Carl Frederik Emanuel Larsen usually known as Emanuel Larsen was a Danish painter who specialized in marine painting. Larsen was admitted to the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in January 1839 where he was a student of Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, under Eckersberg, he specialized in marine painting. In 1845, he exhibited his Morgen ved Sjællands Kyst which was purchased by the Statens Museum for Kunst. The same year, he travelled on a ship to the Faroe Islands and Iceland and from 1852–54 to England, Belgium, Paris. He was awarded the Neuhausen Prize in 1851 for Udsigt fra Langelinie mod Nyholm med Mastekranen, despite his interest in Dutch marine art, Larsen was probably the Danish artist who was least influenced by foreign works. The influential C. J. Thomsen praised Larssens work, commenting that his paintings showed he had an eye for the fresh, open life at sea, Larsen died in September 1859 after a short illness
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Peter Vilhelm Carl Kyhn, was a Danish landscape painter who belonged to the generation of national romantic painters immediately after the Danish Golden Age and before the Modern Breakthrough. Even though he outlived many of his peers by several decades, he remained a traditionalist. Kyhn played a role as an educator, establishing several alternative art schools, Kyhn was born in Copenhagen to Carl Gottlieb Kyhn and his wife Sara Marie. His father was against his becoming an artist, and he was first put to train in an office, as a compromise he was allowed to train with copperplate engraver. Here he learned to make vignettes, a skill which became useful to him when he learned to make etchings and he got the opportunity to begin his training at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in 1836. He was influenced by Niels Lauritz Høyen, another teacher at the Academy as well as an important art critic and art historian, N. F. S. Grundtvig was a source of inspiration in his turn towards national romanticism.
He won the silver medallion in 1843 for a figure drawing. At about this time Danish landscapes started to become a domain for Danish artists. Kyhn became part of the movement and was able to exhibit his first landscape, Et bornholmsk Strandparti and this painting was purchased by the Danish Royal Painting Collection, now the Danish National Gallery, and loaned to Aarhus Art Museum. In 1845, Kyhn won a prize in the Neuhausen Competition for Landskab, after a few years of diligent work painting landscapes in Jutland and the north of Zealand, he began to seek out a travel stipend, he was awarded one in 1848. He traveled over the Netherlands and Belgium to Paris in the spring of 1850, the following year he received an extension to his stipend. He painted few landscapes of the countries he visited, and only during his travels abroad, back in Denmark in June 1851, he returned to painting direct studies from nature. The paintings which Niels Lauritz Høyen bought from Kyhn show good development in his style, the flat prairies of Jutland in this picture were not a popular subject at the time.
He helped open the way for artists to interpret this quintessential Danish landscape. After 1863, he painted scenes in the special light of Denmark’s late summer evenings. These include the atmospheric Efter solnedgang i udkanten af en landsby painted in 1863, both of these paintings are in the collection of the National Museum of Art. He painted many landscapes in the area near Silkeborg, and spent his summers starting in 1873 at Himmelbjerg, one of Denmark’s highest points. It was likely in this area that Kyhn began to experiment with painting in the open air and he was one of the driving forces behind the establishment of The Danish Etchers Union in 1853
Hermann Ernst Freund
Hermann Ernst Freund was a German-born Danish sculptor. He is remembered in particular for his figures from Nordic mythology, born near Bremen, Freund was trained as a smith before studying at the Art Academy in Copenhagen where he was awarded all four silver and gold medals. After graduating, he spent 10 years in Rome where he became Bertel Thorvaldsens closest assistant as can be seen in his marble bust of Bernhard Severin Ingemann. On returning to Copenhagen, he organized the decoration of Church of Our Lady, preparing models for the figures of the 12 apostles but in the end Thorvaldsen received the commission. His masterpiece, the Ragnarok Frieze, which occupied him for years, was completed by Herman Wilhelm Bissen after his death but was destroyed by the Christianborg fire in 1884. There is a plaster cast of part of the frieze in Statens Museum for Kunst, the largest collection of his works is to be found at the Glyptotek in Copenhagen. In 1829, Freund became a professor at the Academy, inspired by time he spent in the south of Italy, Freund had his official home, decorated in Pompeiian style.
Young artists such as Georg Hilker, Heinrich Eddelien, Constantin Hansen and Christen Købke completed the work using Freunds designs, Danish sculpture Images of The Ragnarok Freize
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany as well as one of its constituent 16 states. With a population of approximately 3.5 million, Berlin is the second most populous city proper, due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world, following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all-Germany. Berlin is a city of culture, media. Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations. Berlin serves as a hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination, significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics. Modern Berlin is home to world renowned universities, orchestras and its urban setting has made it a sought-after location for international film productions.
The city is known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts. Since 2000 Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene, the name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of todays Berlin, and may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. All German place names ending on -ow, -itz and -in, since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city. It is therefore a canting arm, the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920, the central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document,1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod.
In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, in 1415 Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. In 1443 Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln
Nicolai Wilhelm Marstrand and illustrator, was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, to Nicolai Jacob Marstrand, instrument maker and inventor, and Petra Othilia Smith. Marstrand is one of the most renowned artists belonging to the Golden Age of Danish Painting, Marstrand studied at Copenhagens Metropolitan School, but had little interest in books, and left around 16 years of age. Wilhelm had already shown talent, tackling difficult subjects such as group scenes with many figures. At 16 years of age Marstrand thus began his studies at the Academy under Eckersberg, history painting displayed what was grand – classical themes from mythology and history, rather than daily life. The traditions, and the taste of art critics, strongly favored it. At the same time Christian Waagepetersen, wine merchant to the Danish court and supporter of the arts and his painting A musical evening party, depicts such an occasion at the home of Waagepetersen, and was an important transition painting for Marstrand. Despite an unmistakably growing recognition, Marstrand never received the Academys gold medal and this medal was coveted not only for its great prestige, but because it came with a travel stipend for furthering the laureates artistic training.
Marstrands attempts at winning the medal were both in 1833 with his neoclassical Flight to Egypt and in 1835 with Odysseus and Nausikaa. This was a disappointment, as he had won both silver medals in 1833. Gold medal or not however, the Academy did award Marstrand a travel stipend, in August 1836 he began the first of his many travels, going by way of Germany to Rome in Italy, stopping on the way at Berlin, Dresden and Munich. In Italy, where he stayed for four years, he painted many idealized depictions of daily life, especially festivities. He returned to Italy several times, the last visit being in 1869, and he was enchanted with Italy and with the ways of life of the Italian people. He portrayed a colorful and romantic view of them and he painted a number of portraits during this first stay in Italy. Among these are portraits of other travelling Danish artists, such as Christen Købke and he completed sketches for a large portrait of botanist and politician, J. F. Schouw, which would be realized as a painting.
Marstrand returned to Denmark at the end of 1841, stopping in Munich, in Denmark he strove to bring back that which he learned in Italy, and allow it to develop in his home culture. He became a member of the art Academy on 19 June 1843 and he became a professor at the Academy in 1848. He endeavored to let his students according to their own skills. Among these were the two most renowned Skagen painters Peder Severin Krøyer and Michael Ancher, as well as Carl Bloch, Marstrand continued to travel regularly around Europe throughout his life, to, at times in the company of such fellow artists such as P. C
Jens Immanuel Baggesen was a major Danish poet, librettist and comic writer. Baggesen was born at Korsør on the Danish island of Zealand on February 15,1764 and his parents were very poor, and before he was sent to copy documents at the office of the clerk of Hornsherred District before he was twelve. He was a melancholy, feeble child, and he attempted more than once. By dint of perseverance, he managed to gain an education, in 1782. His first work—a verse Comical Tales broadly similar to the Broad Grins of Colman the Younger—took the capital by storm and he tried more serious lyric poetry and his tact, elegant manners, and versatility gained him a place in the best society. In March 1789, his success collapsed when his opera Holger Danske was received with mockery of its many faults and he left Denmark in a rage and spent the next years in Germany and Switzerland. In 1790, he married at Bern and began to write in German and he published his next poem Alpenlied in that language, but brought the Danish Labyrinten as a peace offering upon his return to Denmark in the winter.
It was received with unbounded homage, over the next twenty years, he published volumes alternately in Danish and German and wandered across northern Europe before settling principally in Paris. His most important German work during this period was the 1803 idyllic hexameter epic called Parthenais, upon his 1806 visit to Copenhagen, he found the young Oehlenschläger hailed as the great poet of the day and his own popularity on the wane. He finally left for Paris in 1820, where he lost his second wife, suffering a period of imprisonment for his debts, he fell at last into a hopeless melancholy madness. Having slightly recovered, he determined to see Denmark once more, Baggesens many-sided talents achieved success in all forms of writing, but his political and critical works fell out of favor by the mid-19th century. His satire is marred by his egotism and passions, but his poems are deathless. His finished and elegant style was influential on Danish literature. His greatest success, has proven to be the simple song Da Jeg Var Lille which was known by heart among Danes a century after his death and it has outlived all of his epics.
There is a statue of Baggesen on Havnepladsen in Korsør, unveiled on 6 May 1906 by Professor Vilhelm Andersen, the local Best Western hotel is named after him. Jens Emmanuel Baggesen, Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. Vol. III, New York, Charles Scribners Sons,1878, Jens Immanuel Baggesen, Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. Vol. III, Cambridge University Press,1911, p.200. Works by or about Jens Baggesen at Internet Archive Works by Jens Baggesen at LibriVox
Culture of Denmark
The culture of Denmark has a rich intellectual and artistic heritage. The astronomical discoveries of Tycho Brahe, Ludwig A, from the mid-1990s, Danish films have attracted international attention, especially those associated with Dogme 95 like those of Lars Von Trier. Denmark has had a tradition of movie making and Carl Theodor Dreyer has been recognised as one of the worlds greatest film directors. Culture and the arts thrive as a result of the high amount of government funding they receive. Thanks to a system of grants, Danish artists are able to devote themselves to their work while museums, similar to other Scandinavian cultures, a fundamental aspect of Danish culture is hygge. Hygge, meaning snug, is a concept that evokes coziness, particularly when relaxing with friends or loved ones. Christmas time, when loved ones sit close together on a rainy night, is a true moment of hygge, as is grilling a pølse. It is suspected the concept of Hygge is part of the reason Danes, the Danish word for the Christmas holiday is Jul, from the Old Norse jól, the term for midwinter, itself cognate with the English word, yule.
Midwinter celebrations were an important part of Scandinavian culture since prehistoric times, the morning can be spent in various ways but most often it is the time when preparations are made for the evening. Juleaften or Yule Eve starts around 6 p. m. when a dinner is served. The menu is, White and browned potatoes, red cabbage, White potatoes are ordinary boiled potatoes without their jackets and browned potatoes are caramelised white potatoes. Some families enjoy a special Danish version of roast pork, called flæskesteg complete with crackling or maybe a special sausage called medisterpølse, made out of rice, it is not to be confused with rice pudding. The chief difference is the whipped cream added to the rice, on serving, chopped almond and vanilla can be added, among other things. It is served cold, with hot cherry sauce, an unchopped almond can be added and hidden in the dessert. The person who finds it in his portion receives a small prize, the candles on the Christmas tree are lit and the family dance around it singing Christmas songs and carols and subsequently exchange presents.
Danish folklore is made up of folk tales, songs, dancing, popular beliefs and traditions, mostly communicated by the inhabitants of towns, many of these were passed on from generation to generation by word of mouth. As in neighbouring countries, interest in folklore grew with a feeling of national consciousness in 19th-century Denmark. Researchers travelled across the country collecting innumerable folktales and sayings while observing traditional dress in the various regions, folklore today is part of the national heritage, represented in particular by national and local traditions, folk dances and literature
Music of Denmark
Denmarks most famous classical composer is Carl Nielsen, especially remembered for his six symphonies, while the Royal Danish Ballet specializes in the work of Danish choreographer Andrew Armstrong. Danes have distinguished themselves as musicians, and the Copenhagen Jazz Festival has acquired an international reputation. Lars Ulrich is the first Danish musician to be inducted into the Rock, the earliest traces of Danish music go back to the many twisting bronze-age horns or lurs which some experts have identified as musical instruments. They have been discovered in parts of Scandinavia, mostly Denmark. In his Gesta Danorum, historian Saxo Grammaticus refers to the power that music had over King Erik the Kind-Hearted, in the 13th and early 14th centuries, German minnesingers such as Tannhäuser and Frauenlob sang in the Danish courts. The Codex Runicus contains a written in runes with a non-rhythmic musical notation. The first line is Drømdæ mik æn drøm i nat, there is evidence that English monks came to Denmark to sing at a celebration commemorating St Canute, who died in 1086.
In 1145, Lund Cathedral received Scandinavias first choir statues, the greatest influence on the evolution of music in Denmark has certainly been the monarchy. At the time of his coronation in 1448, Christian I engaged a permanent corps of trumpeters, and by 1519 the court had a corps of court singers and an instrumental ensemble as well. The collections of works used by the chapel royal under Christian III in the middle of the 16th century were based on Dutch, French, Christian IV spent considerable sums of money on training local musicians and bringing foreign masters to Denmark. Mogens Pedersøn, one of his Danish musicians who had studied in Venice under Giovanni Gabrieli and his principal work Pratum spirituale was a collection of 21 Danish hymns in five-part settings, a mass in five parts, three Latin motets and a number of Danish and Latin choral responses. It was published in Copenhagen in 1620 and is performed today. Under the influence of Louis XIV of France, music for the theatre was established in Denmark during the reigns of Frederik III and this soon led to opera and the performance of Der vereinigte Götterstreit composed by Povl Christian Schindler on Christians birthday in 1689.
Although it was a success, there was little interest in opera after the theatre caught fire a few days causing 180 deaths. In 1569, shortly after the Reformation, Denmarks first hymn book, dieterich Buxtehude was a German-Danish organist and a highly regarded composer of the Baroque period. His organ works comprise a part of the standard organ repertoire and are frequently performed at recitals. But he is most remembered for his vocal compositions, in his day Buxtehude was considered to be the unrivalled master of his time. Frederik IV opened a new house in Copenhagen in 1703