Safford is a city in Graham County, United States. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 9,566; the city is the county seat of Graham County. Safford is the principal city of the Safford Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Graham county. Safford is located at 32°49′24″N 109°42′53″W; the Pinaleno Mountains sit prominently to the southwest of town. The Pinalenos have the greatest vertical relief of any mountain range in Arizona. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.6 square miles, of which, 8.6 square miles of it is land and 0.03 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 9,566 people, 3,385 households, 2,358 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,112.3 people per square mile. There were 3,908 housing units at an average density of 454.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.4% White, 1.2% Black or African American, 1.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 11.1% from other races, 3.7% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 43.6% of the population. There were 3,385 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.0% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.31. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.0% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. The median income for a household in the city from 2000 census was $29,899, the median income for a family was $36,696. Males had a median income of $35,915 versus $20,138 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,052.
About 13.9% of families and 17.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.5% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. The climate is cold semi-arid softened by the plateau rise, it is much hotter than most places in eastern Arizona due to its low elevation of 2,953 feet at the Agricultural Center where records are kept, reaches temperatures as hot as found in Phoenix. In January, the average high temperature is 60 °F or 15.6 °C with a low of 29 °F or −1.7 °C. In July, the average high temperature is 98 °F or 36.7 °C with a low of 68 °F or 20 °C. Annual precipitation averages around 9.8 inches, snowfall is exceptionally rare: the mean is around 0.8 inches but the median is zero. Monastery of St. Paisius, Safford is an Orthodox women's coenobitic community in Safford, Arizona which follows the traditional rule of monastic life; the monastery, under the jurisdiction of the Serbian Orthodox Church, is situated in the High Sonoran Desert at the base of Mount Graham.
Safford was founded by Joshua Eaton Bailey, Hiram Kennedy, Edward Tuttle, who came from Gila Bend, in southwestern Arizona. They left Gila Bend in the winter of 1873-74. Upon arrival early in 1874, the villagers laid out the town site, including a few crude buildings; the town is named after Arizona Territorial Governor Anson P. K. Safford; the Town of Safford was incorporated October 10, 1901, changed to City of Safford in 1955. The city's largest employers are Freeport-McMoRan Copper and Gold, Safford Unified Schools, DRG Technologies Inc, Bowman Consulting Group, Open Loop Energy and Walmart. Freeport-McMoRan opened two mining facilities just north of the city that make up the largest new mining operation in North America. Arizona State Prison Complex - Safford employs many residents, as does the Federal Correctional Institution, Safford. Agriculture is considered to be a main economic product with cotton fields and a gin located in the city. A billboard along US Highway 70 announces "Safford....
Copper, Cattle & Cotton". The community is served by a freight rail line, the Arizona Eastern Railway, hosts an air facility, Safford Regional Airport. Additionally the Arizona Department of Transportation is upgrading U. S. Route 191 from Interstate 10 into a full four-lane highway. ADOT is considering putting a U. S. Route 70 loop south of the city that would run from Swift Trail Junction to Thatcher; the Safford Unified School District serves the entire city of some minor outlying areas. The nearby Eastern Arizona College provides higher education services, a University of Arizona agricultural extension is located to the east of the city. Legislation has been suggested in state committee to transform the nearby Eastern Arizona College from its present status as a two-year community college into a full four-year educational institution. Safford is home to the Eastern Arizona College's Discovery Park Campus, a unique public educational destination facility that provides tours of the world-class telescopes at the Mt. Graham International Observatory, a public access observatory with a research grade 20" Cassagrain telescope, the World's largest permanent mount "Camera Obscura", a full motion Shuttle simulator that takes you on an exciting ride through the Milky Way galaxy, galleries of historical artifacts from Graham County and the "History of Astronomy" Gallery, as well as a beautifully restored Sonoran riparia
Mount Graham is a mountain in southeastern Arizona in the United States 70 miles northeast of Tucson. The mountain reaches 10,724 feet in height, it is the highest elevation in Graham County, Coronado National Forest and the Pinaleño Mountains As the name "Mount Graham" is used by locals to refer to the entire mountain range, the peak itself is referred to as "High Peak". It is twentieth of the 57 ultra prominent peaks of the lower 48 states, the first of the five in Arizona. Mount Graham summits are headwaters for numerous perennial streams that tumble through five major botanical zones. Located between the southern Rocky Mountains and Mexico's Sierra Madre Occidental, biologically isolated for millennia, the higher elevations have provided refuge for relict populations of plants and animals with adaptive strategies rooted in Pleistocene ice age environmental conditions. Of particular note are stands of the oldest conifer trees in the U. S. Southwest and associated habitats for threatened and endangered species the Mount Graham Red Squirrel.
Located near the northern limit of the Chiricahua Apache homeland and the southern margins of Western Apache territory, the range is one of the Western Apache's four holiest mountains and is considered sacred by all of the region's Native peoples. Since a determination by the Keeper of the Register in 2002, Dził Nchaa Sí'an, as it is known in the Western Apache language, ranks as the largest and most extensive property listed on or formally determined eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. In 1993, the St. Paisius Orthodox Monastery was founded at the base of the mountain. Mount Graham hosts both species of Arizona native trout--Gila and Apache trout and three species of introduced trout. Mount Graham is home to the Mount Graham International Observatory area, where multiple organizations have set up large telescopes in a few separate observatories authorized by a rare peace-time Congressional waiver of U. S. environmental laws. The United States Congress authorized construction of the observatories on the mountain in 1988, but there has been outcry from the four federally recognized tribes of the Western Apache Nation and Native American groups, who consider the site to be sacred.
Environmental groups, including the Sierra Club oppose the Mount Graham International Observatory because the higher elevations are the last remaining habitat for the Mount Graham Red Squirrel. List of Ultras of the United States Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope Large Binocular Telescope Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope "Mount Graham". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "Mount Graham". SummitPost.org. "Mount Graham International Observatory home page". University of Arizona. "Mount Graham Coalition". An advocacy group
Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope
The 1.8 meter Alice P. Lennon Telescope and its Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility, known together as the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope, is a Gregorian telescope observing in the optical and infrared situated on Mount Graham in southeast Arizona, United States, it achieved its first light in 1993. VATT is part of the Mount Graham International Observatory and is operated by the Vatican Observatory, one of the oldest astronomical research institutions in the world, in partnership with The University of Arizona; the heart of the telescope is borosilicate primary mirror. The VATT's mirror is unusually'fast' at f/1, which means that its focal distance is equal to its diameter; because it has such a short focal length, a Gregorian design could be employed which uses a concave secondary mirror at a point beyond the primary focus. The unusual optical design and novel mirror fabrication techniques mean that both the primary and secondary mirrors are among the most exact surfaces made for a ground-based telescope.
In addition, the skies above Mount Graham are among the most clear and dark in the continental North America. Seeing of better than one arc-second without adaptive optics can be achieved on a regular basis; the primary mirror was manufactured at The University of Arizona's Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory, which pioneered both the spin-casting and the stressed-lap polishing techniques which are being used for telescope mirrors that include the 6.5 meter aperture MMT and Magellan telescopes, the two 8.4 meter mirrors of the Large Binocular Telescope. Given its excellent optical qualities, the telescope has been used for imaging and photometric work, in which it outperforms much larger telescopes located elsewhere. Among the results from this telescope have been the discovery of MACHOs in the Andromeda Galaxy; the government of the Vatican City State supports the Vatican Observatory staff and regular research costs, but the cost to build and maintain the VATT itself has come from private donors: the major donors supporting the construction of the VATT were Fred and Alice P. Lennon and Thomas J. Bannan.
Benefactors to the Vatican Observatory Foundation continue to support the operating costs of the VATT. Large Binocular Telescope Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope Sabino Maffeo: The Vatican Observatory. In the Service of Nine Popes, Vatican Observatory Publications, 2001. Catholic Church and science#Vatican Observatory Index of Vatican City-related articles List of observatories Mount Graham International Observatory Safford, Arizona VATT - official site Eastern Arizona College's Discovery Park Campus - Guided MGIO tours for the public
University of Arizona
The University of Arizona is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona. Founded in 1885, the UA was the first university in the Arizona Territory; as of 2017, the university enrolls 44,831 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, is affiliated with two academic medical centers; the University of Arizona is governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The University of Arizona is one of the elected members of the Association of American Universities and is the only representative from the state of Arizona to this group. Known as the Arizona Wildcats, the UA's intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. UA athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men's basketball and softball; the official colors of the university and its athletic teams are navy blue. After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew.
The Arizona Territory's "Thieving Thirteenth" Legislature approved the University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory's mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory's only university. Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson's legislators, by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize. With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, still in use today.
Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation. The University of Arizona offers bachelor's, master's, professional degrees. Grades are given on a strict 4-point scale with "A" worth 4, "B" worth 3, "C" worth 2, "D" worth 1 and "E" worth zero points; the Center for World University Rankings in 2017 ranked Arizona No. 52 in the world and 34 in the U. S; the 2018 Times Higher Education World University Rankings rated University of Arizona 161st in the world and the 2017/18 QS World University Rankings ranked it 230th. The University of Arizona was ranked tied for 77th in the "National Universities" category by U. S. News & World Report for 2018; the James E. Rogers College of Law Graduate School was ranked tied for 41st nationally; the College of Medicine was rated No. 7 among the nation's medical schools for Hispanic students, according to Hispanic Business Magazine. In 2017, the Eller MBA program was ranked 24th among public institutions and 49th nationally by U.
S. News & World Report, which placed the school's Management Information Systems program as 2nd, the Entrepreneurship program as 5th and the Part-time MBA 30th among U. S public schools. U. S. News & World Report rated UA as tied for 33rd for online MBA programs, tied for 49th for best online graduate nursing programs, tied for 33rd for best online graduate engineering programs nationally. UA graduate programs ranked in the top 25 in the nation by U. S. News & World Report for 2017 include Information Science, Geology and Seismology, Speech Pathology, Rehabilitation Counseling, Earth Sciences, Analytical Chemistry, Atomic/Molecular/Optical Sciences and Photography; the Council for Aid to Education ranked UA 12th among public universities and 24th overall in financial support and gifts. Campaign Arizona, an effort to raise over $1 billion for the school, exceeded that goal by $200 million a year earlier than projected. In April 2014, the "Arizona Now" campaign launched with a target of $1.5 billion.
As of 31 December 2016, the campaign has raised $1.59 Billion, two years ahead of schedule. In 2015, Design Intelligence ranked the College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture's undergraduate program in architecture 10th in the nation for all universities and private; the same publication ranked. The School of Middle Eastern and North African Studies at the University of Arizona is one of the most ranked area studies programs focusing on the Middle East in the United States. In addition to offering language training in Arabic, Hebrew and Turkish, it is collocated with the Middle East Studies Association; the School of Geography and Development is ranked as one of the top geography graduate programs in the US. The UA is considered a "selective" university by U. S. News & World Report. In the 2014-2015 academic year, 68 freshman students were National Merit Scholars. UA students hail from all states in the U. S. While nearly 69% of students are from Arizona, nearly 11% are from California, 8% are international, followed by a significant student presence from Texas, Washington and New York..
Tuition at the University o
An astronomical interferometer is an array of separate telescopes, mirror segments, or radio telescope antennas that work together as a single telescope to provide higher resolution images of astronomical objects such as stars and galaxies by means of interferometry. The advantage of this technique is that it can theoretically produce images with the angular resolution of a huge telescope with an aperture equal to the separation between the component telescopes; the main drawback is. Thus it is useful for fine resolution of more luminous astronomical objects, such as close binary stars. Another drawback is that the maximum angular size of a detectable emission source is limited by the minimum gap between detectors in the collector array. Interferometry is most used in radio astronomy, in which signals from separate radio telescopes are combined. A mathematical signal processing technique called aperture synthesis is used to combine the separate signals to create high-resolution images. In Very Long Baseline Interferometry radio telescopes separated by thousands of kilometers are combined to form a radio interferometer with a resolution which would be given by a hypothetical single dish with an aperture thousands of kilometers in diameter.
At the shorter wavelengths used in infrared astronomy and optical astronomy it is more difficult to combine the light from separate telescopes, because the light must be kept coherent within a fraction of a wavelength over long optical paths, requiring precise optics. Practical infrared and optical astronomical interferometers have only been developed, are at the cutting edge of astronomical research. At optical wavelengths, aperture synthesis allows the atmospheric seeing resolution limit to be overcome, allowing the angular resolution to reach the diffraction limit of the optics. Astronomical interferometers can produce higher resolution astronomical images than any other type of telescope. At radio wavelengths, image resolutions of a few micro-arcseconds have been obtained, image resolutions of a fractional milliarcsecond have been achieved at visible and infrared wavelengths. One simple layout of an astronomical interferometer is a parabolic arrangement of mirror pieces, giving a complete reflecting telescope but with a "sparse" or "dilute" aperture.
In fact the parabolic arrangement of the mirrors is not important, as long as the optical path lengths from the astronomical object to the beam combiner are the same as would be given by the complete mirror case. Instead, most existing arrays use a planar geometry, Labeyrie's hypertelescope will use a spherical geometry. One of the first uses of optical interferometry was applied by the Michelson stellar interferometer on the Mount Wilson Observatory's reflector telescope to measure the diameters of stars; the red giant star Betelgeuse was the first to have its diameter determined in this way on December 13, 1920. In the 1940s radio interferometry was used to perform the first high resolution radio astronomy observations. For the next three decades astronomical interferometry research was dominated by research at radio wavelengths, leading to the development of large instruments such as the Very Large Array and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. Optical/infrared interferometry was extended to measurements using separated telescopes by Johnson and Townes in the infrared and by Labeyrie in the visible.
In the late 1970s improvements in computer processing allowed for the first "fringe-tracking" interferometer, which operates fast enough to follow the blurring effects of astronomical seeing, leading to the Mk I, II and III series of interferometers. Similar techniques have now been applied at other astronomical telescope arrays, including the Keck Interferometer and the Palomar Testbed Interferometer. In the 1980s the aperture synthesis interferometric imaging technique was extended to visible light and infrared astronomy by the Cavendish Astrophysics Group, providing the first high resolution images of nearby stars. In 1995 this technique was demonstrated on an array of separate optical telescopes for the first time, allowing a further improvement in resolution, allowing higher resolution imaging of stellar surfaces. Software packages such as BSMEM or MIRA are used to convert the measured visibility amplitudes and closure phases into astronomical images; the same techniques have now been applied at a number of other astronomical telescope arrays, including the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer, the Infrared Spatial Interferometer and the IOTA array.
A number of other interferometers have made closure phase measurements and are expected to produce their first images soon, including the VLTI, the CHARA array and Le Coroller and Dejonghe's Hypertelescope prototype. If completed, the MRO Interferometer with up to ten movable telescopes will produce among the first higher fidelity images from a long baseline interferometer; the Navy Optical Interferometer took the first step in this direction in 1996, achieving 3-way synthesis of an image of Mizar. Astronomical interferometry is principally conducted using Michelson interferometers; the principal operational interferometric observatories which use this type of instrumentation include VLTI, NPOI, CHARA. Current projects will use interferometers to search for extrasolar planets, either by astrometric measurements of the reciprocal motion of the star, through the use of nulling (as will be used by the Keck
Extremely high frequency
High frequency is the International Telecommunication Union designation for the band of radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz. It lies between the super high frequency band, the far infrared band, the lower part of, referred to as the terahertz gap. Radio waves in this band have wavelengths from ten to one millimetre, so it is called the millimetre band and radiation in this band is called millimetre waves, sometimes abbreviated MMW or mmW. Millimetre-length electromagnetic waves were first investigated in the 1890s by Indian scientist Jagadish Chandra Bose. Compared to lower bands, radio waves in this band have high atmospheric attenuation: they are absorbed by the gases in the atmosphere. Therefore, they have a short range and can only be used for terrestrial communication over about a kilometer. Absorption by humidity in the atmosphere is significant except in desert environments, attenuation by rain is a serious problem over short distances; however the short propagation range allows smaller frequency reuse distances than lower frequencies.
The short wavelength allows modest size antennas to have a small beam width, further increasing frequency reuse potential. Millimeter waves propagate by line-of-sight paths, they are not reflected by the ionosphere nor do they travel along the Earth as ground waves as lower frequency radio waves do. At typical power densities they are blocked by building walls and suffer significant attenuation passing through foliage. Absorption by atmospheric gases is a significant factor throughout the band and increases with frequency. However, it is maximum at a few specific absorption lines those of oxygen at 60 GHz and water vapor at 24 GHz and 184 GHz. At frequencies in the "windows" between these absorption peaks, millimeter waves have much less atmospheric attenuation and greater range, so many applications use these frequencies. Millimeter wavelengths are the same order of size as raindrops, so precipitation causes additional attenuation due to scattering as well as absorption; the high free space loss and atmospheric absorption limits useful propagation to a few kilometers.
Thus, they are useful for densely packed communications networks such as personal area networks that improve spectrum utilization through frequency reuse. Millimeter waves show "optical" propagation characteristics and can be reflected and focused by small metal surfaces and dielectric lenses around 5 to 30 cm diameter; because their wavelengths are much smaller than the equipment that manipulates them, the techniques of geometric optics can be used. Diffraction is less than at lower frequencies. At millimeter wavelengths, surfaces appear rougher so diffuse reflection increases. Multipath propagation reflection from indoor walls and surfaces, causes serious fading. Doppler shift of frequency can be significant at pedestrian speeds. In portable devices, shadowing due to the human body is a problem. Since the waves penetrate clothing and their small wavelength allows them to reflect from small metal objects they are used in millimeter wave scanners for airport security scanning; this band is used in radio astronomy and remote sensing.
Ground-based radio astronomy is limited to high altitude sites such as Kitt Peak and Atacama Large Millimeter Array due to atmospheric absorption issues. Satellite-based remote sensing near 60 GHz can determine temperature in the upper atmosphere by measuring radiation emitted from oxygen molecules, a function of temperature and pressure; the ITU non-exclusive passive frequency allocation at 57–59.3 GHz is used for atmospheric monitoring in meteorological and climate sensing applications and is important for these purposes due to the properties of oxygen absorption and emission in Earth's atmosphere. Operational U. S. satellite sensors such as the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit on one NASA satellite and four NOAA satellites and the special sensor microwave/imager on Department of Defense satellite F-16 make use of this frequency range. In the United States, the band 36.0 – 40.0 GHz is used for licensed high-speed microwave data links, the 60 GHz band can be used for unlicensed short range data links with data throughputs up to 2.5 Gbit/s.
It is used in flat terrain. The 71–76, 81–86 and 92–95 GHz bands are used for point-to-point high-bandwidth communication links; these higher frequencies do not suffer from oxygen absorption, but require a transmitting license in the US from the Federal Communications Commission. There are plans for 10 Gbit/s links using these frequencies as well. In the case of the 92–95 GHz band, a small 100 MHz range has been reserved for space-borne radios, limiting this reserved range to a transmission rate of under a few gigabits per second; the band is undeveloped and available for use in a broad range of new products and services, including high-speed, point-to-point wireless local area networks and broadband Internet access. WirelessHD is another recent technology. Directional, "pencil-beam" signal characteristics permit different systems to operate close to one another without causing interference. Potential applications include radar systems with high resolution; the Wi-Fi standard IEEE 802.11ad operates in the 60 GHz spectrum to achieve data transfer rates as high as 7 Gbit/s.
Uses of the millimeter wave bands include point-to-point communications, intersatellite links, point-to-multipoint communications. There are tentative plans to use millimeter waves in future 5G mobile phones. In addition, use of millimeter wave
An altazimuth or alt-azimuth mount is a simple two-axis mount for supporting and rotating an instrument about two perpendicular axes – one vertical and the other horizontal. Rotation about the vertical axis varies the azimuth of the pointing direction of the instrument. Rotation about the horizontal axis varies the altitude of the pointing direction; these mounts are used, for example, with telescopes, radio antennas, heliostat mirrors, solar panels, guns and similar weapons. Several names are given to this kind of mount, including altitude-azimuth, azimuth-elevation and various abbreviations thereof. A gun turret is an alt-azimuth mount for a gun, a standard camera tripod is an alt-azimuth mount as well; when used as an astronomical telescope mount, the biggest advantage of an alt-azimuth mount is the simplicity of its mechanical design. The primary disadvantage is its inability to follow astronomical objects in the night sky as the Earth spins on its axis. On the other hand, an equatorial mount only needs to be rotated about a single axis, at a constant rate, to follow the rotation of the night sky.
Altazimuth mounts need to be rotated about both axes at variable rates, achieved via microprocessor based two-axis drive systems, to track equatorial motion. This imparts an uneven rotation to the field of view that has to be corrected via a microprocessor based counter rotation system. On smaller telescopes an equatorial platform is sometimes used to add a third "polar axis" to overcome these problems, providing an hour or more of motion in the direction of right ascension to allow for astronomical tracking; the design does not allow for the use of mechanical setting circles to locate astronomical objects although modern digital setting circles have removed this shortcoming. Another limitation is the problem of gimbal lock at zenith pointing; when tracking at elevations close to 90°, the azimuth axis must rotate quickly. Thus, altazimuth telescopes, although they can point in any direction, cannot track smoothly within a "zenith blind spot" 0.5 or 0.75 degrees from the zenith. Typical current applications of altazimuth mounts include the following.
Research telescopesIn the largest telescopes, the mass and cost of an equatorial mount is prohibitive and they have been superseded by computer-controlled altazimuth mounts. The simple structure of an altazimuth mount allows significant cost reductions, in spite of the additional cost associated with the more complex tracking and image-orienting mechanisms. An altazimuth mount reduces the cost in the dome structure covering the telescope since the simplified motion of the telescope means the structure can be more compact. Amateur telescopesBeginner telescopes: Altazimuth mounts are cheap and simple to use. Dobsonian telescopes: John Dobson popularized a simplified altazimuth mount design for Newtonian reflectors because of its ease of construction. "GoTo" telescopes: It has proved more convenient to build a mechanically simpler altazimuth mount and use a motion controller to manipulate both axes to track an object, when compared with a more mechanically complex equatorial mount that requires minimally complex control of a single motor.
Dobsonian mount Equatorial mount Heliostat Horizontal coordinate system - a system to locate objects on the celestial sphere via Alt-azimuth coordinates Parallactic angle Solar tracker Tripod Images of the Unitron altazimuth mount