Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges; the islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC; the city was the capital of the Republic of Venice. The 697–1797 Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center, emerging in the 9th century and reaching its greatest prominence in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has been known as "La Dominante", "La Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", "City of Canals"; the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, artwork. Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Although the city is facing some major challenges, Venice remains a popular tourist destination, an iconic Italian city, has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world. The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic and Frankish control; the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Enetoi. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color'sea-blue', is possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire, such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam, the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or with venia are fanciful.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees—from nearby Roman cities such as Padua, Treviso and Concordia, as well as from the undefended countryside—who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions; this is further supported by the documentation on the so-called "apostolic families", the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen, on the islands in the original marshy lagoons, who were referred to as incolae lacunae; the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto —said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD 166–168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main Roman town in the area, present-day Oderzo.
This part of Roman Italy was again overrun in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire only a small strip of coastline in the current Veneto, including Venice; the Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople. Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes, with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon; the tribuni maiores formed the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the lagoon, dating from c. 568. The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio A
Pittsburgh Opera is an American opera company based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh Opera gives performances in several venues at the Benedum Center, with other performances at the Pittsburgh Creative and Performing Arts School Theater. Pittsburgh Opera headquarters is located in the former George Westinghouse Air Brake Factory, 2425 Liberty Avenue, in the Strip District. Pittsburgh Opera has been awarded LEED Silver Certification by the U. S. Green Building Council and is the first "green" opera company in the U. S. in the Operations and Maintenance Category. Pittsburgh Opera's headquarters is the oldest green building in Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh Opera was established in 1939 as the Pittsburgh Opera Company and is the eighth-oldest opera company in the United States; the company was founded by five women who established the Pittsburgh Opera Society in 1939, making possible the inaugural performance of Offenbach's Les Contes d'Hoffmann at the Carnegie Music Hall in March 1940. The first director of the company was Richard Karp, from 1942 to 1977.
His daughter Barbara Karp took over her father's duties during his final illness. James DeBlasis served as interim artistic director after the resignation of Barbara Karp. In 1983, Tito Capobianco became Pittsburgh Opera's general director, holding this position until 1997. From 1997 to 2000, Capobianco was the company's artistic director, before leaving in 2000. Mark Weinstein became general director of Pittsburgh Opera in 1999, after starting as executive director in 1997. During his tenure, he presided over an increase in the company's endowment from US $4 million to US $16 million, as well as the retirement of US $2.5 million in debt. Weinstein presided over the addition of an extra production during the company season, 5 productions as opposed to 4, from the 2001-2002 season to the 2003-2004 season. Weinstein announced his resignation as Pittsburgh Opera's general director effective February 1, 2008. Artistic Director Christopher Hahn was appointed as General Director in June 2008. South Africa native Christopher Hahn served as the company's artistic director from 2000 until his appointment as General Director.
John Mauceri was Music Director of Pittsburgh Opera from 2000 until his resignation in 2006, to take up an academic post in North Carolina. In October 2006, Antony Walker was named the next Music Director of Pittsburgh Opera, assumed the post immediately. Walker's initial contract has since been extended through the 2011-12 season. On April 1, 2008, in a performance of Verdi's Aïda at the Benedum Center, in the final act of the opera, Walker stepped in to sing the role of Radames from the orchestra pit, conducting at the same time, while the tenor acted the role on stage. Theo Alcantara John Mauceri Antony Walker Official website
James Vernon Taylor is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist. A five-time Grammy Award winner, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2000, he is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 100 million records worldwide. Taylor achieved his breakthrough in 1970 with the No. 3 single "Fire and Rain" and had his first No. 1 hit in 1971 with his recording of "You've Got a Friend", written by Carole King in the same year. His 1976 Greatest Hits album has sold 12 million US copies. Following his 1977 album, JT, he has retained a large audience over the decades; every album that he released from 1977 to 2007 sold over 1 million copies. He enjoyed a resurgence in chart performance during the late 1990s and 2000s, when he recorded some of his most-awarded work, he achieved his first number-one album in the US in 2015 with his recording Before This World. He is known for his popular covers, such as "How Sweet It Is" and "Handy Man", as well as originals such as "Sweet Baby James".
James Vernon Taylor was born at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston on March 12, 1948, where his father, Isaac M. Taylor, worked as a resident physician, his father came from a wealthy Scottish family from the South. His mother, the former Gertrude Woodard, studied singing with Marie Sundelius at the New England Conservatory of Music and was an aspiring opera singer before the couple's marriage in 1946. James was the second of five children, the others being Alex, Kate and Hugh. In 1951, his family moved to Chapel Hill, North Carolina, when Isaac took a job as an assistant professor of medicine at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, they built a house in the Morgan Creek area off the present Morgan Creek Road, sparsely populated. James would say, "Chapel Hill, the Piedmont, the outlying hills, were tranquil, beautiful, but quiet. Thinking of the red soil, the seasons, the way things smelled down there, I feel as though my experience of coming of age there was more a matter of landscape and climate than people."
James attended public primary school in Chapel Hill. Isaac's career prospered, but he was away from home, on military service at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland, or as part of Operation Deep Freeze in Antarctica in 1955 and 1956. Isaac Taylor rose to become dean of the UNC School of Medicine from 1964 to 1971. Beginning in 1953, the Taylors spent summers on Martha's Vineyard. James first learned to play the cello as a child in North Carolina and switched to the guitar in 1960, his guitar style evolved, influenced by hymns and the music of Woody Guthrie, his technique derived from his bass clef-oriented cello training and from experimenting on his sister Kate's keyboards: "My style was a finger-picking style, meant to be like a piano, as if my thumb were my left hand, my first and third fingers were my right hand." He began attending Milton Academy, a preparatory boarding school in Massachusetts in fall 1961. Summering before with his family on Martha's Vineyard, he met Danny Kortchmar, an aspiring teenage guitarist from Larchmont, New York.
The two began listening to and playing blues and folk music together, Kortchmar realized that Taylor's singing had a "natural sense of phrasing, every syllable beautifully in time. I knew James had that thing." Taylor wrote his first song on guitar at 14, he continued to learn the instrument effortlessly. By the summer of 1963, he and Kortchmar were playing coffeehouses around the Vineyard, billed as "Jamie & Kootch". Taylor faltered during his junior year at Milton, feeling uneasy in the high-pressure college prep environment despite good scholastic performance; the Milton headmaster would say, "James was more sensitive and less goal-oriented than most students of his day." He returned home to North Carolina to finish out the semester at Chapel Hill High School. There, he joined. Having lost touch with his former school friends in North Carolina, Taylor returned to Milton for his senior year. There, Taylor soon descended into depression. In late 1965 he committed himself to the renowned McLean Hospital in Belmont, where he was treated with Thorazine and where the organized days began to give him a sense of time and structure.
As the Vietnam War escalated, Taylor received a psychological rejection from Selective Service System when he appeared before them with two white-suited McLean assistants and was uncommunicative. Taylor earned a high school diploma in 1966 from the hospital's associated Arlington School, he would view his nine-month stay at McLean as "a lifesaver... Like a pardon or like a reprieve," and both his brother Livingston and sister Kate would be patients and students there as well; as for his mental health struggles, Taylor would think of them as innate and say: "It's an inseparable part of my personality that I have these feelings." At Kortchmar's urging, Taylor checked himself out of McLean and moved to New York City to form a band. They recruited Joel O'Brien of Kortchmar's old band King Bees, to play drums, Taylor's childhood friend Zachary Wiesner (son of noted academic J
Hill District (Pittsburgh)
The Hill District is a historic black collection of neighborhoods in the City of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Beginning in the years leading up to World War I "the Hill" was the cultural center of black life in the city and a major center of jazz. Despite its cultural and economic vibrancy, in the mid-1950s a substantial area was slated for redevelopment, displacing about 8,000 individuals and leading to the neighborhood's dramatic economic decline; the Hill District of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania as of 2010 the area comprises Census Tracts 305, 501, 506, 509, 510 and 511. It is bordered by the Downtown on the west, the Strip District next to the Allegheny River and Polish Hill to the north, the Bluff on the southwest, Oakland on the east and southeast; the census tract/neighborhoods noted in the Hill District are represented on the Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 6. Part of the Upper Hill is represented under District 7; the 15219 ZIP code covers all five neighborhoods, the 15213 ZIP code covers part of Terrace Village and the Upper Hill.
Following the rebellion by slaves and gaining of independence of Haiti in 1804, the free African-American community of the Hill District, Pittsburgh's oldest black community, was called "Little Haiti." The early residents of the Hill District were middle-class free blacks. In 2004 the Pittsburgh City Council announced commemoration of the 200th anniversary of Haiti's independence. Beginning in the 1910s, the Hill attracted migrants from elsewhere in the United States and from abroad; the neighborhood's black population exploded from around 10,000 in 1890 to over 37,000 by 1920. The influx of so many new residents resulted in a housing shortage, exacerbated by the rigid system of segregation that limited potential dwellings for blacks entirely to the Hill District; the experience of young, single black men underscored the severity of the housing crisis. By virtue of housing segregation and their marital status, these men crammed into the limited number of units available in the district; the result was an epidemic of cramped boarding houses where workers slept in shifts, as one 1969 study showed when it stated:"Men who work at night sleep during the day in the beds vacated by day workers.
There is no space in these rooms, except for beds and as many of them are crowded in as can be accommodated." The Hill developed a vibrant entertainment district that turned the area into a cultural hub for music the jazz genre. Black entrepreneurs established and ran a large roster of nightspots that included nightclubs and gambling dens, all of which required a constant influx of musical acts to keep guests entertained; this concentration of entertainment spots along Wylie Avenue, Fullerton Street, Center Avenue provided ready venues for both famous national acts and upstart local artists to perform. A short list of the more well-known spots consisted of the following institutions: The Crawford Grill The Collins Inn The Humming Bird The Leader House The ToonTown Hub Derby Dan's Harlem Bar Musician's Club Sawdust Trail The Fullerton InnThe establishment of such robust entertainment infrastructure allowed for the proliferation of musical entertainment in the neighborhood when it came to jazz.
Nationally known artists such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington made the Hill District a regular stop on national tours. In fact it was after a performance at the Lincoln Tavern that the nationally-syndicated black-run newspaper "The Pittsburgh Courier" crowned Ellington "the King of Jazz."The presence of such a vibrant entertainment district proved most instrumental to the development of Pittsburgh-reared jazz musicians. As historian Colter Harper notes, this thriving environment of entertainment venues served as a training ground for young innovators who needed regular employment to develop ideas and techniques, places in which to network with each other, audiences for feedback, club managers to aid in accessing the music scene in other cities; the benefits of networking showed themselves through mentor-ship opportunities, as famous musicians could provide young artists with crucial career and technical advice. This was the case with renowned Pittsburgh-reared jazz pianist Mary Lou Williams, whose distinct left-hand-dominated playing style could be traced back to her youthful interactions with touring vaudeville artist Jack Howard as he played shows in the city.
That phrase would be popularized by radio DJ Mary Dee, of WHOD Radio, Pittsburgh's only black radio station. The district had cultural vibrancy, numerous successful entertainment venues and black-owned businesses, but much of the housing was aged and substandard. Following World War II, the federal government committed to upgrade housing across the nation, in Pittsburgh, 95 acres of the Hill District were selected for redevelopment. In an article from 1943, George E. Evans, a member of the City Council, reasoned that public-private redevelopment could provide significant employment to returning war veterans, while ameliorating what he saw as an area beset by deterioration and urban blight, he wrote, "The Hill District of Pittsburgh is one of the most outstanding examples in Pittsburgh of neighborhood deterioration... There are 7,000 separate property owne
Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh
The Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh is the City of Pittsburgh’s economic development agency, committed to creating jobs, expanding the City’s tax base, improving the vitality of businesses and neighborhoods. The URA achieves this mission by assembling and conveying sites for major mixed-use developments; the URA is facilitating a number of large-scale real estate developments, including: Almono Bakery Square 2.0 Civic Arena Redevelopment East Liberty Transit Center Hunt Armory The Gardens at Market Square SouthSide Works Station Square As of 2015, nearly $3 billion in private investment has been leveraged by $336 million in tax increment financing administered by the URA – a leverage ratio of 9 to 1. Between 2006 and 2012, the URA: Issued 401 loans/grants totaling $580 million with $80 million of URA investment Invested $348 million in economic development projects, leveraging over a billion dollars in total project costs Leveraged $60 million in tax increment financing to create $520 million in total investment Initiated $545 million in housing development projects, creating 4,024 housing units with $138 million of URA investment Provided $9.4 million in loans and grants to rehabilitate 611 housing units and $20.3 million in mortgage loans for the purchase of 422 housing units
William Steinberg was a German-American conductor. Steinberg was born Hans Wilhelm Steinberg in Germany, he displayed early talent as a violinist and composer, conducting his own choral/ orchestral composition at age 13. In 1914, he began studies at the Cologne Conservatory, where his piano teacher was the Clara Schumann pupil Lazzaro Uzielli and his conducting mentor was Hermann Abendroth, he graduated with distinction, winning the Wüllner Prize for conducting, in 1919. He became a second violinist in the Cologne Opera orchestra, but was dismissed from the position by Otto Klemperer for using his own bowings, he was soon hired by Klemperer as an assistant, in 1922 conducted Fromental Halévy's La Juive as a substitute. When Klemperer left in 1924, Steinberg served as Principal Conductor, he left a year in 1925, for Prague, where he was conductor of the German Theater. He next took the position of music director of the Frankfurt Opera. In 1930, in Frankfurt, he conducted the world premiere of Arnold Schoenberg's Von heute auf morgen.
He was relieved of his post in 1933 by the Third Reich. According to the grandson of composer Ernst Toch, Steinberg was "rehearsing in Cologne when Nazi brownshirts came storming into the hall and lifted the baton out of his hand".. The Steinbergs left Germany in 1936 for the British Mandate of Palestine, now Israel. With co-founder Bronisław Huberman, Steinberg trained the Palestine Symphony Orchestra, which would be known as the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra. Steinberg was conducting the orchestra when Arturo Toscanini visited there in 1936. Toscanini was impressed with Steinberg's preliminary groundwork for his concerts and engaged him as an assistant in preparing for the NBC Symphony Orchestra radio broadcasts. Steinberg emigrated to the United States in 1938, he conducted a number of concerts with the NBC Symphony Orchestra from 1938 to 1940. Steinberg conducted summer concerts at Lewisohn Stadium in New York, led New York Philharmonic concerts in 1943-44, conducted at the San Francisco Opera.
He became a US citizen in 1944, was engaged as music director of the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra from 1945 to 1952. He is best known for his tenure as music director of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra from 1952 to 1976. Steinberg's Pittsburgh appearances in January 1952 were so impressive that he was both engaged as music director and signed to a contract with Capitol Records. Thereafter Pittsburgh was the center of his activity. From 1958 to 1960 he conducted the London Philharmonic Orchestra, but resigned that post because the added workload led to problems with his arm, he led the New York Philharmonic for twelve weeks while on sabbatical leave from Pittsburgh in 1964-65, which led to his engagement as the Philharmonic's principal guest conductor from 1966 to 1968. From 1969 to 1972 Steinberg was music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra while maintaining his Pittsburgh post, he toured Europe with the Boston Symphony in April 1971. These additional engagements led to rumors that Steinberg would leave Pittsburgh for a full-time position elsewhere.
In 1968 though he declared, "We are too wed, the Pittsburgh Symphony and I, to contemplate any divorce." On another occasion Steinberg said that conducting had become the profession of a traveling salesman. "A conductor has to stay put to educate an orchestra."Steinberg guest-conducted most of the major US orchestras, including the Chicago Symphony, Cincinnati Symphony, Cleveland Orchestra, Dallas Symphony, Los Angeles Philharmonic, San Francisco Symphony, Seattle Symphony, Philadelphia Orchestra. Abroad he conducted the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, Berlin Philharmonic, Frankfurt Opera and Museum Orchestra, Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra, Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, Montreal Symphony Orchestra, Munich Philharmonic, Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire, Orchestra dell'Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, RAI Orchestra of Rome, Orchestra of the Teatro di San Carlo, Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, Royal Liverpool Philharmonic, Tonhalle Orchester Zürich, Toronto Symphony Orchestra, Vancouver Symphony Orchestra, WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne.
He appeared at summer festivals in the US and Canada as well as in Europe. He conducted the Metropolitan Opera in several productions including Barber's Vanessa, Verdi's Aida, Wagner's Die Walküre during his sabbatical in 1964-65. Steinberg recorded Don Juan and his own suite from Der Rosenkavalier with Walter Legge's Philharmonia Orchestra in the summer of 1957; the following year he conducted them in concerts at Lucerne before assuming the conductorship of the London Philharmonic. Steinberg's first recording was however made in 1928, when he accompanied Bronisław Huberman in Tchaikovsky's Violin Concerto with the Staatskapelle Berlin. In 1940 Steinberg recorded excerpts from Wagner's "Lohengrin," "Tristan und Isolde," and Tannhäuser, as well as Mozart's "The Marriage of Figaro," with Metropolitan Opera members, issued anonymously on "World's Greatest Opera" records. After the war Steinberg made a single album for the Musicraft label with the Buffalo Phi
Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen is an American singer-songwriter and leader of the E Street Band. Nicknamed "The Boss," he is recognized for his poetic lyrics, his Jersey Shore roots, his distinctive voice, lengthy, energetic stage performances. Springsteen has recorded more somber folk-oriented works, his most successful studio albums, Born to Run and Born in the U. S. A. find pleasures in the struggles of daily American life. He has sold more than 135 million records worldwide and more than 64 million records in the United States, making him one of the world's best-selling artists, he has earned numerous awards for his work, including 20 Grammy Awards, two Golden Globes, an Academy Award, a Tony Award. Springsteen was inducted into both the Songwriters Hall of Fame and the Rock And Roll Hall Of Fame in 1999, received Kennedy Center Honors in 2009, was named MusiCares person of the year in 2013, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2016. Married to actress Julianne Phillips, Springsteen married musician Patti Scialfa in 1991.
Their three children are Evan James Springsteen, Jessica Rae Springsteen, Sam Ryan Springsteen. Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen was born on September 23, 1949, at Monmouth Medical Center in Long Branch, New Jersey, he was brought home from the hospital to Freehold Borough. He attended Freehold Borough High School, his father, Douglas Frederick "Dutch" Springsteen, was of Dutch and Irish ancestry, worked as a bus driver, among other jobs, but was unemployed most of the time. Springsteen said his mother, Adele Ann, a legal secretary and of Italian ancestry, was the main breadwinner, his maternal grandfather was born in a town near Naples. He has two younger sisters and Pamela. Pamela left acting to pursue still photography full-time. Douglas Springsteen, Bruce's father, suffered from mental health issues through his life which worsened in his years. Springsteen's last name is topographic and of Dutch origin translating to "jumping stone" but more meaning a kind of stone used as a stepping stone in unpaved streets or between two houses.
The Springsteens are among the early Dutch families who settled in the colony of New Netherland in the 1600s. Raised a Catholic, Springsteen attended the St. Rose of Lima Catholic school in Freehold Borough, where he was at odds with the nuns and rejected the strictures imposed upon him though some of his music reflects a Catholic ethos and includes a few rock-influenced, traditional Irish-Catholic hymns. In a 2012 interview, he explained that it was his Catholic upbringing rather than political ideology that most influenced his music, he noted in the interview that his faith had given him a "very active spiritual life", although he joked that this "made it difficult sexually." He added: "Once a Catholic, always a Catholic."In ninth grade, Springsteen began attending the public Freehold High School, but did not fit in there either. Former teachers have said he was a "loner, who wanted nothing more than to play his guitar." He felt so uncomfortable that he skipped the ceremony. He attended Ocean County College, but dropped out.
Springsteen grew up hearing fellow New Jersey singer Frank Sinatra on the radio. He became interested in being involved in music himself when, in 1956 and 1957, at the age of seven, he saw Elvis Presley on The Ed Sullivan Show. Soon after this his mother rented him a guitar from Mike Diehl's Music in Freehold for $6 a week but it failed to provide him with the'instant gratification' he desired. In 1964, Springsteen saw the Beatles appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show and, inspired, he bought his first guitar for $18.95 at the Western Auto Appliance Store. Thereafter he started playing for audiences with a band called the Rogues at local venues such as the Elks Lodge in Freehold. In late 1964, Springsteen's mother took out a loan to buy her 16-year-old son a $60 Kent guitar, an act he subsequently memorialized in his song "The Wish"; the following year, he went to the house of Tex and Marion Vinyard, who sponsored young bands in town. They helped, his first gig with the Castiles was at a trailer park on New Jersey Route 34.
The Castiles recorded two original songs at a public recording studio in Brick Township and played a variety of venues, including Cafe Wha? in Greenwich Village. Marion Vinyard said. Called for conscription in the United States Army when he was 18, Springsteen failed the physical examination and did not serve in the Vietnam War, he had suffered a concussion in a motorcycle accident when he was 17, this together with his "crazy" behavior at induction gave him a classification of 4F, which made him unacceptable for service. In the late-1960s, Springsteen performed in a power trio known as Earth, playing in clubs in New Jersey, with one major show at the Hotel Diplomat in New York City. Earth consisted of John Graham on bass, Mike Burke on drums. Bob Alfano was added on organ was replaced for two gigs by Frank'Flash' Craig. From 1969 through early 1971, Springsteen performed with Steel Mill, which included Danny Federici, Vini Lopez, Vinnie Roslin and Steve Van Zandt and Robbin Thompson. During this time he performed at venues on the Jersey Shore, in Richmond, Nashville, a set of gigs in California gatheri