Mentelin founded his Strasbourg printery, there was still no other place where printing was done besides Mainz, it is that he either got his knowledge directly there or through a middleman; such a go-between might have been Heinrich Eggestein. It is suspected that he had been introduced to the trade of book printing during his stay in Mainz from Johannes Gutenberg, he did not set up his own Offizin until the middle of the 1460s. Due to a lack of sources, the final clarification of this question must remain unanswered for now. From the available data, it can however be concluded that Mentelin was the first book printer active in Strasbourg before Eggestein.
The first printing which carries Mentelin's name is Augustine's Tractatus de arte praedicandi from the year 1465. However, it is assumed that Mentelin had begun to print earlier even in 1458, his oldest known printed work is a Latin Bible printed with 49 lines per page, whose first volume is dated 1460. As Gutenberg's Bible was printed with 42 lines per page, Mentelin's had fewer pages and proved handier. Mentelin achieved business success, which made him a prosperous man. In 1466, he was awarded a coat of arms by Emperor Frederick III. After about 20 years as a book printer, Mentelin died on December 1478 in Strasbourg, he was buried in the cemetery of the St.-Michael's-Chapel. His grave was removed and is now inside Strasbourg Cathedral, his two daughters married Martin Schott and Adolf Rusch. The latter called the printer with the bizarre R, took over the Offizin. About 40 printed works are ascribed to Mentelin's Strasbourg Offizin, his printing and publishing list contained predominantly theological and philosophical works in Latin, whose purity of text was ensured by scholarly proofreaders.
Among others, works of Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, John Chrysostom, Isidore of Seville and Albertus Magnus were issued. In 1472 he published Nicolaus de Lyra's commentary of the Bible. Mentelin published texts of classical antiquity; as the only German book printer, Mentelin printed Medieval court literature, such as Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival and the Jüngerer Titurel of Albrecht von Scharfenberg. His first printing of a Bible in vernacular language stands out, the so-called Mentelin Bible of 1466, the first attested edition of the full Bible in the German language, translated from the Vulgate, one of the earliest printed works in German; the Mentelin Bible was the basis for a further thirteen pre-Reformation editions of the Bible which appeared in southern Germany before editions of the Luther Bible, based on Hebrew and Greek, from 1522. Geldner, F, Die deutschen Inkunabeldrucker. Ein Handbuch der deutschen Buchdrucker des XV. Jahrhunderts nach Druckorten, 1. Das deutsche Sprachgebiet, Stuttgart: Hiersemann, ISBN 3-7772-6825-9.
Harthausen, H, "Johannes Mentelin", in Corsten, Lexikon des gesamten Buchwesens, V, Stuttgart: Hiersemann, p. 145, ISBN 3-7772-9904-9. Schorbach, Der Straßburger Frühdrucker Johann Mentelin: Studien zu seinem Leben und Werke, Mainz. Voulliéme, E, Die deutschen Drucker des fünfzehnten Jahrhunderts, Berlin: Reichdruckerei. Johannes Mentelin in the Humanist Library of Sélestat Biblia Latina. Archive.org. 1. Johannes Mentelin. 1460. P. 432. Archived from the original on 2018-10-13. Retrieved 2018-10-13. Johannes Mentelin In Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Vol. 21, p. 370. In German Mentelin in the Catholic Encyclopedia Inkunabelkatalog Deutscher Bibliotheken: List of the printed works of Mentelin accessible. In German
Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III, born Lotario dei Conti di Segni reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216. Pope Innocent was one of the most influential of the medieval popes, he exerted a wide influence over the Christian states of Europe, claiming supremacy over all of Europe's kings. He was central in supporting the Catholic Church's reforms of ecclesiastical affairs through his decretals and the Fourth Lateran Council; this resulted in a considerable refinement of Western canon law. He is furthermore notable for using interdict and other censures to compel princes to obey his decisions, although these measures were not uniformly successful. Innocent extended the scope of the crusades, directing crusades against Muslim Spain and the Holy Land as well as the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars in southern France, he organized the Fourth Crusade of 1202 -- 1204. Although the attack on Constantinople went against his explicit orders, the Crusaders were subsequently excommunicated, Innocent reluctantly accepted this result, seeing it as the will of God to reunite the Latin and Orthodox Churches.
In the event, the sack of Constantinople and the subsequent period of Frankokratia led to an increase in the hostility between the Latin and Greek churches. The Byzantine empire was restored in 1261 but it never regained its former strength until its final destruction in 1453. Lotario de' Conti was born in Gavignano, near Anagni, his father was Count Trasimund of Segni and was a member of a famous house, Conti di Segni, which produced nine popes, including Gregory IX, Alexander IV and Innocent XIII. Lotario was the nephew of Pope Clement III. Lotario received his early education in Rome at the Benedictine abbey of St Andrea al Celio, under Peter Ismael; as Pope, Lotario was to play a major role in the shaping of canon law through conciliar canons and decretal letters. Shortly after the death of Alexander III Lotario returned to Rome and held various ecclesiastical offices during the short reigns of Lucius III, Urban III, Gregory VIII, Clement III, reaching the rank of Cardinal-Deacon in 1190.
As a cardinal, Lotario wrote De miseria humanae conditionis. The work was popular for centuries, surviving in more than 700 manuscripts. Although he never returned to the complementary work he intended to write, On the Dignity of Human Nature, Bartolomeo Facio took up the task writing De excellentia ac praestantia hominis. Celestine III died on 8 January 1198. Before his death he had urged the College of Cardinals to elect Giovanni di San Paolo as his successor, but Lotario de' Conti was elected pope in the ruins of the ancient Septizodium, near the Circus Maximus in Rome after only two ballots on the day on which Celestine III died, he was only thirty-seven years old at the time. He took the name Innocent III, maybe as a reference to his predecessor Innocent II, who had succeeded in asserting the Papacy's authority over the emperor; as pope, Innocent III began with a wide sense of his responsibility and of his authority. During the reign of Pope Innocent III, the papacy was at the height of its powers.
He was considered to be the most powerful person in Europe at the time. In 1198, Innocent wrote to the prefect Acerbius and the nobles of Tuscany expressing his support of the medieval political theory of the sun and the moon, his papacy asserted the absolute spiritual authority of his office, while still respecting the temporal authority of kings. The Muslim recapture of Jerusalem in 1187 was to him a divine judgment on the moral lapses of Christian princes, he was determined to protect what he called "the liberty of the Church" from inroads by secular princes. This determination meant, among other things, that princes should not be involved in the selection of bishops, it was focused on the "patrimonium" of the papacy, the section of central Italy claimed by the popes and called the Papal States; the patrimonium was threatened by Hohenstaufen German kings who, as Roman emperors, claimed it for themselves. The Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI expected to be succeeded by his infant son Frederick as king of Sicily, king of the Germans, Roman Emperor, a combination that would have brought Germany and Sicily under a single ruler and left the patrimonium exceedingly vulnerable.
The early death of Henry VI left his 3-year-old son Frederick II as king. Henry VI's widow Constance of Sicily ruled over Sicily for her young son before he reached the age of majority, she was as eager to remove German power from the kingdom of Sicily as was Innocent III. Before her death in 1198, she named Innocent as guardian of the young Frederick until he reached his maturity. In exchange, Innocent was able to recover papal rights in Sicily, surrendered decades earlier to King William I of Sicily by Pope Adrian IV; the Pope invested the young Frederick II as King of Sicily in November 1198. He later induced Frederick II to marry the widow of King Emeric of Hungary in 1209. Innocent was concerned that the marriage of Henry VI and Constance of Sicily gave the Hohenstaufens a claim to all the Italian peninsula with the exception of the Papal States, which would be surrounded by Imperial territory. After the death of Emperor Henry VI, who had also conque
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as an academic discipline in universities and seminaries. Theology is the study of deities or their scriptures in order to discover what they have revealed about themselves, it occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but especially with epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship. Theology is derived from the Greek theologia, which derived from Τheos, meaning "God", -logia, meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles" which had passed into Latin as theologia and into French as théologie.
The English equivalent "theology" had evolved by 1362. The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medieval Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; the term can, however, be used for a variety of fields of study. Theology begins with the assumption that the divine exists in some form, such as in physical, mental, or social realities, that evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences or historical records of such experiences as documented by others; the study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion, through the psychology of religion and neurotheology. Theology aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives.
Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument to help understand, test, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics. As in philosophy of ethics and case law, arguments assume the existence of resolved questions, develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations; the study of theology may help a theologian more understand their own religious tradition, another religious tradition, or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition. Theology may be used to propagate, reform, or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare, challenge, or oppose a religious tradition or world-view. Theology might help a theologian address some present situation or need through a religious tradition, or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world. Greek theologia was used with the meaning "discourse on god" in the fourth century BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii, Ch. 18. Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy into mathematike and theologike, with the last corresponding to metaphysics, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine.
Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical and civil. Theologos related to theologia, appears once in some biblical manuscripts, in the heading to the Book of Revelation: apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy, "the revelation of John the theologos". There, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but—using a different sense of the root logos, meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message"—one who speaks the words of God, logoi toy theoy; some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine, followed Varro's threefold usage, though Augustine used the term more to mean'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity'In patristic Greek Christian sources, theologia could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, teaching about, the essential nature of God. The Latin author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality.
Boethius' definition influenced medieval Latin usage. In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion, or the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition. In the Renaissance with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority, it is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website