New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Tampa is a major city in, the county seat of, Hillsborough County, United States. It is on the west coast of Florida on Tampa Bay, near the Gulf of Mexico, is the largest city in the Tampa Bay Area; the bay's port is the largest in near downtown's Channel District. Bayshore Boulevard runs along the bay, is east of the historic Hyde Park neighborhood. Today, Tampa is part of the metropolitan area most referred to as the "Tampa Bay Area". For U. S. Census purposes, Tampa is part of the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area; the four-county area is composed of 3.1 million residents, making it the second largest metropolitan statistical area in the state, the fourth largest in the Southeastern United States, behind Washington, D. C. Miami, Atlanta; the Greater Tampa Bay area has over 4 million residents and includes the Tampa and Sarasota metro areas. The city had a population of 335,709 at the 2010 census, an estimated population of 385,430 in 2017; the Tampa Bay Partnership and U.
S. Census data showed an average annual growth of 2.47 percent, or a gain of 97,000 residents per year. Between 2000 and 2006, the Greater Tampa Bay Market experienced a combined growth rate of 14.8 percent, growing from 3.4 million to 3.9 million and hitting the 4 million population mark on April 1, 2007. A 2012 estimate shows the Tampa Bay area population to have 4,310,524 people and a 2017 projection of 4,536,854 people. Public Transportation in the area includes. There is the TECO Line Streetcar System; when the pioneer community living near the US Army outpost of Fort Brooke was incorporated in 1849, it was called "Tampa Town", the name was shortened to "Tampa" in 1855. The earliest instance of the name "Tampa", in the form "Tanpa", appears in the memoirs of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, who spent 17 years as a captive of the Calusa and traveled through much of peninsular Florida, he described Tanpa as an important Calusa town to the north of the Calusa domain under another chief. Archaeologist Jerald Milanich places the town of Tanpa at the mouth of Charlotte Harbor.
The entrances to Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor are obscured by barrier islands, their locations, the names applied to them, were a source of confusion to explorers and map-makers from the 16th century though the 18th century. Bahía Tampa and Bahía de Espíritu Santo were each used, at one time or another, for the modern Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor. Tampa Bay was labeled Bahía de Espíritu Santo in the earliest Spanish maps of Florida, but became known as Bahía Tampa as early as 1695. "B. Tampa", corresponding to Tampa Bay, appeared on a British map of 1705, with "Carlos Bay" for Charlotte Harbor to the south, while a 1748 British map had "B. del Spirito Santo" for Tampa Bay, again, "Carlos Bay" to the south. A Spanish map of 1757 renamed Tampa Bay as "San Fernando"; as late as 1774, Bernard Romans called Tampa Bay "Bay of Espiritu Santo", with "Tampa Bay" restricted to the Northwest arm, the northeast arm named "Hillsborough Bay". The name may have come from the Calusa language, or the Timucua language.
Some scholars have compared "Tampa" to "itimpi", which means "close to or nearby" in the Creek language, but its meaning is not known. People from Tampa are known as "Tampans" or "Tampanians". Local authorities consulted by Michael Kruse of the Tampa Bay Times suggest that "Tampan" was more common, while "Tampanian" became popular when the former term came to be seen as a potential insult. A mix of Cuban and Spanish immigrants began arriving in the late 1800s to found and work in the new communities of Ybor City and West Tampa. By about 1900, these newcomers came to be known as "Tampeños", a term, still sometimes used to refer to their descendants living in the area, to all residents of Tampa inconsiderate of their ethnic background; the shores of Tampa Bay have been inhabited for thousands of years. A variant of the Weeden Island culture developed in the area by about 2000 years ago, with archeological evidence suggesting that these residents relied on the sea for most of their resources, as a vast majority of inhabited sites have been found on or near the shoreline and there is little evidence of farming.
At the time of European contact in the early 16th century, the Safety Harbor culture dominated the area, with indigenous peoples organized into three or four chiefdoms around the shores of the bay. Early Spanish explorers to visit the area interacted extensively with the Tocobaga, whose principal town was located at the northern end of Old Tampa Bay near today's Safety Harbor in Pinellas County. While there is a substantial historical record of the Tocobaga, there is less surviving documentation describing the Pohoy chiefdom, which controlled the area near the mouth of the Hillsborough River near today's downtown Tampa. However, brief mentions by explorers along with surviving artifacts suggest that the Pohoy and other groups that once lived on Tampa Bay had similar cultures and lifestyles as the better-documented Tocobaga. Expeditions led by Pánfilo de Narváez and Hernando de Soto landed near Tampa, but neither conquistador stayed long. There is no natural gold or silver in Florida, the native inhabitants repulsed Spanish attempts to establish a permanent settlement or convert them to Catholicism.
The fighting resulted in a few deaths, but the many more deaths were caused by infectious diseases brought from Europe, which devastated the population of Native Americans across Florida and the entir
Brooklyn College is a college of the City University of New York, located in the Flatbush neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York City. Brooklyn College originated in 1930 with the establishment of an extension division of the City College for Teachers; the school began offering evening classes for first-year male college students in 1917. In 1930 by the New York City Board of Higher Education, the college authorized the combination of the Downtown Brooklyn branches of Hunter College – at that time a women's college – and the City College of New York – a men's college – both of, established in 1926. With the merger of these branches, Brooklyn College became the first public coeducational liberal arts college in New York City. U. S. News & World Report has ranked the school tied for number 83 as a Regional college; the school was ranked in the top ten for value and location by Princeton Review in 2003 and in the top fifty for value in 2009. In 1932, the architect Randolph Evans drafted a plan for the college's campus on a substantial plot of land his employer owned in the Midwood section of Brooklyn.
He sketched out a Georgian-style campus facing a central quadrangle, anchored by a library building with a tall tower. Evans presented the sketches to the President of the college at Dr. William A. Boylan. Boylan was pleased with the plans, the lot of land was purchased for $1.6 million. Construction of the new campus began in 1935, with a groundbreaking ceremony attended by Mayor Fiorello La Guardia and Brooklyn Borough President Raymond Ingersoll. In 1936, the President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt went to Brooklyn College to lay the cornerstone of the Brooklyn College Gymnasium. President Boylan, Borough President Ingersoll, President Roosevelt all had buildings on Brooklyn College's campus named after them. Harry Gideonse was the second President of Brooklyn College, from 1939 to 1966. During his tenure Brooklyn College was one of the top colleges in the US in terms of the number of alumni receiving doctorate degrees. In May 1983, Brooklyn College named its library the Harry D. Gideonse Library.
John Kneller was the fifth President of Brooklyn College, from 1969 to 1979. Students occupied his office at the college during a student strike after the Kent State shootings and the Cambodian Campaign in 1970, he kept campus buildings open for students and faculty. A member of the Brooklyn College Fencing Team introduced streaking to the college in 1974, dashing across the Quad; the campus located in Midwood became the only Brooklyn College campus after the school's Downtown Brooklyn campus was shut down during the 1975 budget emergency. Robert Hess was the sixth President of Brooklyn College, from 1979 until 1992. In a 1988 survey of thousands of academic deans, the college ranked 5th in the United States in providing students with a strong general education. Brooklyn College was the only college in the top five in the survey, a public institution. While Brooklyn College was referred to as “the poor man’s Harvard,” Hess quipped: “I like to think of Harvard as the rich man’s Brooklyn College.”
Brooklyn College's campus East Quad looks much like it did when it was constructed. The campus serves as home to BCBC/ Brooklyn College Presents complex and its four theaters, including the George Gershwin; the demolition of Gershwin Hall, replaced by The Leonard & Claire Tow Center for the Performing Arts, is the most recent construction on an evolving campus. Other changes to the original design include the demolition of Plaza Building, due to its inefficient use of space, poor ventilation, significant maintenance costs. To replace the Plaza Building, the college constructed West Quad Center, designed by the notable Uruguayan architect Rafael Viñoly; the new building contains classroom space, gymnasiums and a swimming pool. It houses the offices of Registration, Financial Aid, the Department of Physical Education and Exercise Science; the grounds contain a quadrangle with grassy trees. New façades are being constructed on Roosevelt and James halls where they once connected with Plaza Building.
The 2009–10 CUNYAC championship men's basketball team now plays its home games in the West Quad Center. This follows a major library renovation that saw the library moved to a temporary home while construction took place; the Brooklyn College library is now located in its original location in a renovated and expanded LaGuardia Hall. Noted as one of the most beautiful in the United States, In 2016, Brooklyn College announced a new home for the Koppelman School of Business, with the construction of a new building, Koppelman Hall, on property adjacent to the 26-acre campus bought in 2011; this increased the campus size to 35 acres. The campus has been shown on numerous movies and television shows. Brooklyn College is made up of five schools: Murray Koppelman School of Business School of Education School of Humanities and Social Sciences School of Natural and Behavioral Sciences School of Visual and Performing Arts Beginning in 1981, the college instituted a group of classes that all undergraduates were required to take, called "Core Studies".
The classes were: Classical Origins of Western Culture, Introduction to Art, Introduction to Music, People and Politics, The Shaping of the Modern World, Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning and Computer Programming, Landmarks of Literature, Physics, Geology, Studies in African and Latin American Cultures, Knowledge and Values. In 2006, the Core Curriculum was revamped, the 13 required courses were replaced with 15 courses in 3 disciplines, from which students were required to take 11. In the fall of 2
Florida House of Representatives
The Florida House of Representatives is the lower house of the Florida Legislature, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Florida, the Florida Senate being the upper house. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution of Florida, adopted in 1968, defines the role of the Legislature and how it is to be constituted; the House is composed of 120 members, each elected from a single-member district with a population of 157,000 residents. Legislative districts are drawn on the basis of population figures, provided by the federal decennial census. Senators' terms begin upon their election; as of 2019, Republicans hold the majority in the State House with 71 seats. Three seats are vacant due to resignations. Members of the House of Representatives are referred to as Representatives; because this shadows the terminology used to describe members of U. S. House of Representatives and the news media, using The Associated Press Stylebook refer to members as State Representatives to avoid confusion with their Federal counterparts.
Article III of the Florida Constitution defines the terms for State Legislators. The Constitution requires State Representatives to be elected for two-year terms. Upon election, legislators take office immediately. On November 3, 1992 77 percent of Florida voters backed Amendment 9, the Florida Term Limits Amendment, which amended the State Constitution, to enact eight-year term limits on federal and state officials. Under the Amendment, former members can be elected again after a break. In 1995, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that states could not enact congressional term limits, but ruled that the state level term limits remain; each legislator shall be at least 21 years of age, an elector and resident of the District from which elected and shall have resided in the state for a period of two years prior to election. Each year during which the Legislature meets constitutes a new Legislative Session. Legislators start Committee activity in September of the year prior to the Regular Legislative Session.
Because Florida is a part-time legislature, this is necessary to allow legislators time to work their bills through the Committee process, prior to the Regular Legislative Session. The Florida Legislature meets in a 60-day Regular Legislative Session each year. Regular Legislative Sessions in odd-numbered years must begin on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in March. Under the State Constitution, the Legislature can begin even-numbered year Regular Legislative Sessions at a time of its choosing. Prior to 1991, the Regular Legislative Session began in April. Senate Joint Resolution 380 proposed to the voters a Constitutional Amendment that shifted the starting date of Regular Legislative Session from April to February. Subsequently, Senate Joint Resolution 2606 proposed to the voters a Constitutional Amendment shifting the start date to March, where it remains; the reason for the "first Tuesday after the first Monday" requirement stems back to the time when Regular Legislative Session began in April.
Regular Legislative Session could start any day from April 2 through April 8, but never on April 1 – April Fool's Day. In recent years, the Legislature has opted to start in January in order to allow lawmakers to be home with their families during school spring breaks, to give more time ahead of the legislative elections in the Fall. On the fourteenth day following each General Election, the Legislature meets for an Organizational Session to organize and select officers. Special Legislative Sessions may be called by the Governor, by a joint proclamation of the Senate President and House Speaker, or by a three-fifths vote of all Legislators. During any Special Session the Legislature may only address legislative business, within the purview of the purpose or purposes stated in the Special Session Proclamation; the Florida House is authorized by the Florida Constitution to create and amend the laws of the U. S. state of Florida, subject to the Governor's power to veto legislation. To do so, Legislators propose legislation in the forms of bills drafted by a nonpartisan, professional staff.
Successful legislation must undergo Committee review, three readings on the floor of each house, with appropriate voting majorities, as required, either be signed into law by the Governor or enacted through a veto override approved by two-thirds of the membership of each legislative house. Its statutes, called "chapter laws" or generically as "slip laws" when printed separately, are compiled into the Laws of Florida and are called "session laws"; the Florida Statutes are the codified statutory laws of the state. In 2009, legislators filed 2,138 bills for consideration. On average, the Legislature has passed about 300 bills into law annually. In 2013, the Legislature filed about 2000 bills. About 1000 of these are "member bills." The remainder are bills by committees responsible for certain functions, such as budget. In 2016, about 15% of the bills were passed. In 2017, 1,885 lobbyists registered to represent 3,724 entities; the House has the power to propose Amendments to the Florida Constitution.
Additionally, the House has the exclusive power to impeach officials, who are tried by the Senate. The House is headed by a speaker, elected by the members of the House to a two-year term; the speaker presides over the House, appoints committee members and committee chairs, influences the placement of bills on the calendar, rules on procedural motions. The speaker pro tempore presides if there is a vacancy; the speaker, along with the Senate president and governor of Florida, control most of the agenda of state business in Florida. The majority and minority caucus each elect a le
The Florida Senate is the upper house of the Florida Legislature, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Florida, the Florida House of Representatives being the lower house. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution of Florida, adopted in 1968, defines the role of the Legislature and how it is to be constituted; the Senate is composed of 40 members, each elected from a single-member district with a population of 470,000 residents. Legislative districts are drawn on the basis of population figures, provided by the federal decennial census. Senators' terms begin upon their election; the Senate Chamber is located in the State Capitol building. As of 2018, Republicans hold the majority in the chamber with 23 seats. Members of the Senate are referred to as Senators; because this shadows the terminology used to describe member of U. S. Senate and the news media, using The Associated Press Stylebook refer to them as State Senators to avoid confusion with their Federal counterparts. Article III, of the Florida Constitution, defines the terms for State Legislators.
The Constitution requires State Senators from odd-numbered districts to be elected in the years that end in numbers of which are multiples of four. Senators from even-numbered districts are required to be elected in even-numbered years the numbers of which are not multiples of four. To reflect the results of the U. S. Census and the redrawing of district boundaries, all seats are up for election in redistricting years, with some terms truncated as a result. Thus, senators in even-numbered districts were elected to two-year terms in 2012, senators in odd-numbered districts will be elected to two-year terms in 2022. All terms were truncated again in 2016, with all 40 Senate seats up for election, due to court-ordered redistricting. Legislators take office upon election. On November 3, 1992 77% of Florida voters backed Amendment 9, the Florida Term Limits Amendment, which amended the Florida State Constitution, to enact eight-year term limits on federal and state officials. Under the Amendment, former members could be elected again after a two-year break.
In 1995, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that states could not enact congressional term limits, but ruled that the state-level term limits could remain; each legislator shall be at least twenty-one years of age, an elector and resident of the District from which elected and shall have resided in the state for a period of two years prior to election. Each year during which the Legislature meets constitutes a new Legislative Session. Legislators start Committee activity in September of the year prior to the Regular Legislative Session; because Florida is a part-time legislature, this is necessary to allow legislators time to work their bills through the Committee process, prior to the Regular Legislative Session. The Florida Legislature meets in a 60-day Regular Legislative Session each year. Regular Legislative Sessions in odd-numbered years must begin on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in March. Under the State Constitution, the Legislature can begin even-numbered year Regular Legislative Sessions at a time of its choosing.
Prior to 1991, the Regular Legislative Session began in April. Senate Joint Resolution 380 proposed to the voters a Constitutional Amendment that shifted the starting date of Regular Legislative Session from April to February. Subsequently, Senate Joint Resolution 2606 proposed to the voters a Constitutional Amendment shifting the start date to March, where it remains; the reason for the "first Tuesday after the first Monday" requirement stems back to the time when Regular Legislative Session began in April. Regular Legislative Session could start any day from April 2 through April 8, but never on April 1 -- April Fool's Day. In recent years, the Legislature has opted to start in January in order to allow lawmakers to be home with their families during school spring breaks, to give more time ahead of the legislative elections in the Fall. On the fourteenth day following each General Election, the Legislature meets for an Organizational Session to organize and select officers. Special Legislative Sessions may be called by the Governor, by a joint proclamation of the Senate President and House Speaker, or by a three-fifths vote of all Legislators.
During any Special Session the Legislature may only address legislative business, within the purview of the purpose or purposes stated in the Special Session Proclamation. The Florida Senate is authorized by the Florida Constitution to create and amend the laws of the U. S. state of Florida, subject to the Governor's power to veto legislation. To do so, Legislators propose legislation in the forms of bills drafted by a nonpartisan, professional staff. Successful legislation must undergo Committee review, three readings on the floor of each house, with appropriate voting majorities, as required, either be signed into law by the Governor or enacted through a veto override approved by two-thirds of the membership of each legislative house, its statutes, called "chapter laws" or generically as "slip laws" when printed separately, are compiled into the Laws of Florida and are called "session laws". The Florida Statutes are the codified statutory laws of the state. In 2009, legislators filed 2,138 bills for consideration.
On average, the Legislature has passed about 300 bills into law annually. In 2013, the legislature filed about 2000 bills. About 1000 of these are "member bills." The remainder are bills by committees responsible for certain functions, such as budget. In 2016, about 15% of the bills were passed. In 2017, 1,885 lobbyists registered to represent 3,724 entities. The