John William Douglas
John William Douglas was an English entomologist, chiefly interested in microlepidoptera John William Douglas was born 1814 in Putney. He became interested in insects whilst working at Kew Gardens and published many papers and books on entomology, his most important work was The Natural History of the Tineina with the German Philipp Christoph Zeller, Englishman Henry Tibbats Stainton and a Swiss, Heinrich Frey. The Natural History of the Tineina appeared in English, French and Latin editions. Although his main interest was the Lepidoptera, Douglas was joint author of the work British Hemiptera Vol.1. Hemiptera-Heteroptera, he was a one-time president of the Royal Entomological Society and editor of The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. Douglas was a keen promoter of entomology among the young, he died in 1905 in Garlesden. The World of Insects. London, 1856. With John Scott; the British Hemiptera. With HT Stainton, PC Zeller, JW Douglas and Frey, H The Natural History of the Tineina 13 volumes, 2000 pages English French and Latin editions..1855-1873.
Vol. I. 1855. John William Douglas’ British Coleoptera and Hemiptera British Macrolepidoptera and Microlepidoptera are in the Natural History Museum, London. Anon. 1905 Ent. Rec. J. Var. 17: 246 - 248. Merrifield, F. 1905 Trans. Ent. Soc. London 1905: LXXXV - LXXXVI. Newman, E. 1905 Entomologist 38: 264. Saunders, E. 1905 Ent. monthly Mag. 41: 221 - 222. Dale, C. W. 1905 Ent. monthly Mag. 42: 16. Gaedike, R..
University of Zurich
The University of Zurich, located in the city of Zürich, is the largest university in Switzerland, with over 25,000 students. It was founded in 1833 from the existing colleges of theology, medicine and a new faculty of philosophy; the university has seven faculties: Philosophy, Human Medicine, Economic Sciences, Law and Natural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine. The university offers the widest range of subjects and courses of any Swiss higher education institution; as of October 2018, 23 Nobel laureates and 1 Turing Award winner have been affiliated with University of Zurich as alumni, faculty or researchers. The University of Zurich was founded on April 29, 1833, when the existing colleges of theology, the Carolinum founded by Huldrych Zwingli in 1525, law and medicine were merged with a new faculty of Philosophy, it was the first university in Europe to be founded by the state rather than a church. In the University's early years, the 1839 appointment of the German theologian David Friedrich Strauss to its Chair of Theology caused a major controversy, since Strauss argued that the miracles in the Christian New Testament were mythical retellings of normal events as supernatural happenings.
The authorities offered Strauss a pension before he had a chance to start his duties. The university allowed women to attend philosophy lectures from 1847, admitted the first female doctoral student in 1866; the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine was added in the second-oldest such faculty in the world. In 1914, the university moved to new premises designed by the architect Karl Moser on Rämistrasse 71; the university is scattered all over the city of Zurich. Members of the university can use several libraries, including the ETH-library, the Zurich Central Library, with over 5 million volumes. In 1962, the faculty of science proposed to establish the Irchelpark campus on the Strickhofareal; the first stage the construction of the university buildings was begun in 1973, the campus was inaugurated in 1979. The construction of the second stage lasted from 1978 to 1983; the campus houses the anthropological museum Anthropologisches Museum, the cantonal Staatsarchiv Zürich. The Institute and Museum for the History of Medicine is part of the university.
The University of Zurich as a whole ranks in the top ten of Europe and in the top fifty worldwide. Notably in the fields of bioscience and finance, there is a close-knit collaboration between the University of Zurich and the ETH, their faculty of chiropractic medicine is six years. Shanghai Jiao Tong University Ranking 54th 15th in Europe. THES – QS World University Rankings 61st globally and 14th in Europe. QS World University Rankings 201457th globally. Professional Ranking of World Universities 10th in Europe. University Ranking by Academic Performance 201052nd globally and 1st in Switzerland; the university’s Department of Economics is strong and was ranked first in the German-speaking area by the Handelsblatt in 2017. In 2009 the faculty of Business Administration was ranked third in the German-speaking area. Bachelor courses are taught in Swiss Standard German, but use of English is increasing in many faculties; the only bachelors program taught in English is the "English Language and Literature" program.
All Master courses at the Faculty of Science are held in English. Master courses in Economics and Finance are held in English, while the Master of Science in Quantitative Finance is held in English. Rolf Pfeifer – Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, IFI Albert Hofmann - Medicinal Chemistry Albert Einstein - Physics and Philosophy The university's Academic Sports Association offers a wide range of sports facilities to students of the university. Associated with the university are 12 Nobel Prize recipients in Physics and Chemistry. Corpus Córporum, digital library created and maintained by the University's Institute for Greek and Latin Philology. Swiss National Supercomputing Centre List of largest universities by enrollment in Switzerland List of modern universities in Europe Union of students' associations of the University of Zurich The Ranking Forum of Swiss Universities
The Swiss are the citizens of Switzerland or people of Swiss ancestry. The number of Swiss nationals has grown from 1.7 million in 1815 to 7 million in 2016. More than 1.5 million Swiss citizens hold multiple citizenship. About 11% of citizens live abroad. About 60% of those living abroad reside in the European Union; the largest groups of Swiss descendants and nationals outside Europe are found in the United States and Canada. Although the modern state of Switzerland originated in 1848, the period of romantic nationalism, it is not a nation-state, the Swiss are not considered to form a single ethnic group, but a confederacy or Willensnation, a term coined in conscious contrast to "nation" in the conventionally linguistic or ethnic sense of the term; the demonym Swiss and the name of Switzerland derive from the toponym Schwyz, have been in widespread use to refer to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 16th century. The ethno-linguistic composition of the territories of modern Switzerland includes the following components: The German-speaking Swiss, i.e. Alemannic German amalgamated from the Gallo-Roman population and the Alemanni.
Related German-speaking peoples are the Alsatians, the Swabians and the Vorarlbergians. German speakers accounted for 63% of population as of 2015. Speakers of High Alemannic divided into an Eastern and a Western subgroup, with most dialects of Aargau and Lucerne transitional between the groups. Speakers of Low Alemannic in Basel and the Lake Constance area Speakers of Highest Alemannic in the Bernese Oberland, Upper Valais and the Walser settlements in Central Switzerland and Ticino The French-speaking Swiss, traditionally speaking Franco-Provençal dialects, today assimilated to the standard French language, amalgamated from the Gallo-Roman population and Burgundians. Romands are considered a distinct Romance people, they are related to the French. They are referred to as Welsche in Swiss German. French speakers accounted for 23% of population as of 2015; the Italian-speaking Swiss, traditionally speakers of Lombard language today assimilated to the standard Italian language, amalgamated from Raetians and Lombards.
They are related to the Italians. Italian-speakers accounted for 8.4% of population as of 2015. The Romansh, speakers of the Romansh language, settling in parts of the Grisons of Raetic stock. Romansh speakers accounted for 0.6% of population as of 2015. The core Eight Cantons of the Swiss Confederacy were Alemannic-speaking, German speakers remain the majority. However, from as early as the 15th century, parts of French-speaking Vaud and Italian-speaking Ticino were acquired as subject territories by Berne and Uri, respectively; the Swiss Romandie was formed by the accession of French-speaking Geneva and Neuchâtel and the francophone Valais and Bernese Jura to the Restored Swiss Confederacy in 1815. Romansh was considered a group of Italian dialects, but Switzerland declared Romansh a national language in 1938 in reaction to the fascist Italian irredentism at the time; as elsewhere in Western Europe, immigration to Switzerland has increased since the 1960s, so that a large proportion of the resident population of Switzerland are now not descended or only descended from the core ethno-linguistic groups listed above.
As of 2011, 37% of total resident population of Switzerland had immigrant background. As of 2016, the most used foreign languages were English, Albanian, Serbo-Croat and Spanish, all named as a "main language" by more than 2% of total population; the Swiss populace derives from an amalgamation of Gallic or Gallo-Roman and Rhaetic stock. Their cultural history is dominated by the Alps, the alpine environment is cited as an important factor in the formation of the Swiss national character. For example, the "Swiss illness", the condition of Swiss mercenaries pining for their mountainous native home, became prototypical of the medical condition of nostalgia described in the 17th century. In early modern Switzerland, the Swiss Confederacy was a pact between independent states within the Holy Roman Empire; the populations of the states of Central Switzerland considered themselves ethnically or racially separate: Martin Zeiller in Topographia Germaniae reports a racial division within the canton of Unterwalden, the population of Obwalden being identified as "Romans", that of Nidwalden as "Cimbri", while the people of Schwyz were identified as of Swedish ancestry, the people of Uri were identified as "Huns or Goths".
Modern Switzerland is atypical in its successful political integration of a multiethnic and multilingual populace, is cited as a model for new efforts at creating unification, as in the European Union's frequent invocation of the Swiss Confederate model. Because the various populations of Switzerland share language and religion not with each other bu
Henry Tibbats Stainton
Henry Tibbats Stainton was an English entomologist. He was educated at King's College London, he was the author of A Manual of British Butterflies and Moths and with the German entomologist Philipp Christoph Zeller, a Swiss, Heinrich Frey and another Englishman, John William Douglas of The Natural History of the Tineina. He undertook editing William Buckler and John Hellins work, following their deaths: The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. Stainton was a wealthy man and his house in Lewisham, "Mountsfield", was one of London's more substantial residences set in its own park. Other wealthy entomologists stayed at Mountsfield when visiting London, notably Alexander Henry Haliday and Deiterich Carl August Dohrn; the zoologist Nicholas Aylward Vigors was a close friend. Such people, sought by the growing number of scientific societies, wielded enormous influence on scientific development. Stainton was a regular visitor to Dohrn's in Stettin, he was a member of both the Stettin Entomological Society.
Besides this, from 1856, he encouraged interest in entomology among the wider public by holding weekly'open evenings' at his house. Anyone over the age of 14 could visit Mountsfield on such evenings to have a specimen identified. Stainton's manuscripts, letters etc in the Natural History Museum, London Stainton, Henry Tibbats, entomologist by Yolanda Foote in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography 1855-73 BHL The natural history of the Tineina (with Douglas, J. W. Frey, H. and Zeller, P. C. London, J. Van Voorst 1869 BHL The Tineina of Southern Europe London, J. Van Voorst 1872 BHLThe Tineina of North America, by Dr. Brackenridge Clemens. With notes by the editor, H. T. Stainton London,J. Van Voorst,1872
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC