Acacia saligna known by various names including coojong, golden wreath wattle, orange wattle, blue-leafed wattle, Western Australian golden wattle, and, in Africa, Port Jackson willow, is a small tree in the family Fabaceae. Native to Australia, it is distributed throughout the south west corner of Western Australia, extending north as far as the Murchison River, east to Israelite Bay; the Noongar peoples know the tree as Cujong. Acacia saligna grows as a small, spreading tree with a short trunk and a weeping habit, it grows up to eight metres tall. Like many Acacia species, it has phyllodes rather than true leaves. At the base of each phyllode is a nectary gland, which secretes a sugary fluid; this attracts ants. The yellow flowers appear in early spring and late winter, in groups of up to ten bright yellow spherical flower heads; the fruit is a legume, while the seed is dark to black in colour. A natural colonizer, Coojong tends to grow wherever soil has been disturbed, such as alongside new roads.
Its seeds are distributed by ants. Disturbance of the soil allows them to germinate. Seeds germinate and hundreds of seedlings can sometimes be found beneath a single parent tree, it is extremely vigorous when young growing over a metre per year. Acacia saligna can be used for multiple purposes, as it grows under a wide range of soil conditions into a woody shrub or tree, it has been used for tanning, animal fodder, mine site rehabilitation, mulch, agroforestry and as a decorative plant. Acacia saligna has been planted extensively in semi-arid areas of Africa, South America and the Middle East as windbreaks and for stabilisation of sand dunes or erosion. Acacia saligna has become an invasive species outside its natural range due to the following contributing factors: Widespread planting outside its native area Rapid growth in soil with low levels of nutrients Early reproductive maturity Large quantity of seeds produced Ability of seeds to survive fire Ability to germinate after cutting or burning Tolerance to many different substrates Nitrogen fixation Extensive root system Taller growth than indigenous plantsIt was planted in the northern suburbs of Sydney in the 1950s by well-meaning native plant enthusiasts, has subsequently become a major weed in eastern New South Wales and South Australia.
In South Africa, it proliferated at an uncontrollable rate, having been introduced in the nineteenth century to produce tan bark and to stabilise the sands of the Cape Flats outside Cape Town after the indigenous bush had been cut down for firewood. In addition to replacing indigenous fynbos vegetation, it hampers agriculture, it is listed as an invasive alien plant in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa, where it has displaced native species through changing fire regimes. The introduction of the acacia gall rust fungus, has proven to be effective at reining it in, reducing density by 80%; the acacia seed weevil was introduced in 2001 and has now reached the stage where there are sufficient numbers available to begin its distribution. Acacia pycnantha "Acacia saligna". Flora of Australia Online. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government. "Acacia saligna". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife. Acacia saligna Map of herbaria records showing something of its invasiveness Purdue University Center for New Crops and Plants Products s.v.
Acacia saligna. Powell, Robert. Leaf and Branch: Trees and Tall Shrubs of Perth. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. ISBN 978-0-7309-3916-0.'Beating the Australian: The Acacia Gall Rust Fungus is Winning the Battle against Port Jackson' Veld & Flora Vol 93 June 2007 p104 et seq'Invasive Plants are Harming our Biodiversity' Veld & Flora Vol 93 June 2007 p108 et seq Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, ARS, USDA. "Uromycladium tepperianum on Acacia spp". Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2007. Acacia cyanophylla & Rhizobium
Acacia cochlearis known as the Rigid wattle, is a shrub of the genus Acacia and the subgenus Plurinerves. It is native to an area along the coast from the Goldfields-Esperance to the Mid West regions of Western Australia; the bushy erect pungent shrub grows to a height of 0.5 to 3 metres with Branchlets that are ribbed, glabrous or sparsely appressed-puberulous with straight hairs. Stipules are present only on young fresh shoots; the truck and braches have smooth brown bark. The leathery leaves have phyllodes or are sessile, patent to ascending, inequilateral basally, subulate-linear, elliptic in shape and straight to recurved, they are 2 to 5 centimetres in length and 2 to 10 millimetres wide. It produces yellow flowers; the inflorescences are simple with 1–3 per axil and peduncles which are 4 to 12 mm long, Heads are globular with a 4 to 5 mm diameter, containing 30-50-flowers that have a deep golden color. The flowers are pollinated by many different species of insects. A moderate of seeds will be produced during favourable seasons.
The green-brown pod forms it is a linear shape and is raised over the seeds. The pod is 50 mm long and contains between 10 and 15 of viable black seeds; the valves of the pod will recurve once the seed is shed in December A. cochlearis grows in sandy soils and is found in coastal areas on sandplains and sand dunes. It grows in coastal areas from Lancelin to Israelite Bay where it is found growing as solitary plants or in dense thickets; the shrub is sold as a suitable medium size shrub for gardens in coastal regions or areas with sandy soils. It is used to stabilise dune or coastal areas. A. cochlearis establishes and reliably in stabilised soils. Although it is must be protected from high winds it is utilised in mixed plantings with other species such as Acacia rostellifera and Scaevola crassifolia, it is an indicator of good quality dunes as the species is vulnerable to disturbance once established. A. cochlearis can be grown from seed, the seeds should be soaked in hot water or abraided with fine sandpaper prior to planting.
Seeds should be sown in free draining soil and can benefit from the addition of disease free soil from existing plants to transfer the Rhizobium bacteria that are important in nitrogen fixation. Plants require a position in full sun. List of Acacia species
See other locations named Teplice. Teplice, it is the state's second largest spa town, after Karlovy Vary. Teplice is located near the border with the German state of Saxony, it is situated in the valley of the Bílina river between the slopes of the Ore Mountains in the northwest and the Central Bohemian Uplands in the southeast, about 15 km west of Ústí nad Labem. The municipal area comprises the cadastral communities of Teplice proper, Nová Ves, Řetenice, Hudcov and Sobědruhy. According to the 1541 Annales Bohemorum by chronicler Wenceslaus Hajek, the thermal springs are fabled to have been discovered as early as 762; the settlement of Trnovany was first documented in a 1057 deed, while Teplice proper was first mentioned about 1158, when Judith of Thuringia, queen consort of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia, founded a Benedictine nunnery ad aquas calidas, the second in Bohemia. A fortified town arose around the monastery, destroyed in the course of the Hussite Wars after the 1426 Battle of Aussig.
In the late 15th century, queen consort Joanna of Rožmitál, wife of King George of Poděbrady, had a castle erected on the ruins. The name "Teplice" is derived from the Old Czech, meaning "hot spring". Teplice figures in the history of the Thirty Years' War, when it was a possession of the Protestant Bohemian noble Vilém Kinský, assassinated together with Generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein at Cheb in 1634; the Habsburg emperor Ferdinand II thereafter enfeoffed castle and town to his general Johann von Aldringen, killed in battle in the same year, Teplice fell to his sister Anna Maria von Clary-Aldringen. And until 1945, Teplitz Castle was the seat of the princely House of Clary-Aldringen. After the Thirty Years' War, the devastated town was the destination of many German settlers. After a blaze in 1793, large parts of the town were rebuilt in a Neoclassical style; the health resort was a popular venue for wealthy bourgeois like the poet Johann Gottfried Seume, who died on his stay in 1810, or Ludwig van Beethoven, who met here with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1812.
During the Napoleonic War of the Sixth Coalition, Teplice in August 1813 was the site where Emperor Francis I of Austria, Emperor Alexander I of Russia and King Frederick William III of Prussia first signed the triple alliance against Napoleon I of France that led to the coalition victory at the nearby Battle of Kulm. In 1895, Teplice merged with neighbouring Lázně Šanov. Upon the dissolution of Austria-Hungary after World War I and the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the predominantly German-speaking population found itself in newly established Czechoslovakia. Right-wing political groups like the German National Socialist Worker's Party referred to themselves as Volksdeutsche and began to urge for a unification with Germany, their efforts laid the foundation for the rise of the Sudeten German Party under Konrad Henlein after 1933. With the Sudetenland, Teplice was annexed by Nazi Germany according to the 1938 Munich Agreement and incorporated into a Reichsgau. At the same time, the persecution and expulsion of the Jewish population began with the demolition of the Teplice Synagogue, once the largest in Bohemia, on 14 March 1939 and finishing with the deportation of the remaining Jews to Theresienstadt and their extermination at Auschwitz.
After World War II the Czechoslovak government enacted the Beneš decrees, whereafter the German-speaking majority of the population was expelled from Teplice. In 1945, the Princes of Clary-Aldringen, lords of Teplice since 1634, were expropriated. In 1994, Jaroslav Kubera of the Civic Democratic Party became mayor of Teplice and he held the position until 2018. Teplice is home to the professional football club FK Teplice playing in the Gambrinus liga. Notable players of the club include Josef Masopust and Pavel Verbíř; the stadium, Na Stínadlech, is one of the largest in the country and has hosted international matches. Julius von Payer, arctic explorer August Stradal, pianist Karl Pohlig, conductor Prince Siegfried von Clary-Aldringen, Austro-Hungarian diplomat and nobleman Humbert Achamer-Pifrader, SS Colonel Paul Kohner, film producer Frederick Kohner, writer Helmut Pfleger, chess Grandmaster Jaromír Kohlíček, politician Daniela Peštová, model Robert Lang, ice hockey player Lucie Králová, Miss World Czech Republic 2005 Max Bṏhm,actor, comedian 1916-1982,Theater in der Josefstadt,Vienna The mathematician Adam Adamandy Kochański died in Teplice in 1700 Romantic poet and author Novalis wrote his "Teplitz Fragments" while staying in Teplice Poet Johann Gottfried Seume died in Teplice in 1810 Composer Ludwig van Beethoven began writing his Symphony No. 7 in 1812 while staying in Teplice Austrian diplomat and statesman Count Charles-Louis de Ficquelmont, resided at his daughter's castle in Teplice Countess Dorothea de Ficquelmont, spouse of the previous, died at her daughter's castle in Teplice Richard Wagner began composing the music to his opera Tannhäuser during a vacation in Teplitz in the summer of 1843.
Austro-Hungarian statesman Count Manfred von Clary-Aldringen, grandson of the previous ones, resided in his family's cast
The Herrenhausen Gardens of Herrenhausen Palace, located in Herrenhausen, an urban district of Lower Saxony's capital of Hanover are made up of the Great Garden, the Berggarten, the Georgengarten and the Welfengarten. The gardens are a heritage of the Kings of Hanover; the Great Garden has always been one of the most distinguished baroque formal gardens of Europe while the Berggarten has been transformed over the years from a simple vegetable garden into a large botanical garden with its own attractions. Both the Georgengarten and the Welfengarten have been made in the style of English gardens, both are considered popular recreation areas for the residents of Hanover; the history of the gardens spans several centuries, they remain a popular attraction to this day. The Great Garden owes much of its aesthetics to Sophia of Hanover, consort of the Elector of Hanover and herself heiress to the British throne, who in 1683 commissioned the French gardener Martin Charbonnier to enlarge an existing garden.
It served as a summer retreat, located only a few kilometers outside the city, while the Leineschloss was the main residence in town. As its name implies, it indeed became a large garden, comprising 50 hectares of lawns, hedges and statues arranged in strict geometrical patterns; the centerpiece of the garden is the rather small Herrenhausen Palace a manor house of 1640, enlarged since 1676. Whereas Sophia's husband, Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Luneburg, planned its replacement with a large baroque palace, began constructions with the nearby grand Gallery Building, their son, elector George Louis, who in 1714 succeeded to the British throne as King George I, gave the palace project up and concentrated on water features. Sophia, Ernest Augustus and George I are buried in the mausoleum in the Berggarten; the next king, George II, planned again for a new palace in better proportion with the Great Garden, but never realized it. His successor George III, who never visited Herrenhausen, had the palace modernized in neoclassical style by G. F. Laves.
It suffered immense damage during World War II. The ruins of the palace were completely torn down after the war. In 2009, it was decided to rebuild the palace. Herrenhausen Palace was reopened on 17 January 2013; every summer, the Great Garden plays host a large variety of festivals. The "Festival of Small Arts" takes place over several days and offers a wide range of artistic displays, the "Small Festival in the Great Garden" has become entrenched as a highlight of the "Festival Week Herrenhausen". Lastly, the garden is the site of an international fireworks competition which evolved from a local attraction; the "State Stage of Hanover" uses the Garden Theatre of the Great Garden during the summer for both musicals and other theatrical performances. The building that houses the garden's orangery is utilized for both art exhibits and performances of classical music; the focal point of the garden is the Great Fountain which can, with optimal weather conditions, reach a maximum height of 80 meters.
The original fountain was based on ideas of Gottfried Leibniz and was inaugurated in 1719 during the visit of George I. In 1721, it reached a height of some 35 m; the fountain and its pumping works were renewed in 1860. The Great Garden is the site of one of the last works of the artist Niki de Saint Phalle, she modified the three-roomed grotto in the northwestern section of the garden, which had served as a store room in the eighteenth century, by adding various items, including crystals, minerals and seashells. Between 2001 and 2003, when the exhibit opened, de Saint Phalle and her coworkers covered the walls and interior with mosaics of molded glass and mirrors. Two rooms branch off from the octagon-shaped central room, on the front wall of each of them is a statue set within a small recession in the wall. De Saint Phalle's intention for this exhibit was that the visitors could use the grotto as a cool retreat on hot summer days while at the same time being enchanted by the decorations; the Berggarten was created in 1666 as a vegetable garden for the Great Garden on a hill north of the Herrenhäuser Castle.
Sophia of Hanover transformed the Berggarten into a garden for exotic plants, in 1686 a conservatory was erected. The garden once served more than an aesthetic purpose - it was used to experiment with the breeding of plants native to southern lands in the northern climate of Lower Saxony; this experiment failed in its attempts to grow rice, but was successful with some other plants such as tobacco and mulberry. As a result, the silkworms located in the nearby city of Hamelin which were used in production of royal silk began to be fed with Herrenhäuser mulberry leaves in 1706. However, this experiment did not pay off long-term: in 1750 the Küchengarten in the neighboring city of Linden took over the job of supporting the aristocracy with produce, the Berggarten has since been a botanical garden. Between 1817 and 1820, a caretaker's hut was built on the garden's grounds. In 1846, work began on the "Palm-house", a conservatory designed
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups."The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name, accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group. For example, the botanical name Bellis perennis denotes a plant species, native to most of the countries of Europe and the Middle East, where it has accumulated various names in many languages; the plant was introduced worldwide, bringing it into contact with more languages. English names for this plant species include: daisy, English daisy, lawn daisy.
The cultivar Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' is a golden-variegated horticultural selection of this species. The botanical name itself is fixed by a type, a particular specimen of an organism to which the scientific name is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon; the usefulness of botanical names is limited by the fact that taxonomic groups are not fixed in size. For example, the traditional view of the family Malvaceae has been expanded in some modern approaches to include what were considered to be several related families; some botanical names refer to groups that are stable while for other names a careful check is needed to see which circumscription is being used. Depending on rank, botanical names may be in two parts or three parts; the names of cultivated plants are not similar to the botanical names, since they may instead involve "unambiguous common names" of species or genera. Cultivated plant names may have an extra component, bringing a maximum of four parts: in one part Plantae Marchantiophyta Magnoliopsida Liliidae Pinophyta Fagaceae Betula in two parts Acacia subg.
Phyllodineae lchemilla subsect. Heliodrosium Berberis thunbergii a species name, i.e. a combination consisting of a genus name and one epithet Syringa'Charisma' – a cultivar within a genus Hydrangea Lacecap Group – a genus name and Group epithet Lilium Darkest Red Group – a genus name and Group epithet Paphiopedilum Greenteaicecreamandraspberries grex snowdrop'John Gray' – an unambiguous common name for the genus Galanthus and a cultivar epithetin three parts Calystegia sepium subsp. Americana, a combination consisting of a genus name and two epithets Crataegus azarolus var. pontica Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' – a cultivar Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group – a species name and Group epithetin four parts Scilla hispanica var. campanulata'Rose Queen' – a cultivar within a botanical variety apart from cultivars, the name of a plant can never have more than three parts. A botanical name in three parts, i.e. an infraspecific name needs a "connecting term" to indicate rank. In the Calystegia example above, this is "subsp.", for subspecies.
In botany there are many ranks below that of species. A name of a "subdivision of a genus" needs a connecting term; the connecting term is not part of the name itself. A taxon may be indicated by a listing in more than three parts: "Saxifraga aizoon var. aizoon subvar. Brevifolia f. multicaulis subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch." But this is a classification, not a formal botanical name. The botanical name is Saxifraga aizoon subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch.. Generic and infraspecific botanical names are printed in italics; the example set by the ICN is to italicize all botanical names, including those above genus, though the ICN preface states: "The Code sets no binding standard in this respect, as typography is a matter of editorial style and tradition not of nomenclature". Most peer-reviewed scientific botanical publications do not italicize names above the rank of genus, non-botanical scientific publications do not, in keeping with two of the three other kinds of scientific name: zoological and bacterial.
For botanical nomenclature, the ICN prescribes a two-part name or binary name for any taxon below the rank of genus down to, including the rank of species. Taxa below the rank of species get a three part. A binary name consists of the name of an epithet. In the case of a species this is a specific epithet:Bellis perennis is the name of a species, in which perennis is the specific epithet. There is no connecting term involved. In t
Hanover or Hannover is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 inhabitants make it the thirteenth-largest city of Germany, as well as the third-largest city of Northern Germany after Hamburg and Bremen; the city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain, is the largest city of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region. It is the fifth-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund and Bremen. Before it became the capital of Lower Saxony in 1946, Hanover was the capital of the Principality of Calenberg, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover, the Province of Hanover of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Province of Hanover of the Free State of Prussia, of the State of Hanover. From 1714 to 1837, Hanover was by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The city is a major crossing point of railway lines and highways, connecting European main lines in both the east-west and north-south directions. Hannover Airport lies north of the city, in Langenhagen, is Germany's ninth-busiest airport; the city's most notable institutions of higher education are the Hannover Medical School with its university hospital, the University of Hanover. The Hanover fairground, due to numerous extensions for the Expo 2000, is the largest in the world. Hanover hosts annual commercial trade fairs such as the Hanover Fair and up to 2018 the CeBIT; the IAA Commercial Vehicles show takes place every two years. It is the world's leading trade show for transport and mobility; every year Hanover hosts the Schützenfest Hannover, the world's largest marksmen's festival, the Oktoberfest Hannover. "Hanover" is the traditional English spelling. The German spelling is becoming more popular in English; the English pronunciation, with stress on the first syllable, is applied to both the German and English spellings, different from German pronunciation, with stress on the second syllable and a long second vowel.
The traditional English spelling is still used in historical contexts when referring to the British House of Hanover. Hanover was founded in medieval times on the east bank of the River Leine, its original name Honovere may mean "high bank". Hanover was a small village of ferrymen and fishermen that became a comparatively large town in the 13th century, receiving town privileges in 1241, due to its position at a natural crossroads; as overland travel was difficult, its position on the upper navigable reaches of the river helped it to grow by increasing trade. It was connected to the Hanseatic League city of Bremen by the Leine, was situated near the southern edge of the wide North German Plain and north-west of the Harz mountains, so that east-west traffic such as mule trains passed through it. Hanover was thus a gateway to the Rhine and Saar river valleys, their industrial areas which grew up to the southwest and the plains regions to the east and north, for overland traffic skirting the Harz between the Low Countries and Saxony or Thuringia.
In the 14th century the main churches of Hanover were built, as well as a city wall with three city gates. The beginning of industrialization in Germany led to trade in iron and silver from the northern Harz Mountains, which increased the city's importance. In 1636 George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruler of the Brunswick-Lüneburg principality of Calenberg, moved his residence to Hanover; the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg was elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor to the rank of Prince-Elector in 1692, this elevation was confirmed by the Imperial Diet in 1708. Thus the principality was upgraded to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, colloquially known as the Electorate of Hanover after Calenberg's capital, its Electors become monarchs of Great Britain. The first of these was George I Louis, who acceded to the British throne in 1714; the last British monarch who reigned in Hanover was William IV. Semi-Salic law, which required succession by the male line if possible, forbade the accession of Queen Victoria in Hanover.
As a male-line descendant of George I, Queen Victoria was herself a member of the House of Hanover. Her descendants, bore her husband's titular name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were concurrently Electoral Princes of Hanover. During the time of the personal union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover, the monarchs visited the city. In fact, during the reigns of the final three joint rulers, there was only one short visit, by George IV in 1821. From 1816 to 1837 Viceroy Adolphus represented the monarch in Hanover. During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Hastenbeck was fought near the city on 26 July 1757; the French army defeated the Hanoverian Army of Observation, leading to the city's occupation as part of the Invasion of Hanover. It was recaptured by Anglo-German forces led by Ferdinand of Brunswick the following year. After Napoleon imposed the Conv
Botany called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist; the term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder". Traditionally, botany has included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists study 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants, 20,000 are bryophytes. Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and cultivate – edible and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance, they were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards.
One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, led in 1753 to the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day. In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately. Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure and differentiation, reproduction and primary metabolism, chemical products, diseases, evolutionary relationships and plant taxonomy.
Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods, materials such as timber, rubber and drugs, in modern horticulture and forestry, plant propagation and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, the maintenance of biodiversity. Botany originated as the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. Many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago; this early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites of human occupation within Tennessee, which make up much of the Cherokee land today. The early recorded history of botany includes many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1100 BC, in archaic Avestan writings, in works from China before it was unified in 221 BC.
Modern botany traces its roots back to Ancient Greece to Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle who invented and described many of its principles and is regarded in the scientific community as the "Father of Botany". His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to botanical science until the Middle Ages seventeen centuries later. Another work from Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany is De Materia Medica, a five-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides. De Materia Medica was read for more than 1,500 years. Important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī's the Book of Plants, Ibn Bassal's The Classification of Soils. In the early 13th century, Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany in a systematic and scientific manner. In the mid-16th century, "botanical gardens" were founded in a number of Italian universities – the Padua botanical garden in 1545 is considered to be the first, still in its original location.
These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens" associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject. Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much to northern Europe. Throughout this period, botany remained subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs was one of "the three German fathers of botany", along with theologian Otto Brunfels and physician Hieronymus Bock. Fuchs and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium