International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Clive Wilson Warman
Captain Clive Wilson Warman was a World War I flying ace credited with twelve aerial victories. He was the sole American winner of the British Distinguished Service Order, Warman was a civil engineer before World War I. He enlisted in the Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry in Canada on 5 September 1914 and they sailed for England in January 1915. Warmans duty with them took him through the Second Battle of Ypres, after recovery, he was involved in suppressing the Easter Rebellion in Ireland. He transferred to the Royal Flying Corps in summer 1916 and he was so skillful that when he finished pilot training, they temporarily retained him as an instructor. Not until June 1917 was he assigned to a combat squadron and he began his victory string on 6 July 1917. He became a balloon buster and an ace on 9 August 1917 and he scored double victories on 12 and 15 August. On 16 August, his guns jammed mid-fight with three Germans, in frustration, Warman fired his Very flares at his German opponents, he flung a wooden mallet at them.
Despite his gun jams, he destroyed a German two-seater and an observation balloon that day. Two days later, he scored his final win and his final tally was two observation balloons destroyed, two enemy planes driven down out of control, and eight destroyed, one of the latter was shared with Conn Standish OGrady. On 22 August 1917, Warman was forced down and wounded in combat and he was under medical care until mid-1918, subsequently, he was assigned to the War Ministry in London for the rest of the war. Postwar, he became a commander in the new No.1 Canadian Squadron. He was injured in a crash on 8 May 1919, Distinguished Service Order 2nd Lt. Clive Wilson Warman, M. C. For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, during two days, whilst operating under very difficult conditions in high wind and against strong hostile opposition, he destroyed three enemy machines and a balloon. His wonderful coolness and courage have on all occasions been beyond praise, military Cross T. /2nd Lt. Clive Wilson Warman, Gen.
List and R. F. C. For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty and he has on all occasions proved himself to be an exceptionally skilful and gallant pilot, having in the space of six weeks brought down six machines and destroyed a hostile balloon. He has driven down at least five enemy machines. List of World War I flying aces from the United States American Aces of World War 1 Harry Dempsey
The Iron Cross was a military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and in the German Empire and Nazi Germany. It was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia in March 1813 backdated to the birthday of his late wife Queen Louise on 10 March 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars, Louise was the first person to receive this decoration. The recommissioned Iron Cross was awarded during the Franco-Prussian War, World War I, the Iron Cross was normally a military decoration only, though there were instances of it being awarded to civilians for performing military functions. The design of the symbol was black with a white or silver outline. It was ultimately derived from the cross pattée occasionally used by the Teutonic Order from the 13th century, the black cross patty was used as the symbol of the German Army from 1871 to March/April 1918, when it was replaced by the Balkenkreuz. In 1956, it was re-introduced as the symbol of the Bundeswehr, the Black Cross is the emblem used by the Prussian Army, and by the army of Germany from 1871 to present.
It was designed on the occasion of the German Campaign of 1813, from this time, the Black Cross featured on the Prussian war flag alongside the Black Eagle. The design is due to neoclassical architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel, based on a sketch by Frederick William, the design is ultimately derivative of the black cross used by the Teutonic Order. This heraldic cross took various forms throughout the history, including a simple Latin cross. When the Quadriga of the Goddess of Peace was retrieved from Paris at Napoleons fall, an Iron Cross was inserted into her laurel wreath, making her into a Goddess of Victory. The Black Cross was used on the naval and war flags of the German Empire, the Black Cross was used as the symbol of the German Army until 1915, when it was replaced by a simpler Balkenkreuz. The Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic, the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany, the traditional design in black is used on armored vehicles and aircraft, while after German reunification, a new design in blue and silver was introduced for use in other contexts.
The ribbon for the 1813,1870 and 1914 Iron Cross was black with two white bands, the colors of Prussia. The non-combatant version of this award had the same medal, but the black, the ribbon color for the 1939 EKII was black/white/red/white/black. Since the Iron Cross was issued several different periods of German history. For example, an Iron Cross from World War I bears the year 1914, the reverse of the 1870,1914 and 1939 series of Iron Crosses have the year 1813 appearing on the lower arm, symbolizing the year the award was created. The 1813 decoration has the initials FW for King Frederick William III, the final version shows a swastika. There was the 1957 issue, a replacement medal for holders of the 1939 series which substituted an oak-leaf cluster for the banned swastika
Ohlsdorf Cemetery in the quarter Ohlsdorf of the city of Hamburg, Germany, is the biggest rural cemetery in the world and the fourth-largest cemetery in the world. Most of the buried at the cemetery are civilians. In 1877 the Ohlsdorf Cemetery was established as a non-denominational and multi-regional burial site outside of Hamburg. The cemetery has an area of 391 hectares with 12 chapels, over 1.5 million burials in more than 280,000 burial sites, there are 4 entrances for vehicles and public transport is provided with 25 bus stops of two bus lines of the Hamburger Verkehrsverbund. The cemetery is not only used as a ground, but as a recreational area. With its impressive mausoleums, rhododendron bushes, its ponds and birds and funerary museum, about 40% of all burials in Hamburg take place here in Ohlsdorf Cemetery, in 2002 there were 1600 interments and 4300 urn burials. 230 gardeners take care of graves and all facilities, one of four permanent Commonwealth cemeteries in Germany, the Hamburg Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery is located near chapel 12 of the Ohlsdorf Cemetery.
During World War I over 400 Allied prisoners-of-war who died in German captivity were buried here in, in 1923 the remains of British Commonwealth servicemen from 120 burial grounds in north-western Germany were brought to Hamburg. Further dead Commonwealth soldiers of World War II and of the post war period were buried here too, an additional memorial site was erected in 1951 at the nearby Jewish cemetery, the Monument for the Murdered Hamburg Jews. The Monument for the Victims of Nazi Persecution lies across from the new crematorium, erected in 1949, it has a stele with a marble slab lying in front, engraved with the names of 25 concentration camps. The adjacent graveyard has 105 above-ground urns and 29 buried ones containing the ashes of victims and this memorial evolved from what was established there during a week-long remembrance in November 1945. The remains of some 38,000 victims of Operation Gomorrha, in 1952, a monument by Gerhard Marcks called Passage over the River Styx was erected in the middle of the site.
To the right of the entrance on Bergstraße, is the memorial grove for the Resistance fighters from Hamburg. Located here since September 8,1946, this memorial is the site for 55 anti-fascists who were either executed by the Nazis or died in custody. A bronze sculpture, created in 1953 by Hamburg sculptor Richard Steffen, a stone wall borders the grove, on which are the words of the Czech Resistance fighter and journalist, Julius Fučík, executed in 1943, Mankind, we loved you — be vigilant. Individuals with a strong interest in preserving the Ohlsdorf cemetery formed the Förderkreis Ohlsdorfer Friedhof, the museum is dedicated to raising public interest for the Ohlsdorf cemetery, and for promoting historical and contemporary funeral culture. The collection in the museum, on display since 1996, focuses mainly on the history of Hamburgs cemetery culture, since the Ohlsdorfer cemetery was opened in 1877 as the first American-style park cemetery in Germany, it is of significant importance to the European cemetery culture.
The museum has old maps and tools, as well as urns, part of the cemetery are three plots of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, which were used as burial sites for British Commonwealth and Allied servicemen of both World Wars
House Order of Hohenzollern
The House Order of Hohenzollern was a dynastic order of knighthood of the House of Hohenzollern awarded to military commissioned officers and civilians of comparable status. Associated with the versions of the order were crosses and medals which could be awarded to lower-ranking soldiers. The House Order of Hohenzollern was instituted on December 5,1841 by joint decree of Prince Konstantin of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and these two principalities in southern Germany were Catholic collateral lines of the House of Hohenzollern, cousins to the Protestant ruling house of Prussia. On August 23,1851, after the two principalities had been annexed by Prussia, the order was adopted by the Prussian branch of the house. Also, although the two principalities had become a region of the Prussian kingdom, the princely lines continued to award the order as a house order. The Prussian version was known as the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern. The Princely House Order continued to be awarded, after the fall of the German Monarchy, Prince Karl Antons second son, Karl Eitel Friedrich of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, had become prince and king of Romania as Carol I.
Carol I had died childless and was succeeded by his nephew Ferdinand I and this form of the order existed until the Romanian monarchy was abolished in 1947, King Michael awarded a slightly altered order in exile. The Royal House Order of Hohenzollern came in the classes, Grand Commander Commander Knight Member Member was a lesser class for soldiers who were not officers. The Members Cross, especially swords, was a rare distinction for non-commissioned officers. Another decoration, the Members Eagle was often given as an award to lesser officials such as schoolteachers. The Eagles were solely civilian awards, and could not be awarded with swords, all other grades could be awarded with swords. When awarded with swords it was worn on the ribbon of the Iron Cross, all grades could be awarded with swords. During World War I, the grade of the Princely House Order was often awarded to officers. 40, a regiment raised in the principalities of Hohenzollern. Soldier in the regiments sister reserve and Landwehr regiments received the decoration.
Unlike the Royal House Order, awards of the Princely House Order were made on the ribbon of the order regardless of whether they were with or without swords. As with the Prussian and Hohenzollern versions, crossed swords could be used to indicate a wartime or combat award, the badge of the House Order of Hohenzollern was a cross pattée with convex edges and curved arms
The Hamburg Police is the German Landespolizei force for the city-state of Hamburg. Law enforcement in Germany is divided between federal and state agencies, a precursor to the agency, the Polizey-Behörde, has existed since 1814. The State Minister for the Interior oversees the Hamburg Police, which consists of aviation, water and port patrols, the city of Hamburg is served by police stations of the Uniformed Police. Head of police is Polizeipräsident Ralf Martin Meyer, in 2008 Hamburg Police had 500,335 deployments. Before the police force was established, there was a night watch, the night watch was a professional force whose duties included calling the hours at night and closing the city gates. In 1671, the watch was reorganised along the lines of the Schutterij in Amsterdam, in 1787, a force patrolling the port was established, though this was merged with the police in 1875. In 1814, the government of Hamburg established a police agency. The former brought tasks from the Wedde and Prätur into the new police, the night watch and the police coexisted until 1876, when the watch was dissolved.
The night watch, Wedde, Prätur, port patrol, in 1842 the police consisted of 48 men and 425 members of the night watch, whilst Hamburg had a population of 200,000. In 1870,650 Constablers, the same as the British name, were introduced to the police, from 1890 on, the police force began to transform into a military-like force. In 1910 rifles were bought, because of riots in Berlin, pistols for the police were bought in 1917. After the First World War and civil disorder caused the reinforcement of the police with soldiers, after the period of the German Revolution of 1918–1919 the Hamburg Police had a Sicherheitspolizei and an Ordnungspolizei. The Order Police were stationed in barracks, in 1920, during the Kapp Putsch the police, specially the leading officers, showed itself as unreliable. After several administrative changes the Sicherheitspolizei was dissolved and replaced by the Order Police, as of 1932 the police consisted of 21 units, with 2,100 men. In 1933, there were 5,500 men, including the criminal investigation units, during Nazi Germany, the police took part in the Gleichschaltung.
The state police units were transferred to the armed forces, the now 56,000 members of the Landespolizei were incorporated as self-contained police units no longer existed. In 1936 all other units were under the control of the SS by law. The annexation of Austria, the occupation of the Sudetenland, during the annexation of Austria from 2,614 policemen 1,000 participated in the Verladeübung of total 20,000 men
Royal Saxon Jagdstaffel 24 was a hunting group of the Luftstreitkräfte, the air arm of the Imperial German Army during World War I. As one of the original German fighter squadrons, the unit would score 89 verified aerial victories, in turn, their casualties for the war would amount to seven pilots killed in action, two killed in crashes, five wounded in action, and one taken prisoner of war. Royal Saxon Jagdstaffel 24 had somewhat of a torturous start and it was formed on 25 October 1916 and actually at its initial aerodrome at Mörchingen on 20 November. Aircraft being unavailable for the new unit, five of the Jasta 24 pilots were seconded to Jasta 14, Albatros D. II fighters for the new squadron arrived during December 1916, January 1917 marked its first combat patrols. First blood for the new Jasta came on 25 February 1917, beginning on 26 June 1917, the squadron belonged successively to four different ad hoc Jagdgruppen established to increase combat power. It first belonged to Jagdgruppe 7 under Rudolf Berthold, along with Jasta 18, Jasta 31, Jasta 24 switched to membership in Jagdgruppe 1 at Guise, joining Jasta 8, Jasta 17, and Jasta 48.
Jastas 24 and 48 were placed in Jagdgruppe South under Kurt Küppers and its final parent organization was Jagdgruppe 12, where it served along with Jasta 44 and Jasta 79. He would predominate as both commander and ace, scoring 28 victories for his Jasta, and winning the Pour le Mérite, Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, not far behind in the victory count was Friedrich Altemeier, with his 21 victories. He won the Military Merit Cross, Iron Cross, and Silver Wound Badge, fritz Thiede became an ace with Jasta 24, transferred out to command of Jasta 38, and was awarded an Iron Cross. Wolfgang Güttler and pre-war pilot Kurt Ungewitter served with Jasta 24, hasso von Wedel won the Iron Cross while beginning his military aviation career with the squadron. He succeeded to command, and served through World War II. Alwin Thurm was another ace with the unit, austro-Hungarian ace of aces Godwin Brumowski was hosted by the Jasta from 19 to 27 March 1918, and flew patrols with them. Jasta 24 began operations in 1917 with Pfalz fighters, Albatros D.
IIs and Albatros D. IIIs, in May 1917, they tested models of the Siemens-Schuckert D. I but found it inferior to the Albatros. The Jasta received Fokker D. VII fighters in the Summer of 1918, squadrons location during their protracted formation was the Armee-Abteilung A Sector. Upon movement to Annelles on 16 April 1917, they were stationed on the 1 Armee Front and they moved to support of 5 Armee on 12 June 1917, two weeks to support 4 Armee at Heule. They moved to support 18 Armee for the remainder of the war, bibliography Franks, Bailey, Frank W. & Guest, Russell F. Above The Lines, The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service, and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918
The Albatros D. V was a fighter aircraft used by the Luftstreitkräfte during World War I. The D. V was the development of the Albatros D. I family. Despite its well-known shortcomings and general obsolescence, approximately 900 D. V and 1,612 D. Va aircraft were built before production halted in early 1918, the D. Va continued in operational service until the end of the war. In April 1917, Albatros received an order from the Idflieg for a version of the D. III. The resulting D. V prototype flew that month, the D. V closely resembled the D. III and used the same 127 kW Mercedes D. IIIa engine. The most notable difference was a new, fully elliptical cross-section fuselage which was 32 kg lighter than the partially flat-sided fuselage of the earlier D. I through D. III designs, the new elliptical cross-section required an additional longeron on each side of the fuselage. The vertical fin and tailplane initially remained unchanged from the D. III, the prototype D. V retained the standard rudder of the Johannisthal-built D. III, but production examples used the enlarged rudder featured on D.
IIIs built by Ostdeutsche Albatros Werke. The D. V featured a larger spinner and ventral fin, compared to the D. III, the upper wing of the D. V was repositioned 4.75 inches closer to the fuselage, while the lower wings attached to the fuselage without a fairing. The D. Vs wings themselves were almost identical to those of the standard D. III, which had adopted a sesquiplane wing arrangement broadly similar to the French Nieuport 11. The only significant difference between wings of the D. III and D. V was a linkage of the aileron cables. Idflieg therefore conducted structural tests on the fuselage, but not the wings, early examples of the D. V featured a large headrest, which was usually removed in service because it interfered with the pilots field of view. The headrest was eventually deleted from production, aircraft deployed in Palestine used two wing radiators, to cope with the warmer climate. Idflieg issued production contracts for 200 D. V aircraft in April 1917, initial production of the D.
V was exclusively undertaken by the Johannisthal factory, while the Schneidemühl factory produced the D. III through the remainder of 1917. The D. V entered service in May 1917 and, like the D. III before it, anecdotal evidence suggests that the D. V was even more prone to wing failures than the D. III. The outboard sections of the wing suffered failures, requiring additional wire bracing. Furthermore, the D. V offered very little improvement in performance and this caused considerable dismay among frontline pilots, many of whom preferred the older D. III. Manfred von Richthofen was particularly critical of the new aircraft, in a July 1917 letter, he described the D. V as so obsolete and so ridiculously inferior to the English that one cant do anything with this aircraft. British tests of a captured D. V revealed that the aircraft was slow to maneuver, heavy on the controls, Albatros responded with the D. Va, which featured stronger wing spars, heavier wing ribs, and a reinforced fuselage
Bristol F.2 Fighter
The Bristol F.2 Fighter was a British two-seat biplane fighter and reconnaissance aircraft of the First World War developed by the Bristol Aeroplane Company. It is often called the Bristol Fighter, other popular names include the Brisfit or Biff. Despite being a two-seater, the F. 2B proved to be an aircraft that was able to hold its own against opposing single-seat fighters. Having overcome a disastrous start to its career, the F. 2Bs robust design ensured that it remained in service into the 1930s. As the type was phased out of service, many of the surplus aircraft entered into civilian uses. Amongst other attributes and performance requirements, there was an emphasis placed upon the aircrafts self-defence capabilities. Various submissions were made to meet the RCFs specification, the Royal Aircraft Factory responded with its R. E.8 design, on 16 June 1916, the first prototype R. E.8 was presented for final inspection and production examples commenced delivery in September 1916. While thousands of R. E. 8s were produced, according to aviation author J. M.
Bruce, the Bristol F.2 Fighter came about as a result of Frank Barnwells brief experience as a front-line pilot with the Royal Flying Corps. The first proposal that was prepared by Barnwell, which was designated the Type 9 R. 2A, was an equal-span two-seat biplane that made use of the 120 hp Beardmore engine. This was considered to be underpowered, and thus a second revised design, designated as the Type 9A R. 2B, was an unequal-span biplane that was powered by the 150 hp Hispano Suiza, was proposed. On both the R. 2A and R. 2B, the crew were placed together in a mid-gap mounted fuselage. Neither the R. 2A or R. 2B were constructed as a result of the new 190 hp Rolls-Royce Falcon inline engine having become available. Barnwell deciding to design a third revision of the aircraft around the Falcon engine and this aircraft, designated as the Type 12 F. 2A, was a two-bay equal-span biplane, closely resembling the R. 2A but being slightly smaller. These features were intended to optimize the field of fire for the observer, in July 1916, work commenced on the construction of a pair of prototypes, on 28 August 1916, a initial contract was awarded for 50 production aircraft.
On 9 September 1916, the first prototype performed its maiden flight, the first prototype had its lower wings attached to an open wing-anchorage frame and had end-plates at the wing roots. Other changes to the first prototype during flight testing including the elimination of the end-plates from the wing roots. The first prototype was outfitted with a Scarff ring mounting near the rear cockpit. On 25 October 1916, the F. 2B variant performed its first flight, the F. 2B was over 10 mph faster than the F. 2A and was three minutes faster at reaching 10,000 ft
Royal Prussian Jagdstaffel 9 was a hunting group of the Luftstreitkräfte, the air arm of the Imperial German Army during World War I. Although the squadron, and the Luftstreitkräfte, were short-lived, they had influence on the Nazi Luftwaffe. It was founded on 28 September 1916, and by the time it disbanded on 15 January 1919, in turn, it had suffered thirteen pilots killed in combat, three wounded, five non-combat deaths, and three injuries. When Jagdstaffel 9 was founded, it absorbed the pre-existing Fokkerstaffel attached to 3 Armee and this ad hoc Fokkerstaffel had been formed under Oberleutnant Ascheberg on 16 June 1916. He relinquished this unit to Oberleutnant Kurt Student on 23 September, the unit was officially founded five days later, it mobilized a week later, and moved to Leffincourt. It remained operational at that field for the year and a half under Student. The Jasta underwent the turmoil of shifting airfields eight times during the last eight months of war, when it shifted to Chéry-les-Pouilly, it shifted to support of the 7 Armee.
In July 1918, it joined Jagdgruppe 5 at Maizy, this wing contained Jasta 1, Jasta 41, Jasta 45, Jasta 50. Other pilots, such as Hartmuth Baldamus, Fritz Pütter, Erich Thomas, Hermann Pfeiffer, the unit was founded using Fokker E. IIIs and Fokker E. IVs that were forwarded from the previous Fokkerstaffel. Albatros D. IIs were assigned in early 1917, the unit progressed to Fokker D. VIIs in summer 1918, probably in May. Bibliography Franks, Bailey, Frank W. & Guest, above The Lines, The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service, and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918