Heinrich XXIX, Count of Reuss-Ebersdorf
Heinrich XXIX, Count of Reuss-Ebersdorf was a member of the House of Reuss Younger Line and Count Ebersdorf from 1711 until his death Heinrich was the son of Count Heinrich X Reuss of Ebersdorf and his wife Erdmuthe Benigna of Solms-Laubach. They raised Heinrich according to the guidelines of the Pietism. Heinrich soon befriended Count Nicholas Ludwig von Zinzendorf, he married on 7 September 1721 in Castell with Sophie Theodora, daughter of Count Dietrich Wolfgang of Castell-Remlingen and Countess Dorothea Renata of Zinzendorf. At Heinrich's wedding, Count Nicholas Ludwig met Erdmuthe Dorothea, they married one year later. Under Count Heinrich XXIX, a Moravian Church was founded in Ebersdorf, after the model of the church von Zinzendorf had founded in Upper Lusatia at Herrnhut; because class differences were eliminated in this church, the whole village met in the ballroom of the palace to pray and sing hymns. The Count and his servants were to treat each other as "brothers" while in church. Count Heinrich XXIX and Countess Sophie Theodora of Castell-Remlingen had thirteen children: Renate Benigna Heinrich XXIV, Count of Reuss-Ebersdorf Heinrich XXVI Heinrich XXVIII, married Agnes Sophie, daughter of Erdmann II of Promnitz Sophie Auguste, married 1748, Baron Ludwig von Weitelfshausen Charlotte Louise Heinrich XXXI Heinrich XXXII Heinrich XXXIII Heinrich XXXIV Christiane Eleonore Mary Elizabeth, married in 1765 Heinrich XXV, Count of Reuss-Lobenstein Johanna Dorothea married in 1770 Christoph Friedrich Levin von Trotha Thomas Gehrlein: "Das Haus Reuss: Älterer und Jüngerer Linie", August 2006 Stephan Hirzel: Der Graf und die Brüder, Quell Verlag, Stuttgart, 1980, ISBN 3-7918-4001-0 Erika Geiger: Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf.
Der Erfinder der Herrnhuter Losungen. Seine Lebensgeschichte,2d ed. Hänssler, Holzgerlingen, 2000, ISBN 3-7751-2839-5
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no
Emich Carl, 2nd Prince of Leiningen
Emich Carl, Prince of Leiningen was a German nobleman. He is an ancestor of various European royals, including Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Felipe VI of Spain, Constantine II of Greece. After his death, his widow, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, married a son of George III of the United Kingdom and became the mother of Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom. Emich Carl was born at Dürckheim, the fourth child and only son of Carl Friedrich Wilhelm, Count of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hartenburg by his wife Countess Christiane Wilhelmine Luise of Solms-Rödelheim and Assenheim. On 3 July 1779, his father was made a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Emich Carl became Hereditary Prince of Leiningen. On 9 January 1807, he succeeded his father as second Prince of Leiningen. Emich Carl was married firstly, on 4 July 1787, to Henriette, youngest daughter of Heinrich XXIV, Count of Reuss-Ebersdorf, by his wife, Countess Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg. Henriette died on 3 September 1801. By this marriage, Emich Carl had issue one son, who died young and within the lifetime of his mother, being: Prince Friedrich Karl Heinrich Ludwig of Leiningen On 21 December 1803, two years after the death of his first wife, Emich married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, fourth daughter of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld by his wife, Countess Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf.
His second wife was a niece of his late wife. She bore him two further children: Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Emich. Princess Anna Feodora Auguste Charlotte Wilhelmine of Leiningen, she is an ancestor of various European royals, including Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Felipe VI of Spain, Constantine II of Greece. Emich Carl died at Amorbach on 4 July 1814, was succeeded by his only surviving son, Carl Friedrich. Four years after his death, his widow was married to Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, fourth son of King George III of the United Kingdom. By him, she had a single daughter, Princess Victoria of Kent, who would become Queen regnant of the United Kingdom. Thomas Gehrlein: Das Haus Leiningen. 900 Jahre Gesamtgeschichte mit Stammfolgen. Deutsche Fürstenhäuser. Heft 32. Börde Verlag, Werl 2011, ISBN 978-3-9811993-9-0, S. 25 Marek, Miroslav. "leiningen/leiningen6.html#EC". Genealogy. EU
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Imperial County of Reuss
Reuss was the name of several historical states located in present-day Thuringia, Germany. Its rulers, the House of Reuss, named all of their male children Heinrich after the end of the 12th century in honour of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, to whom they owed the estates of Weida and Gera; the head of each branch of the family bore the German title Fürst. Several different principalities of the House of Reuss which had existed had by the time of the formation of the German Confederation become part of the two remaining lines. Before they had been part first of the Holy Roman Empire, the Confederation of the Rhine; the region including what would become the Principality of Reuss was inhabited in early medieval times by Slavic people who were converted to Christianity by the German Emperor Otto I. In church matters the region was under the Diocese of Zeitz. On account of the frequent inroads of the Slavs, the residence of the Bishop of Zeitz was removed to Naumburg in 1028, after which the See was called Naumburg-Zeitz.
Upon its subjection to German authority, the whole province was allotted to the March of Zeitz. As early as the year 1000, Emperor Otto III permitted the entire part lying on the eastern boundary of Thuringia to be administered by imperial vogts, or bailiffs, whence this territory received the name of Vogtland, a designation that has remained to this day a geographical summary for Reuss that part on the Saxon borders; the position of vogt soon became hereditary. The princes of Reuss are descended from the vogts of Weida. Erkenbert I is proved by documentary evidence to have been their ancestor, his successors acquired the whole Vogtland by feuds or marriage settlement, although in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries they lost the greater part of their possessions, most of which fell to the Electorate of Saxony. In 1244 Henry IV entered a German monastery, his sons divided his possessions, their seats being at Weida and Plauen. In 1306 the Plauen branch was subdivided into an elder line that died out in 1572, a younger line called Plauen at Greiz.
Henry, the founder of the Plauen line, on account of his marriage with a granddaughter of King Daniel of Galicia received the surname of "der Reusse", whence the name passed to the country. On account of the close relations of Reuss with the neighbouring Saxon states, Lutheranism speedily gained a foothold in Reuss; the rulers joined the Schmalkaldic League against the German emperor, forfeited their possessions, but afterwards recovered them. All the males of the House of Reuss are named Heinrich plus a number. In the elder line the numbering covers all male children of the elder House, the numbers increase until 100 is reached and start again at 1. In the younger line the system is similar but the numbers increase until the end of the century before starting again at 1; this odd regulation was formulated as a Family Law in 1688, but the tradition of the uniformity of name was in practice as early as 1200. It was seen as a way of honoring the Hohenstaufen Emperor Heinrich/Henry VI, who raised Heinrich der Reiche/Henry the Rich to the office of provost of the Cloister in Quedlinburg.
In 1564 the sons of Henry XIII of Reuss at Greiz divided the estates into Reuss at Lower Greiz, descendants of Henry XIV the Elder Reuss at Upper Greiz, descendants of Henry XV the Middle Reuss at Gera, descendants of Henry XVI the Younger. While the Middle Reuss became extinct in 1616, the Older and Younger lines were divided again several times until in 1778 Count Henry XI united the possessions of Upper and Lower Greiz to the Principality of Reuss Elder Line. In return the remaining estates of Gera larger though, became the Principality of Reuss Younger Line in 1806; the two remaining Reuss principalities went on to join in turn the German Confederation. Henry XXII of Reuss Elder line is notable among the more modern princes of this house for his enmity to Prussia, which he opposed in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, when the Prussian troops occupied his domain. Henry joined the new German Empire, he alone of all the confederate princes remained until his death an implacable enemy of Prince Bismarck and of the conditions created in Germany by the foundation of the empire.
His daughter Hermine Reuss of Greiz however became the second wife of the exiled Kaiser Wilhelm II later. His son, Heinrich XXIV, Prince Reuss of Greiz, being incapable of ruling, the regency passed to the ruling prince of the younger line of Reuss. Both lines lost their thrones in German Revolution of 1918–19. Of both lines, only the Köstritz side branch of the Younger Line still exists today. After World War I, the Reuss territories were unified in 1919 as the People's State of Reuss, incorporated into the new state of Thuringia in 1920. A young Reuss Count, sent to the 1815 Congress of Vienna, is the protagonist of the 1899 operetta Wiener Blut and the 1942 film based on it. Burgraves of Meissen "Reuss". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. Héraldique européenne
Leopold I of Belgium
Leopold I was a German prince who became the first King of the Belgians following the country's independence in 1830. He reigned between July 1831 and December 1865. Born into the ruling family of the small German duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Leopold took a commission in the Imperial Russian Army and fought against Napoleon after French troops overran Saxe-Coburg during the Napoleonic Wars. After Napoleon's defeat, Leopold moved to the United Kingdom where he married Princess Charlotte of Wales, second in line to the British throne and the only legitimate child of the Prince Regent. Charlotte died after only a year of marriage, but Leopold continued to enjoy considerable status in Britain. After the Greek War of Independence, Leopold was offered the crown of Greece but turned it down, believing it to be too precarious. Instead, Leopold accepted the kingship of the newly established Kingdom of Belgium in 1831; the Belgian government offered the position to Leopold because of his diplomatic connections with royal houses across Europe, because as the British-backed candidate, he was not affiliated with other powers, such as France, which were believed to have territorial ambitions in Belgium which might threaten the European balance of power created by the 1815 Congress of Vienna.
Leopold took his oath as King of the Belgians on 21 July 1831, an event commemorated annually as Belgian National Day. His reign was marked by attempts by the Dutch to recapture Belgium and by internal political division between liberals and Catholics; as a Protestant, Leopold was considered liberal and encouraged economic modernisation, playing an important role in encouraging the creation of Belgium's first railway in 1835 and subsequent industrialisation. As a result of the ambiguities in the Belgian Constitution, Leopold was able to expand the monarch's powers during his reign, he played an important role in stopping the spread of the Revolutions of 1848 into Belgium. He died in 1865 and was succeeded by his son, Leopold II. Leopold was born in Coburg in the tiny German duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld in modern-day Bavaria on 16 December 1790, he was the youngest son of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Countess Augusta Reuss-Ebersdorf. In 1826, Saxe-Coburg acquired the city of Gotha from the neighboring Duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and gave up Saalfeld to Saxe-Meiningen, becoming Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Ln 1795, at just five years old, Leopold was given an honorary commission of the rank of colonel in the Izmaylovsky Regiment, part of the Imperial Guard, in the Imperial Russian Army. Seven years he received a promotion to the rank of Major General; when French troops occupied the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars, Leopold went to Paris where he became part of the Imperial Court of Napoleon. Napoleon offered him the position of adjutant. Instead, he went to Russia to take up a military career in the Imperial Russian cavalry, at war with France at the time, he campaigned against Napoleon and distinguished himself at the Battle of Kulm at the head of his cuirassier division. By 1815, the time of the final defeat of Napoleon, he had reached the rank of lieutenant general at only 25 years of age. Leopold received British citizenship in 1815. On 2 May 1816, Leopold married Princess Charlotte of Wales at Carlton House in London. Charlotte was the only legitimate child of the Prince Regent George and therefore second in line to the British throne.
Charlotte had been engaged to the Prince of Orange, but finding him distasteful, broke it off in favour of Leopold. The Prince Regent was displeased, but found Leopold to be charming and possessing every quality to make his daughter happy, thus approving of their marriage; the same year he received an honorary commission to the rank of Field Marshal and Knight of the Order of the Garter. On 5 November 1817, after having suffered a miscarriage, Princess Charlotte gave birth to a stillborn son, she herself died the next day following complications. Leopold was said to have been heartbroken by her death. Had Charlotte survived, she would have become queen of the United Kingdom on the death of her father and Leopold would have assumed the role of prince consort taken by his nephew Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Despite Charlotte's death, the Prince Regent granted Prince Leopold the British style of Royal Highness by Order in Council on 6 April 1818. From 1828 to 1829, Leopold had an affair with the actress Caroline Bauer, who bore a striking resemblance to Charlotte.
Caroline was a cousin of his advisor Baron Christian Friedrich von Stockmar. She came to England with her mother and took up residence at Longwood House, a few miles from Claremont House. But, by mid-1829, the liaison was over, the actress and her mother returned to Berlin. Many years in memoirs published after her death, she declared that she and Leopold had engaged in a morganatic marriage and that he had bestowed upon her the title of Countess Montgomery, he would have broken this marriage. The son of Baron Stockmar denied that these events happened, indeed no records have been found of a civil or religious marriage with the actress. Following a Greek rebellion against the Ottoman Empire, Leopold was offered the throne of an independent Greece as part of the London Protocol of February 1830. Though showing interest in the position, Leopold turned down the offer on 17 May 1830; the role would subsequently be accepted by Otto of Wittelsbach in May 1832 who ruled until he was deposed in October 1862.
At the end of August 1830, rebels