Jan Dismas Zelenka
Jan Dismas Zelenka, known as Johann Dismas Zelenka, was a Czech composer and musician of the Baroque period. His music is admired for its inventiveness and counterpoint. Zelenka was born in Louňovice pod Blaníkem, a market town southeast of Prague. He was the eldest of the eight children born to Marie Magdalena, the middle name Dismas is probably his confirmation name. Zelenkas father Jiří was a schoolmaster and organist in Launiowitz, nothing more is known with certainty about Zelenkas early years. He received his training at the Jesuit college Clementinum in Prague. His first works were written in Prague, and his earliest known work Via laureta was composed in 1704. The music is lost, but a still exists. Zelenka served Baron von Johann Hubert von Hartig in Prague, before his appointment as violone player in Dresdens royal orchestra and this Baron von Hartig was a well known connoisseur of music and a virtuoso musician. He corresponded with many important Italian composers and amassed a great library in his life.
In ca.1729 Zelenka copied this work from Hartigs collection, Georg Friedrich Handels copy of Lottis mass might have been acquired through Zelenka. When Johann Hubert died in Prague in 1741, Zelenka dedicated his Litaniae Lauretanae Salus infirmorum to his old patron and it is possible that Count Johann Hubert von Hartig recommended Zelenka for the Dresden Hofkapelle as a double bass player. Zelenka entered the service of the Dresden court with a salary of 300 thalers in 1710/1711, the favourable conditions for music making at Dresden gave added impetus to his creativity, particularly with respect to the composition of sacred music for the Catholic court church. His first opus in Dresden was a Mass, the Missa Sanctae Caeciliae, three years later, Zelenkas salary was increased once again, this time by 14,3 %, which raised his wages to 400 thalers. Zelenka continued his education in Vienna under the Habsburg Imperial Kapellmeister Johann Joseph Fux beginning in 1716, new documents concerning the arrival of Petzold and Pisendel in Italy have now surfaced.
Since Zelenka was not travelling with his colleagues, it now seems unlikely that he made the trip to Venice. Wenceslas on the occasion of the coronation of Charles VI, he remained in Dresden, while in Prague he concentrated on instrumental composition, as the autograph of the score of Concerto à8 concertanti confirms, Six concerti written in a hurry in Prague in 1723. In the early 1720s Zelenka composed some of his finest works, for example the Responsoria pro hebdomada, as a result, his compositions now formed an important part of the repertory of the Catholic court church
Samuel Barclay Beckett was an Irish avant-garde novelist, theatre director, and poet, who lived in Paris for most of his adult life and wrote in both English and French. He is widely regarded as among the most influential writers of the 20th century, Becketts work offers a bleak, tragicomic outlook on human existence, often coupled with black comedy and gallows humour, and became increasingly minimalist in his career. He is considered one of the last modernist writers, and one of the key figures in what Martin Esslin called the Theatre of the Absurd. Beckett was awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize in Literature for his writing, which—in new forms for the novel and he was elected Saoi of Aosdána in 1984. The Becketts were members of the Anglican Church of Ireland, the family home, Cooldrinagh in the Dublin suburb of Foxrock, was a large house and garden complete with tennis court built in 1903 by Samuels father, William. Samuel Beckett was born on Good Friday,13 April 1906, to William Frank Beckett, a quantity surveyor and descendant of the Huguenots, and Maria Jones Roe, a nurse, Beckett had one older brother, Frank Edward Beckett.
At the age of five, Beckett attended a local playschool, where he started to learn music, in 1919, Beckett went to Portora Royal School in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh. A natural athlete, Beckett excelled at cricket as a left-handed batsman, later, he was to play for Dublin University and played two first-class games against Northamptonshire. As a result, he became the only Nobel literature laureate to have played first class cricket, Beckett studied French and English at Trinity College, Dublin from 1923 to 1927. He was elected a Scholar in Modern Languages in 1926, Beckett graduated with a BA and, after teaching briefly at Campbell College in Belfast, took up the post of lecteur danglais at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris from November 1928 to 1930. While there, he was introduced to renowned Irish author James Joyce by Thomas MacGreevy and this meeting had a profound effect on the young man. Beckett assisted Joyce in various ways, one of which was research towards the book that became Finnegans Wake, in 1929, Beckett published his first work, a critical essay entitled Dante.
Becketts close relationship with Joyce and his family cooled, Becketts first short story, was published in Jolass periodical transition. In 1930, Beckett returned to Trinity College as a lecturer, in November 1930, he presented a paper in French to the Modern Languages Society of Trinity on the Toulouse poet Jean du Chas, founder of a movement called le Concentrisme. It was a parody, for Beckett had in fact invented the poet and his movement that claimed to be at odds with all that is clear. Beckett insisted that he had not intended to fool his audience, when Beckett resigned from Trinity at the end of 1931, his brief academic career was at an end. He spent some time in London, where in 1931 he published Proust, two years later, following his fathers death, he began two years treatment with Tavistock Clinic psychoanalyst Dr. Wilfred Bion. Aspects of it became evident in Becketts works, such as Watt, in 1932, he wrote his first novel, Dream of Fair to Middling Women, but after many rejections from publishers decided to abandon it
IRCAM is a French institute for science about music and sound and avant garde electro-acoustical art music. It is situated next to, and is linked with. The extension of the building was designed by Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers, several concepts for electronic music and audio processing have emerged at IRCAM. Max/MSP has subsequently become a widely used tool in electroacoustic music, many of the techniques associated with spectralism, such as analyses based on fast Fourier transforms, were made practical by technological contributions at IRCAM. For instance, researchers at IRCAM have developed a special microphone capable of isolating each of the four strings for separate amplification or electronic treatment. IRCAM provides classes to train composers in music technology, apart from electroacoustic programmes, IRCAM has programmes in contemporary classical music. It has disseminated music of post World War II modernist musicians such as that of Luciano Berio or Pierre Boulez, Musical spectralism such as that of Tristan Murail, has received support from IRCAM.
Murail taught at IRCAM for a time, kaija Saariaho, whose work has been influenced by spectralism, has been supported by IRCAM. IRCAM has helped to develop various performance models, a resident ensemble of IRCAM, Ensemble InterContemporain, specialised in contemporary classical music, where each performer could be called upon to perform solo literature or ensemble literature. The Ensemble InterContemporain has been a model for large ensembles in Europe, for example the Ensemble Modern. Many classical contemporary pieces have been written for the orchestra section of Ensemble InterContemporain. There are regular concerts at IRCAM, in 1970 president Georges Pompidou asked Pierre Boulez to found an institution for research in music. In 1973 the section of the building underneath Place Igor Stravinsky was finished, from the outset, Boulez was in charge of the centre. The initial administrators included Luciano Berio, Vinko Globokar, Jean-Claude Risset,1990 Ircam established the Cursus Program for young Composers, a training in Computer Music and Composition.
In 1992 Boulez, who became director, was succeeded by Laurent Bayle. In 2002 the philosopher Bernard Stiegler became the new head of the institute, on January 1,2006, Stiegler became Director of Cultural Development at the Centre Pompidou and was replaced by Frank Madlener. The creation of IRCAM coincided with the rise of the debates about modernism and postmodernism in culture and its multimedia library was established in 1996. Orchidée is developed as a tool to aid in composition in which musical scores using traditional instruments are generated by imitating a target input sound
Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert. A conductors directions will almost invariably be supplemented or reinforced by verbal instructions or suggestions to their musicians in rehearsal prior to a performance. The conductor typically stands on a podium with a large music stand for the full score. Conducting while playing a piano or synthesizer may be done with musical theatre pit orchestras, communication is typically non-verbal during a performance. However, in rehearsals, frequent interruptions allow the conductor to give verbal directions as to how the music should be played or sung, Conductors act as guides to the orchestras or choirs they conduct. They choose the works to be performed and study their scores, to which they may make adjustments, work out their interpretation. They may attend to matters, such as scheduling rehearsals, planning a concert season, hearing auditions and selecting members. Orchestras, concert bands and other musical ensembles such as big bands are usually led by conductors.
The principal conductor of an orchestra or opera company is referred to as a music director or chief conductor, or by the German words Kapellmeister or Dirigent. Conductors of choirs or choruses are sometimes referred to as director, chorus master, or choirmaster. Conductors of concert bands, military bands, marching bands and other bands may hold the title of director, bandmaster. Respected senior conductors are sometimes referred to by the Italian word, an early form of conducting is cheironomy, the use of hand gestures to indicate melodic shape. This has been practiced at least as far back as the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, other devices to indicate the passing of time came into use. Rolled up sheets of paper, smaller sticks and unadorned hands are all shown in pictures from this period, the large staff was responsible for the death of Jean-Baptiste Lully, who injured his foot with one while conducting a Te Deum for the Kings recovery from illness. The wound became gangrenous and Lully refused amputation, whereupon the gangrene spread to his leg, in instrumental music throughout the 18th century, a member of the ensemble usually acted as the conductor.
This was sometimes the concertmaster, who could use his bow as a baton and it was common to conduct from the harpsichord in pieces that had a basso continuo part. In opera performances, there were sometimes two conductors – the keyboard player was in charge of the singers, and the principal violinist or leader was in charge of the orchestra. By the early 19th century, it became the norm to have a dedicated conductor, the size of the usual orchestra expanded during this period, and the use of a baton became more common, as it was easier to see than bare hands or rolled-up paper
In music, the term note has three primary meanings, A sign used in musical notation to represent the relative duration and pitch of a sound, A pitched sound itself. Notes are the blocks of much written music, discretizations of musical phenomena that facilitate performance, comprehension. In the former case, one note to refer to a specific musical event, in the latter. Two notes with fundamental frequencies in an equal to any integer power of two are perceived as very similar. Because of that, all notes with these kinds of relations can be grouped under the pitch class. However, within the English-speaking and Dutch-speaking world, pitch classes are represented by the first seven letters of the Latin alphabet. A few European countries, including Germany, adopt an almost identical notation, the eighth note, or octave, is given the same name as the first, but has double its frequency. The name octave is used to indicate the span between a note and another with double frequency, for example, the now-standard tuning pitch for most Western music,440 Hz, is named a′ or A4.
There are two systems to define each note and octave, the Helmholtz pitch notation and the scientific pitch notation. Letter names are modified by the accidentals, a sharp ♯ raises a note by a semitone or half-step, and a flat ♭ lowers it by the same amount. In modern tuning a half step has a ratio of 12√2. The accidentals are written after the name, so, for example, F♯ represents F-sharp, B♭ is B-flat. Additional accidentals are the double-sharp, raising the frequency by two semitones, and double-flat, lowering it by that amount, in musical notation, accidentals are placed before the note symbols. Systematic alterations to the seven lettered pitches in the scale can be indicated by placing the symbols in the key signature, explicitly noted accidentals can be used to override this effect for the remainder of a bar. A special accidental, the natural symbol ♮, is used to indicate an unmodified pitch, effects of key signature and local accidentals do not accumulate. If the key signature indicates G♯, a flat before a G makes it G♭, though often this type of rare accidental is expressed as a natural.
Likewise, a sharp sign on a key signature with a single sharp ♯ indicates only a double sharp. Assuming enharmonicity, many accidentals will create equivalences between pitches that are written differently, for instance, raising the note B to B♯ is equal to the note C
Oboes /ˈoʊboʊ/ OH-boh are a family of double reed woodwind musical instruments. The most common oboe plays in the treble or soprano range, oboes are usually made of wood, but there are oboes made of synthetic materials. A soprano oboe measures roughly 65 cm long, with keys, a conical bore. Sound is produced by blowing into the reed and vibrating a column of air, the distinctive oboe tone is versatile, and has been described as bright. When the term oboe is used alone, it is taken to mean the standard treble instrument rather than other instruments of the family. In English, prior to 1770, the instrument was called a hautbois, hoboy. The spelling of oboe was adopted into English c.1770 from the Italian oboè, a musician who plays the oboe is called an oboist or simply an oboe player. In comparison to other woodwind instruments, the treble oboe is sometimes referred to as having a clear. The Sprightly Companion, a book published by Henry Playford in 1695, describes the oboe as Majestical and Stately.
Humorously, the sound of the oboe is described in the play Angels in America as like that of a if the duck were a songbird. The rich timbre of the oboe is derived from its conical bore, as a result, oboes are readily audible over other instruments in large ensembles. The highest note of the oboe is a lower than the nominally highest note of the B♭ clarinet. Since the clarinet has a range of notes, the lowest note of the B♭ clarinet is significantly deeper than the lowest note of the oboe. Music for the oboe is written in concert pitch. Orchestras normally tune to a concert A played by the oboe, according to the League of American Orchestras, this is done because the pitch of the oboe is secure and its penetrating sound makes it ideal for tuning purposes. The pitch of the oboe is affected by the way in which the reed is made. The reed has a significant effect on the sound of the instrument, Variations in cane and other construction materials, the age of the reed, and differences in scrape and length all affect the pitch of the instrument.
German and French reeds, for instance, differ in many ways, weather conditions such as temperature and humidity affect the pitch
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, the BBC is the worlds oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total,16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting, the total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBCs radio, TV, britains first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mails Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba, the Melba broadcast caught the peoples imagination and marked a turning point in the British publics attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications.
By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests, John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers, to this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to inform and entertain. The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate, set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee and this was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired.
The BBCs broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, the BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00, and required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee, by now the BBC under Reiths leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a service rather than a commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production and with restrictions on news bulletins waived the BBC suddenly became the source of news for the duration of the crisis.
The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position, the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PMs own
A composer is a person who creates or writes music, which can be vocal music, instrumental music or music which combines both instruments and voices. The core meaning of the term refers to individuals who have contributed to the tradition of Western classical music through creation of works expressed in written musical notation, many composers are skilled performers, either as singers, and/or conductors. Examples of composers who are well known for their ability as performers include J. S. Bach, Mozart. In many popular genres, such as rock and country. For a singer or instrumental performer, the process of deciding how to perform music that has previously composed and notated is termed interpretation. Different performers interpretations of the work of music can vary widely, in terms of the tempos that are chosen. Composers and songwriters who present their own music are interpreting, just as much as those who perform the music of others, although a musical composition often has a single author, this is not always the case. A piece of music can be composed with words, images, or, in the 20th and 21st century, a culture eventually developed whereby faithfulness to the composers written intention came to be highly valued.
This musical culture is almost certainly related to the esteem in which the leading classical composers are often held by performers. The movement might be considered a way of creating greater faithfulness to the original in works composed at a time that expected performers to improvise. In Classical music, the composer typically orchestrates her own compositions, in some cases, a pop songwriter may not use notation at all, and instead compose the song in her mind and play or record it from memory. In jazz and popular music, notable recordings by influential performers are given the weight that written scores play in classical music. The level of distinction between composers and other musicians varies, which issues such as copyright and the deference given to individual interpretations of a particular piece of music. In the development of European classical music, the function of composing music initially did not have greater importance than that of performing it. The preservation of individual compositions did not receive attention and musicians generally had no qualms about modifying compositions for performance.
In as much as the role of the composer in western art music has seen continued solidification, for instance, in certain contexts the line between composer and performer, sound designer, arranger and other roles, can be quite blurred. The term composer is often used to refer to composers of music, such as those found in classical, jazz or other forms of art. In popular and folk music, the composer is usually called a songwriter and this is distinct from a 19th-century conception of instrumental composition, where the work was represented solely by a musical score to be interpreted by performers
Langenthal is a town and a municipality in the district of Oberaargau in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. On 1 January 2010 the municipality of Untersteckholz merged into the Langenthal, Langenthal is an educational and economic center for the region of Oberaargau. Archeological evidence suggests that early settlements existed around 4000 B. C. in the Langenthal area, a Hallstatt necropolis with twelve grave mounds has been found at Unterhard. Remnants of two Roman villae have been identified, Langenthal is first mentioned in 861, as marcha in Langatun, referring to farming estates scattered along the Langete. The Old High German name Langatun is presumably composed of a hydronym langa-, the re-interpretation of the name as including the element -tal valley dates to c. the 15th century, during which the name is on record as either Langaten or Langental. In the 12th century Langenthal belonged to the territory of the lords of Langenstein, in 1194 the Freiherr founded the Abbey of St. Urban and endowed the Abbey with lands in Langenthal.
Formerly part of Thunstetten parish, Langenthal was granted its own church in 1197. After the extinction of the Langenstein family in 1212, the Abbey inherited additional lands in the area, the establishment of the Abbey brought agricultural improvements, especially the introduction of an irrigation system to the area. However, the Abbey often came into conflict with the Kyburg Ministerialis family of Luternau, the Luternau family fought the growing power of the Abbey, until 1273-76 when they were obligated to sell their interest in Langenthal to the Abbey. Just a few later, in 1279, the Abbey, in turn, was forced to give the low court. By the end of the 14th century, the Abbey had regained power and was able to bring the village fully under their control, starting in 1313 the Kyburgs held the high court right for the village. When that family died out in 1406, Bern inherited the right to hold the high court, over the next few years Berns power expanded in Langenthal. In 1415, Langenthal became incorporated into the territory of the Republic of Bern, but it remained under the landlordship, over the following centuries, the Bernese court slowly eliminated many of the Abbeys powers.
The Protestant Reformation of 1528 weakened the power of the Abbey slightly, during the 16th century a number of craftsmen and small businesses moved into the growing town. In 1571 Bern granted the right for the town to two yearly markets. However, the supply of goods for sale quickly exceeded the capacity of the two yearly markets, in 1613 they built a Kaufhaus or market building and started holding weekly markets. The Kaufhaus was rebuilt in 1808 and from 1894 until 1992 served as the town hall, by 1616 Langenthal had a series of laws and regulations governing the booming markets and trade in the town. In 1640 Langenthal and Langnau became centers of linen production and export to France, Spain
Krzysztof Eugeniusz Penderecki is a Polish composer and conductor. The Guardian has called him Polands greatest living composer, among his best known works are his Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima, St. Born in Dębica to a lawyer, Penderecki studied music at Jagiellonian University, after graduating from the Academy of Music, Penderecki became a teacher at the academy and he began his career as a composer in 1959 during the Warsaw Autumn festival. His Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima for string orchestra and the choral work St. Luke Passion, have received popular acclaim and his first opera, The Devils of Loudun, was not immediately successful. Beginning in the mid-1970s, Pendereckis composing style changed, with his first violin concerto focusing on the semitone and his choral work Polish Requiem was written in the 1980s, with Penderecki expanding it in 1993 and 2005. Penderecki was born in Dębica, to Tadeusz Penderecki, a lawyer and his grandmother was an Armenian from Isfahan, Iran.
Penderecki used to go to Armenian Church in Kraków with her, Penderecki was the youngest of three siblings, his sister, was married to a mining engineer, and his older brother, was studying law and medicine at the time of his birth. Tadeusz was a violinist and played piano, in 1939, the Second World War broke out, and Pendereckis family moved out of their apartment as the Ministry of Food was to operate there. After the war, Penderecki began attending school in 1946. He began studying the violin under Stanisław Darłak, Dębicas military bandmaster who organized an orchestra for the music society after the war. Upon graduating from school, Penderecki moved to Kraków in 1951. He studied violin with Stanisław Tawroszewicz and music theory with Franciszek Skołyszewski, in 1954, Penderecki entered the Academy of Music in Kraków and, having finished his studies on violin after his first year, focused entirely on composition. Pendereckis main teacher there was Artur Malawski, a known for his choral works and orchestral works, as well as chamber music.
After Malawskis death in 1957, Penderecki took further lessons with Stanisław Wiechowicz, at the time, the 1956 overthrow of Stalinism in Poland lifted strict Communist cultural censorship and opened the door to a wave of creativity. On graduating from the Academy of Music in Kraków in 1958 and his early works show the influence of Anton Webern and Pierre Boulez. In it, he use of extended instrumental techniques. There are many novel textures in the work, which makes use of tone clusters. He originally titled the work 837, but decided to dedicate it to the victims of Hiroshima, the piece was composed for the Donaueschingen Festival of contemporary music of 1962, and its performance was regarded as provocative and controversial
Hans Werner Henze
Hans Werner Henze was a German composer. In particular, his works reflect his consistent cultivation of music for the theatre throughout his life. Henze was known for his political convictions and he left Germany for Italy in 1953 because of a perceived intolerance towards his leftist politics and homosexuality. Late in life he lived in the village of Marino in the central Italian region of Lazio, an avowed Marxist and member of the Communist Party of Italy, Henze produced compositions honoring Ho Chi Minh and Che Guevara. Henze spent a year teaching in Cuba, though he became disillusioned with Castro. Henze was born in Gütersloh, the eldest of six children of a teacher and that and his political views led to conflict with his conservative father. Henzes father, had served in the First World War and was wounded at Verdun. He worked as a teacher in a school at Bielefeld, formed on progressive lines, Franz Henze moved to Dünne, a small village near Bünde, where he fell under the spell of Nazi propaganda.
Books by Jewish and Christian authors were replaced in the Henze household by literature reflecting Nazi views, the older boys, including Hans, were enrolled in the Hitler Youth. Henze began studies at the music school of Braunschweig in 1942, where he studied piano, percussion. Franz Henze rejoined the army in 1943 and he was sent to the Eastern front, Henze had to break off his studies after being conscripted into the army in 1944, towards the end of the Second World War. He was trained as a radio officer and he was soon captured by the British and held in a prisoner-of-war camp for the remainder of the war. In 1945 he became an accompanist in the Bielefeld City Theatre and he took part in the famous Darmstadt New Music Summer School, a key vehicle for the propagation of avant-garde techniques. At the 1947 summer school, Henze turned to serial technique, in his early years he worked with twelve-tone technique, for example in his First Symphony and Violin Concerto of 1947. Sadlers Wells Ballet visited Hamburg in 1948, this inspired Henze to write a poem, Ballett-Variationen.
The first ballet he saw was Frederick Ashtons Scènes de Ballet and he wrote a letter of appreciation to Ashton, introducing himself as a 22-year-old composer. The next time he wrote to Ashton he enclosed the score of his Ballett-Variationen and this work was first performed in Düsseldorf in September 1949 and staged for the first time in Wuppertal in 1958. In 1948 he became assistant at the Deutscher Theater in Konstanz