Marcus Amerman is a Choctaw bead artist, glass artist, fashion designer, performance artist, living in Idaho. He is known for his realistic beadwork portraits. Marcus Amerman grew up in the Pacific Northwest, he earned his Bachelor of Fine Arts from Whitman College in Washington. He studied the Institute of American Indian Arts and the Anthropology Film Center, his exploration of so many different genres of art overlap each other. For instance, Amerman's beadwork is integrated into clothing design, his outfits are featured in his performance art. His paintings and glasswork use a vivid palette, found in his beadwork, he has create giant beads out of glass. Amerman's first foray into realism in beadwork was his 1993 Iron Horse Jacket, a studded leather jacket featuring a detailed and modeled image of Brooke Shields in beadwork, he added portrait bracelets to his repertoire. He has portrayed many historical heroes such as Lloyd Kiva New, his paintings are expressive and reflect his Choctaw roots, with Mississippian imagery.
His work in glass includes Mississippian ceramic designs, but more reflects contemporary designs, such as globes of the earth. Amerman's work is in such public collections as the George Gustav Heye Center, the National Museum of the American Indian, the American Museum of Natural History, the Heard Museum, the Portland Art Museum, the Sequoyah National Research Center in Little Rock and the Museum of Arts and Design, he is the only artist to have his beadwork featured in Playboy magazine. In 2008, Amerman was a Hauberg Fellow at the Pilchuck Glass School and artist-of-residence there in 2008, he and Tlingit artist Preston Singletary both taught at the school in 2006 as part of Iconoglass. Amerman's brother, Roger Amerman, is an award-winning beadworker, inspired by Southeastern Woodland designs, their first cousin, Linda Lomahaftewa is renowned for her printmaking and painting, as was her brother and Amerman's cousin, the late Dan Lomahaftewa. Traditionally, Indians embraced new materials with and new ideas to express.
Marcus Amerman, official site Marcus Amerman, School of American Research Marcus Amerman, Vision Project Bates, curator. Indian Humor. San Francisco: American Indian Contemporary Arts, 1995. ISBN 1-887427-00-7. McFadden, David Revere and Ellen Napiura Taubman. Changing Hands: Art without Reservation 2: Contemporary Native North American Art from the West, Northwest & Pacific. New York: Museum of Arts and Design, 2005. ISBN 1-890385-11-5. "The Universe of Marcus Amerman," The Magazine via Santa Fe.com
Wampum is a traditional shell bead of the Eastern Woodlands tribes of American Indians. It includes the white shell beads hand fashioned from the North Atlantic channeled whelk shell and the white and purple beads made from the quahog or Western North Atlantic hard-shelled clam. Before European contact, strings of wampum were used for storytelling, ceremonial gifts, recording important treaties and historical events, such as the Two Row Wampum Treaty or The Hiawatha Belt. Wampum was used by the northeastern Indian tribes as a means of exchange, strung together in lengths for convenience; the first Colonists adopted it as a currency in trading with them. The Colonists applied their technologies to more efficiently produce wampum, which caused inflation and its obsolescence as currency; the term wampum referred only to the white beads which are made of the inner spiral or columella of the Channeled whelk shell Busycotypus canaliculatus or Busycotypus carica. Sewant or suckauhock beads are the black or purple shell beads made from the quahog or poquahock clamshell Mercenaria mercenaria.
Sewant or Zeewant was the term used for this currency by the New Netherland colonists. Common terms for the dark and white beads are saki; the clams and whelks used for making wampum are found only along Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay. The Lenape name for Long Island is Sewanacky. Wampum beads are tubular in shape a quarter of an inch long and an eighth inch wide. One 17th-century Seneca wampum belt featured beads 2.5 inches long. Women artisans traditionally made wampum beads by rounding small pieces of whelk shells piercing them with a hole before stringing them. Wooden pump drills with quartz drill bits and steatite weights were used to drill the shells; the unfinished beads would be strung together and rolled on a grinding stone with water and sand until they were smooth. The beads would be strung or woven on deer hide thongs, milkweed bast, or basswood fibers; the term wampum is a shortening of wampumpeag, derived from the Massachusett or Narragansett word meaning "white strings of shell beads."
The Proto-Algonquian reconstructed form is thought to be *wa·p-a·py-aki, "white strings." In New York, wampum beads have been discovered dating before 1510. The introduction of European metal tools revolutionized the production of wampum. Dutch colonists discovered the importance of wampum as a means of exchange between tribes, they began mass-producing it in workshops. John Campbell established such a factory in Pascack, New Jersey which manufactured wampum into the early 20th century; the Iroquois used wampum as a certificate of authority. It was used for official purposes and religious ceremonies, it was used as a way to bind peace between tribes. Among the Iroquois, every chief and every clan mother has a certain string of wampum that serves as their certificate of office; when they pass on or are removed from their station, the string will pass on to the new leader. Runners carrying messages during colonial times would present the wampum showing that they had the authority to carry the message.
As a method of recording and an aid in narrating, Iroquois warriors with exceptional skills were provided training in interpreting the wampum belts. As the Keepers of the Central Fire, the Onondaga Nation was trusted with the task of keeping all wampum records. Wampum is still used to this day in the ceremony of raising up a new chief and in the Iroquois Thanksgiving ceremonies. True wampum is scarce today and only wampum strings are used; the Wampum was central to the giving of names, in which the names and titles of deceased persons were passed on to others. Deceased individuals of high office are replaced, as a wampum inscribed with the name of the deceased is laid on the shoulders of the successor, the successor may shake off the Wampum and reject the transfer of name; the reception of a name may transfer personal history, previous obligations of the deceased, e.g. the successor of a person killed in war may be obligated to avenge the death of the names previous holder, or care for the deceased persons family as their own....
The Iroquoians shared a particular constitution: they saw their societies not as a collection of living individuals but as a collection of eternal names, which over the course of times passed from one individual holder to another. Just as the wampum enabled the continuation of names and the histories of persons, the wampum was central to establishing and renewing peace between clans and families; when a man representing his respective social unit met another, he would offer one wampum inscribed with mnemonic symbols representing the purpose of the meeting or message. The wampum, facilitated the most essential practices in holding the Iroquois society together; when Europeans came to the Americas, they adopted wampum as money to trade with the native peoples of New England and New York. Wampum was legal tender in New England from 1637 to 1661; the colonial government in New Jersey issued a proclamation setting the rate at six white or three black to one penny. The black shells were rarer than the white shells and so were worth more, which led people to dye the white and dilute the value of black shells.
Robert Beverley, Jr. of Virginia Colony wrote about tribes in Virginia
Powder glass beads
Powder glass beads are a type of necklace ornamentation. The earliest such beads were discovered during archaeological excavations at Mapungubwe in South Africa, dated to between 970-1000 CE. Manufacturing of the powder glass beads is now concentrated in West Africa in the Ghana area; the origins of beadmaking in Ghana are unknown, but the great majority of powder glass beads produced today is made by Ashanti and Krobo craftsmen and women. Krobo bead making has been documented to date from as early as the 1920s but despite limited archaeological evidence, it is believed that Ghanaian powder glass bead making dates further back. Bead making in Ghana was first documented by John Barbot in 1746. Beads still play important roles in Krobo society, be it in rituals of birth, coming of age, marriage, or death. Powder glass beads are made from finely ground glass, the main source being broken and unusable bottles and a great variety of other scrap glasses. Special glasses such as old cobalt medicine bottles, cold cream jars, many other types of glasses from plates, window panes - to name only a few - are bought new, just for the purpose.
Pulverized or fragmented, made into beads, these glasses yield bright colours and shiny surfaces. Modern ceramic colourants, finely ground broken beads, or shards of different coloured glasses from various sources can be added to create a great variety of styles and decorative patterns in many different colours. In addition, glass bead fragments of varying sizes, which have traditionally been used for the manufacture as well as for the decoration of specific types of beads, can now be found in interesting new combinations, during the past few years in particular, bead makers have taken this tradition yet another step forward by using entire, i.e. whole small beads for making their colourful bead creations. Krobo powder glass beads are made in vertical molds fashioned out of a special, locally dug clay. Most molds have a number of depressions, designed to hold one bead each, each of these depressions, in turn, has a small central depression to hold the stem of a cassava leaf; the mold is filled with finely ground glass that can be built up in layers in order to form sequences and patterns of different shapes and colours.
The technique could be described as being somewhat similar to creating a sand "painting" or to filling a bottle with different-coloured sands and is called the "vertical-mold dry powder glass technique". When cassava leaf stems are used, these will leave the bead perforation. Certain powder glass bead variants, receive their perforations after firing, by piercing the still hot and pliable glass with a hand-made, pointed metal tool. Firing takes place in clay kilns until the glass fuses. There are three distinct styles of modern Krobo powder glass beads: Fused glass fragment beads which are being made by fusing together large bottle glass or glass bead fragments; these beads are translucent or semi-translucent and receive their perforations, as well as their final shapes, after firing. Beads composed of two halves; the two halves are being joined together in a short firing process. The "Mue ne Angma" or "Writing Beads", conventional powder glass beads made from finely ground glass, with glass slurry decorations that are being "written" on and fused in a second firing.
Older Ghanaian dry core powder glass beads, dating from the 1950s, are the Akoso beads, which were manufactured by the Krobo. The most common colour of Akoso beads is yellow. There are green, blue or black specimens; the glass surface is worn away at the ends and around the beads' equator, exposing a grey core. The most prevalent decorations, preformed from strips of hot glass, were applied in patterns of criss-crossed loops, longitudinal stripes and circles. Glass from crushed Venetian beads was used for making the glass powder, the decorative patterns were made of glass derived from Venetian beads, or from small whole Venetian beads such as so-called green heart and white-heart beads. Meteyi beads were made by the Ashanti people of Ghana. Longitudinal seams that can be observed on these beads give evidence that they were made in horizontal molds. Meteyi beads are ellipsoid in cross section and they have a rough surface on the side which touched the bottom of the mold during firing, they can be opaque yellow, more green, blue or white, with stripe decorations in combinations of blue, white or red.
Manufacture ceased during the 1940s. Another West African people known to produce powder glass beads are the Yoruba from Nigeria. Beads from their production differ technically from typical Ghanaian powder glass beads in that they are not made in molds and in the wet-core technique. Finely crushed glass is shaped by hand; the perforations are made before the beads are fired. So-called Ateyun beads were made in different shapes but always in red, to imitate real Mediterranean coral. Genuine coral was rare, but much sought after and valued by the Yoruba people. Yoruba bead makers made their own imitations at more affordable prices. Apart from red beads imitating coral, blue beads were highly valued. Keta awuazi beads, originating from Nigeria or Togo, were made in horizontal molds and mold marks are evident along their sides. Keta awuazi beads are cylindrical in shape. Manufacture ceased during the 1940s. Krobo bead makers produced similar blue powder glass beads, using glass derived from cold cream jars to achieve the blue colouration.
Mauritanian Kiffa beads are manufactured through the wet core technique. Glass, wh
Quillwork is a form of textile embellishment traditionally practiced by Native Americans that employs the quills of porcupines as an aesthetic element. Quills from bird feathers were occasionally used in quillwork. Porcupine quillwork is an art form unique to North America. Before the introduction of glass beads, quillwork was a major decorative element used by the peoples who resided in the porcupine's natural habitat, which included indigenous peoples of the Subarctic, Northeastern Woodlands, Northern Plains; the use of quills in designs spans from Maine to Alaska. Quillworking tools were discovered in Alberta and date back to the 6th century CE. Cheyenne oral history, as told by Picking Bones Woman to George Bird Grinnell, says quilling came to their tribe from a man who married a woman, who hid her true identity as a buffalo, his son was a buffalo. The man visited his wife and son in their buffalo home, while among the buffalo, the man learned the art of quilling, which he shared with the women of his tribe.
Joining the Cheyenne Quilling Society was a prestigious honor for Cheyenne women. Upon entering the Society, women would work first on quilling moccasins cradleboards, rosettes for men's shirts and tipis, hide robes and backrests. Porcupine quills adorned rawhide and tanned hides, but during the 19th century, quilled birch bark boxes were a popular trade item to sell to European-Americans among Eastern and Great Lakes tribes. Quillwork was used to create and decorate a variety of Native American items, including those of daily usage to Native American men and women; these include clothing such as coats and moccasins, accessories such as bags and belts, furniture attachments such as a cradle cover. Quills suitable for embellishment may be dyed before use. In their natural state, the quills are pale yellow to white with black tips; the tips are snipped off before use. Quills take dye, derived from local plants and included a wide spectrum of colors, with black and red being the most common. By the 19th century, aniline dyes made dying easier.
The quills can be flattened by being run through one's teeth. Awls were used to punch holes in hides, sinew replaced by European thread, was used to bind the quills to the hides; the four most common techniques for quillwork are appliqué, embroidery and loom weaving. Appliquéd quills are stitched into hide in a manner. In wrapping, a single quill may be wrapped upon itself or two quills may be intertwined. Quills can be appliquéd singly to form curvilinear patterns, as found on Odawa pouches from the 18th century; this technique lends itself to floral designs popularized among northeastern tribes by Ursuline nuns. Huron women excelled at floral quillwork during the 19th centuries. Plains quillwork is characterized by bands of rectangles creating geometrical patterns found in Plains painting. Rosettes of concentric circles of quillwork adorned historical Plains men's shirts, as did parallel panels of quillwork on the sleeves; these abstracted designs had layers of symbolic meaning. The Red River Ojibwe of Manitoba created crisp, geometric patterns by weaving quills on a loom in the 19th century.
Quillwork never died out as a living art form in the Northern Plains. Some communities that had lost their quillwork tradition have been able to revive the art form. For instance, no women quilled in the Dene community of Wha Ti, Northwest Territories by the late 1990s; the Dene Cultural Institute held two workshops there in 1999 and 2000 reviving quillwork in Wha Ti. The art form is much alive today. Examples of contemporary, award-winning quillworkers include Juanita Growing Thunder Fogarty, artist. Northern Lakes College of Alberta, Canada teaches a college-level course in quillwork art. Hair drop, men's ornaments featuring quillwork Dubin, Lois Sherr. North American Indian Jewelry and Adornment: From Prehistory to the Present. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Publishers, 1999. ISBN 0-8109-3689-5. Feest, Christian F. Native Arts of North America. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992. ISBN 978-0-500-20262-3. Gillow and Bryan Sentance. World Textiles: A Visual Guide to Traditional Techniques. Thames & Hudson.
ISBN 978-0-500-28247-2. Horse Capture, John D. et al. Beauty and Tradition: The Legacy of Plains Indian Shirts. Washington DC: National Museum of the American Indian, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8166-3947-2. Marie and Judy Thompson. "Whadoo Themi: Long-Ago People's Packsack: Dene Babiche Bags: Tradition and Revival." Canadian Museum of Civilization Mercury Series. Ethnology Paper 141. 2004: 29 Orchard, William C.. The Technique of Porcupine-Quill Decoration Among The North American Indians; the Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation. ISBN 978-0-943604-00-8. Penney, David W. and George Horse Capture. North American Indian Art. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004. ISBN 978-0-500-20377-4. Vincent, Gilbert T. Masterpieces of American Indian Art from the Eugene and Clare Thaw Collection. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1995. ISBN 978-0-8109-2628-8. Porcupine and bird quillwork, in the collection of the National Museum of the American Indian Substantial material about quillwork from nativetech.org
Beadwork is the art or craft of attaching beads to one another by stringing them with a sewing needle or beading needle and thread or thin wire, or sewing them to cloth. Beads come in a variety of materials and sizes. Beads are used to create jewelry or other articles of personal adornment. Beadwork techniques are broadly divided into loom and off-loom weaving, bead embroidery, bead crochet, bead knitting, bead tatting. Beads, made of durable materials, survive in the archaeological record appearing with the advent of modern man, Homo sapiens. Beads are used for religious purposes, as good luck talismans, for barter, as curative agents. Modern beadwork is used as a creative hobby to create jewelry, coasters, plus dozens of other crafts, copies of paintings. Beads are available in many different designs, colors and materials, allowing much variation among bead artisans and projects. Simple projects can be created in less than an hour by novice beaders, while complex beadwork may take weeks of meticulous work with specialized tools and equipment.
Many free patterns and tutorials can be found in Internet. Faience is a mixture of powdered clays and lime and silica sand; this is molded around a small stick or bit of straw. It is ready to be fired into a bead; as the bead heats up, the soda and lime melt into glass that incorporates and covers the clay. The result is a hard bead covered in bluish glass; this process was discovered first in Mesopotamia and imported to ancient Egypt. However, it was the Egyptians. Since before the 1st dynasty of Narmer to the last dynasty of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and to the present day, faience beads have been made in the same way; these beads predate glass beads and were a forerunner of glass making. If a beadmaker was a little short of clay and had a little extra lime and the fire is hotter than usual, the mixture will become glass. In fact some early tubular faience beads are clayish at pure glass at the other end; the beads weren't fired evenly. The uneven beads were noticed early on, this led to experimentation at first.
It took a long time for new ideas to be accepted in a agricultural society. One of the first variations to take hold was to color the faience beads by adding metallic salts. By the beginning of the eighteenth dynasty, faience making and glass making had become two separate crafts. Faience beads were so common because they were cheaper and less labor-intensive to make than stone beads. Aside from personal use and daily wear they were used to create beaded netting to cover mummies. Most of the archaeological specimens come from burials; as early as the Old Kingdom, Egyptian artisans fashioned images of gods and mortals wearing broad collars made of molded tubular and teardrop beads. These beaded collars may have been derived from floral prototypes. In antiquity the collar was called a wesekh "the broad one". In the Americas, the Cherokee used bead work to tell stories, they told them by the patterns in the beads. They used dried berries, gray Indian corn, bones, claws, or sometimes sea shells when they traded with coastal tribes.
3D beading uses the techniques of bead weaving, which can be further divided into right angle weave and peyote stitch. Many 3D beading patterns are done in right angle weave, but sometimes both techniques are combined in the same piece. Both stitches are done using either fishing nylon thread. Fishing line lends itself better to right angle weave because it is stiffer than nylon thread, so it holds the beads in a tighter arrangement and does not break when tugged upon. Nylon thread is more suited to peyote stitch because it is softer and more pliable than fishing line, which permits the beads of the stitch to sit straight without undue tension bending the arrangement out of place. Two needle right angle weave is done using both ends of the fishing line, in which beads are strung in repeated circular arrangements, the fishing line is pulled tight after each bead circle is made. Single has become the norm. Peyote stitch is stitched using only one end of the nylon thread; the other end of the string is left dangling at the beginning of the piece, while the first end of the thread progresses through the stitch.
In peyote stitch, beads are woven into the piece in a similar fashion to knitting or cross stitching. In fact, it is not uncommon for cross stitch patterns to be beaded in peyote stitch technique. Peyote stitch patterns are easy to depict diagrammatically because they are stitched flat. Right angle weave lends itself better to 3D beading, but peyote stitch offers the advantage of allowing the beads to be more knit, sometimes necessary to portray an object properly in three dimensions. Beadwork in Europe has a history dating back millennia to a time when shells and animal bones were used as beads in necklaces. Glass beads were being made in Murano by the end of the 14th century. French beaded flowers were being made as early as the 16th century, lampwork glass was invented in the 18th century. Seed beads began to be used for embroidery and numerous off-loom techniques. Beadwork is a Native American art form which evolved to use glass beads imported from Europe and Asia. Glass beads have been in use for five centuries in the Americas.
Today a wide range of beading styles flourish. Alongside the widespread popularity of glass beads, bead artists continue incorporating nat
Millefiori is a glasswork technique which produces distinctive decorative patterns on glassware. The term millefiori is a combination of the Italian words "mille" and "fiori". Apsley Pellatt in his book Curiosities of Glass Making was the first to use the term "millefiori", which appeared in the Oxford English Dictionary in 1849. While the use of this technique long precedes the term "millefiori", it is now most associated with Venetian glassware. Since the late 1980s, the millefiori technique has been applied to other materials; as the polymer clay is quite pliable and does not need to be heated and reheated to fuse it, it is a much easier medium in which to produce millefiori patterns than glass. The manufacture of mosaic beads can be traced to Ancient Roman and Alexandrian times. Canes made in Italy, have been found as far away as 8th century archaeological sites in Ireland. Millefiori beads have been uncovered from digs at Sandby borg, Öland, dating from the late 5th or early 6th century. A piece of millefiori was found, along with unworked garnets, in a purse at the early 7th century Anglo-Saxon burial site at Sutton Hoo.
The technical knowledge for creating millefiori was lost by the eighteenth century, the technique was not revived until the nineteenth century. Within several years of the technique's rediscovery, factories in Italy and England were manufacturing millefiori canes, they were incorporated into fine glass art paperweights. Until the 15th century, Murano glass makers were only producing drawn Rosetta beads made from molded Rosetta canes. Rosetta beads are made by the layering of a variable number of layers of glass of various colors in a mold, by pulling the soft glass from both ends until the cane has reached the desired thickness, it is cut into short segments for further processing. The millefiori technique involves the production of glass canes or rods, known as murrine, with multicolored patterns which are viewable only from the cut ends of the cane. A murrine rod is heated in a furnace and pulled until thin while still maintaining the cross section's design, it is cut into beads or discs when cooled.
Mille-fleur, a French term used to refer to a background composed of small flowers Glass museums and galleries Venetian beads
Chevron beads are special glass beads. They may be referred to as rosetta, or star beads; the term rosetta first appeared in the inventory of the Barovier Glass works in Murano, in 1496, in context with beads as well as with other glass objects. Venetian chevron beads are drawn beads, made from glass canes, which are shaped using constructed star moulds; the first chevron beads were made towards the end of the 15th century, consisting of 7 layers of alternating colours. They have 6 facets. Unlike their counterparts, they were not always made with the standard 12-point star mould. By the beginning of the 20th century, 4 and 6-layer chevron beads appear on various sample cards. According to records kept at the Societa Veneziana Conterie of Murano, they stopped making chevron canes during the 1950s. Chevron beads are still being made in Venice today, albeit in small quantities. Chevron beads can be composed of a varied number of consecutive layers of colored glasses; the initial core is formed from a molten ball of glass, melted in a furnace.
If the glassworker is making beads, an air bubble is blown into the center of the gather via a blowpipe, thus creating an opening, the future bead's perforation. When making solid multilayered cane intended to be used for decorating millefiori beads, no air bubble is inserted; the gather is plunged into a star-shaped mould, which can have anywhere between five and fifteen points. Several layers of glass can be applied, returning to the mould as desired, to create either a star-shaped or smooth effect for each layer. After all layers have been applied, metal plates are affixed to the still hot glass, "drawn" or stretched out into a long rod, called a "cane", by pulling from both ends in opposite directions; the bubble at the center of the gather stretches with the cane and forms the hole in the bead, i.e. the bead's perforation. The diameter of the cane, therefore of the resulting beads, is determined by the amount of glass in the original gather and by how thinly the glass is drawn out; the cooled glass cane is cut into short segments.
The segments may be beveled or ground, to reveal the characteristic chevron pattern from which the English name is derived. The chevron pattern becomes apparent. Only rosetta/star beads with ground ends, with their inner layers exposed, are "chevron" beads. All star beads with flat ends are more aptly termed rosetta/star beads. Most of the Venetian chevron beads made for export to West Africa and to the Americas have layers in red and white. A smaller number of chevron beads were produced with other colors such as green and yellow. Venetian chevron beads have been traded throughout the world, most in West Africa, where they were first introduced by Dutch merchants in the late 15th century; some small sized 7 layer Venetian chevron beads made during the late 15th century, are found in the Americas in Peru, attributed to having been introduced by Christopher Columbus. Chevron beads are popular collectors' items and they are still valued in present-day West Africa, where they continue to be worn for prestige and ceremonial purposes, buried with the dead.
In addition to Italy, today chevron and rosetta/star beads are manufactured in India and the United States. When the bead making industries in India began making chevron beads during the 1980s, the star beads made in Purdalpur, one of the glass bead making centers, were made without the use of a mould, from prepared sections of hot strips of glass that were fused together to form a cane; because of this method of manufacture, the points of the stars of these beads have slight indentations. Chinese chevron beads are made from moulded star canes like Venetian chevron beads, they imitate Venetian beads. The best known contemporary chevron bead makers are the chevron pioneer Art Seymour, from the United States, who has made chevron beads consisting of up to 19 layers, Luigi Cattelan, from Murano, Italy. Chevron and rosetta/star beads can now be found in many different color combinations. Picard, J&R. "Chevron and Nueva Cadiz Beads Vol. VII - Beads from the West African Trade". Picard African Imports.
De Carlo, Giacomo. "Perle di Vetro Veneziane - Una lunga e Affascinante Storia, translated "Venetian Glass Beads, a Long and Fascinating Story"