C. E. Byrd High School
C. E. Byrd High School, a Blue Ribbon School, is the largest high school in Shreveport, Louisiana. In continuous operation since 1925, Byrd is the second-largest high school in the state of Louisiana. 1892: C. E. Byrd came to Shreveport as principal of the first public high school, in two rented rooms in the YMCA building at a salary of $70 per month. 1898: With first year enrollment of 70, the school moved to the Soady building on Crockett Street. 1899: Moved to new Hope Street School, a large three story red brick building. Elementary students occupied the first floor, intermediate the second, high school the third. 1910: Shreveport High School built adjacent to Hope Street. 1923: Caddo Parish School Board decides to build two new high schools. 20-acre Site purchased from Justin Gras for $110,000 and four adjacent lots in Bon Air Subdivision, from F. R. Chadick for $9,500. 1924: Stewart-McGee awarded the building contract for $772,133. On October 3, cornerstone laid with full Masonic ceremonies including a letter from C. E. Byrd.
1925: Board authorized $40,000 to furnish the building. Building accepted from the contractor on June 27; because furniture had not yet arrived, the opening was delayed until October. 1967: First African-American graduate, Arthur Burton. 1968: As part of an order to desegregate, neighborhood school district boundaries were abolished and students were allowed to select schools under a protocol known as "Freedom of Choice." Courts found this policy did not accomplish desegregation 1969: New districts were created in the summer of 1969 forcing thousands of students to change schools. Faculty from black high schools were exchanged with those from white high schools and students from Captain Shreve High School returned to Byrd as their neighborhood school.1970: In an attempt to further desegregate, Valencia High School was merged with Byrd. Students class schedules were changed at the start of the new semester in order to "mix" the students from the two schools; the Black administrators from Valencia were given minor roles at Byrd.
Tensions were high with student protests. As a result of these protests, police were called in to guard the doors of the school. Students were not allowed to leave the building. Senior rings had been ordered the previous year, so each wore their own class rings. While students from both schools participated in the same commencement exercises they wore different colored academic regalia, that represented their schools. Byrd High subsequently fell victim to "white flight" with many parents sending their children to Jesuit High School, St. Vincent's Academy or one of several new private schools. Enrollment decreased to the point. Byrd returned as a powerhouse by re-inventing itself as a Science magnet school; the 8 acres area comprising the school building and three other non-contributing properties were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1991. The elaborate four story brick structure designed by Edward F. Neild has seen several alterations since its construction in 1924; the structure, still retains its original visual impact and is significant in the area of architecture.
It's one of the few examples of Jacobean Revival architecture. Alma Mater Byrd, We stand to honor Thee, Alma Mater true. Loyal homage. Loyalty, with our friendships hold. Always deep within our hearts: the purple and the gold. Fight SongWe Are Jackets We are Jackets, We are Jackets, Always we fight for victory, Spirits high, hopes undaunted, For we are the Jackets, Byrd High Yellow Jackets, For we are the Jackets, Best of all. We will never lose our spirit, plain to see; until the final whistle blows, we will fight for victory. Fight, Fight! This victory will be ours. For we are the Jackets, Byrd High Yellow Jackets! For we are the Jackets–– Best of All! Mascot Jack the JacketColors Purple and GoldRivalCaptain Shreve High School Literary magazine: Perspectives Newspaper: Highlife TV station: K-BYRD Yearbook: Gusher Edward C. Aldridge Jr. president and CEO of The Aerospace Corporation Douglas F. Attaway, publisher of former Shreveport Journal and KSLA-TV television John N. Bahcall, astrophysicist known for his work on solar neutrino problem Fuller W. Bazer, O.
D. Butler Chair in Animal Science at Texas A&M. D. President, The College of The Bahamas Karen Carlson, actress John Howard Dalton, former U. S. Secretary of the Navy Tillman Franks, songwriter Brandon Friedman, former Deputy Assistant Secretary, United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Smith College is a private, independent women's liberal arts college with coed graduate and certificate programs in Northampton, Massachusetts. It is the largest member of the Seven Sisters. In its 2018 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked. Smith is a member of the Five Colleges Consortium, which allows its students to attend classes at four other Pioneer Valley institutions: Mount Holyoke College, Amherst College, Hampshire College, the University of Massachusetts Amherst; the college was chartered in 1871 by a bequest of Sophia Smith and opened its doors in 1875 with 14 students and 6 faculty. When she inherited a fortune from her father at age 65, Smith decided leaving her inheritance to found a women's college was the best way for her to fulfill the moral obligation she expressed in her will: I hereby make the following provisions for the establishment and maintenance of an Institution for the higher education of young women, with the design to furnish for my own sex means and facilities for education equal to those which are afforded now in our colleges to young men.
By 1915–16, the student enrollment was 1,724, the faculty numbered 163. Today, with some 2,600 undergraduates on campus, 250 students studying elsewhere, Smith is the largest endowed college for women in the country; the United States Naval Reserve Midshipmen's School at Smith College in Northampton, was training grounds for junior officers of the Women's Reserve of the U. S. Naval Reserve and was nicknamed "USS Northampton". On August 28, 1942, a total of 120 women reported to the school for training. Smith has been led by two acting presidents. For the 1975 centennial, the college inaugurated its first woman president, Jill Ker Conway, who came to Smith from Australia by way of Harvard and the University of Toronto. Since President Conway's term, all Smith presidents have been women, with the exception of John M. Connolly's one-year term as acting president in the interim after President Simmons left to lead Brown University. Laurenus Clark Seelye 1875–1910 Marion LeRoy Burton 1910–1917 William Allan Neilson 1917–1939 Elizabeth Cutter Morrow 1939–1940 Herbert Davis 1940–1949 Benjamin Fletcher Wright 1949–1959 Thomas Corwin Mendenhall 1959–1975 Jill Ker Conway 1975–1985 Mary Maples Dunn 1985–1995 Ruth Simmons 1995–2001 John M. Connolly 2001–2002 Carol T.
Christ 2002–2013 Kathleen McCartney 2013–presentOn December 10, 2012, the Board of Trustees announced Kathleen McCartney had been selected as the 11th president of Smith College effective July 1, 2013. The campus was planned and planted in the 1890s as a botanical garden and arboretum, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted; the campus landscape now encompasses 147 acres and includes more than 1,200 varieties of trees and shrubs. In April 2015, the faculty adopted an open-access policy to make its scholarship publicly accessible online. Smith College has 285 professors in 41 academic departments and programs, for a faculty:student ratio of 1:9. Smith College's acceptance rate for the class of 2022 was 31.0%. It was the first women's college in the United States to grant its own undergraduate degrees in engineering; the Picker Engineering Program offers a single ABET accredited Bachelor of Science in engineering science, combining the fundamentals of multiple engineering disciplines. Smith joined the SAT optional movement for undergraduate admission.
Smith runs its own junior year abroad programs in four European cities: Paris, Hamburg and Geneva. These programs are notable for requiring all studies to be conducted in the language of the host country. In some cases students live in homestays with local families. Nearly half of Smith's juniors study overseas, either through Smith JYA programs or at more than 40 other locations around the world. Junior math majors from other undergraduate institutions are invited to study at Smith College for one year through the Center for Women in Mathematics. Established in the fall of 2007 by Professors Ruth Haas and Jim Henle, the program aims to allow young women to improve their mathematical abilities through classwork and involvement in a department centered on women; the Center offers a post-baccalaureate year of math study to women who either did not major in mathematics as undergraduates or whose mathematics major was not strong. The Louise W. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute supports collaborative research without regard to the traditional boundaries of academic departments and programs.
Each year the Institute supports long-term and short-term projects proposed and organized by members of the Smith College faculty. By becoming Kahn Fellows, students get involved in interdisciplinary research projects and work alongside faculty and visiting scholars for a year. Students can develop leadership skills through Smith's two-year Phoebe Reese Lewis Leadership Program. Participants train in public speaking, analytical thinking, teamwork strategies and the philosophical aspects of leadership. Through Smith's internship program, "Praxis: The Liberal Arts at Work," every undergraduate is guaranteed access to one college funded internship during her years at the college; this program enables students to access interesting self-generated internship positions in social welfare and human services, the arts, health and other fields. The 2017 annual ranking of U. S. News & World Report categorizes Smith as'more sel
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Seven Sisters (colleges)
The Seven Sisters is a name given to seven liberal arts colleges in the Northeastern United States that are women's colleges. Five of the seven institutions continue to offer all-female undergraduate programs: Barnard College, Bryn Mawr College, Mount Holyoke College, Smith College, Wellesley College. Vassar College has been co-educational since 1969. Radcliffe College shared common and overlapping history with Harvard College from the time it was founded as "the Harvard Annex" in 1879. Harvard and Radcliffe merged in 1977, but Radcliffe continued to be the sponsoring college for women at Harvard until its dissolution in 1999. Barnard College was Columbia University's women's liberal arts undergraduate college until its all-male coordinate school Columbia College went co-ed in 1983. All seven schools were founded between 1837 and 1889. Four are in Massachusetts, two are in New York, one is in Pennsylvania. Irene Harwarth, Mindi Maline, Elizabeth DeBra note that "Independent nonprofit women's colleges, which included the'Seven Sisters', were founded to provide educational opportunities to women equal to those available to men and were geared toward women who wanted to study the liberal arts".
The colleges offered broader opportunities in academia to women, hiring many female faculty members and administrators. Early proponents of education for women were Sarah Pierce. Lyon was involved in the development of both Hartford Female Ipswich Female Seminary, she was involved in the creation of Wheaton Female Seminary in 1834. In 1837, Lyon founded Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. Mount Holyoke became Mount Holyoke Seminary and College, it became Mount Holyoke College in 1893. Vassar, was the first of the Seven Sisters to be chartered as a college in 1861. Wellesley College was chartered in 1870 as the Wellesley Female Seminary, was renamed Wellesley College in 1873, it opened to students in 1875. Smith College was chartered in 1871 and opened its doors in 1875. Bryn Mawr opened in 1885. Radcliffe College grew out of the Women's Education Association of Boston, founded by a group of influential women, including Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, whose late husband was a famous Harvard scientist. Radcliffe College was founded in 1879 and chartered by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1894.
It was informally called The Harvard Annexbecause Harvard Professors repeated the lectures they'd given to male Harvard students there until 1943. By 1946, the majority of Harvard College courses were offered to both female Radcliffe students and male Harvard Students; the schools further integrated in the 1960's, in 1963 the first Harvard degrees were conferred on Radcliffe women. Despite having joint admissions, Women's degrees would continue to bear both Harvard and Radcliffe seals until 1999, when the merger of the two schools was completed. Since 1999, all undergraduate students have received diplomas bearing the seal of Harvard College, identified as Harvard students. Radcliffe College no longer exists as an undergraduate institution, but Radcliffe class reunions take place at Harvard each year; the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study was created following the merger in 1999, today offers non-degree instruction and executive education programs. Barnard College has been affiliated with Columbia University since its founding in 1888, but it continues to be independently governed.
Mount Holyoke College and Smith College are members of Pioneer Valley's Five Colleges consortium. Bryn Mawr College is a part of the Tri-College Consortium in suburban Philadelphia, with its sister schools, Haverford College and Swarthmore College. Barnard, Mount Holyoke, Bryn Mawr and Radcliffe were given the name "the Seven Sisters" in 1927, because of their relative affiliations with the Ivy League men's colleges; the schools are sometimes referred to as "the Daisy Chain" or "the Heavenly Seven". The name Seven Sisters is a reference to the Greek myth of The Pleiades, the seven daughters of the Titan Atlas and the sea-nymph Pleione; the daughters were collectively referred to as The Seven Sisters. In the field of astronomy a star cluster, in the constellation of Taurus, is referred to as The Pleiades or the Seven Sisters; the seven colleges explored the issue of coeducation in a variety of ways. Two, Radcliffe College and Vassar College, are no longer women's colleges. Radcliffe merged into Harvard College in 1999, is now a research institute and no longer an undergraduate institution.
The component parts of the College's campus, the Radcliffe Quadrangle and Radcliffe Yard, retain the designation "Radcliffe" in perpetuity, serve or house both male and female students to this day. Vassar declined an offer to merge with Yale University and became independently coeducational in 1969. Barnard College was founded in 1888 as a woman's college affiliated with Columbia University. However, it is independently governed, while making available to its students the instruction and the facilities of Columbia University. Columbia College, the university's largest liberal-arts undergraduate school, began admitting women in 1983 after a decade of failed negotiations with Barnard for a merger along the lines of the one between Harvard College and Radcliffe and between Brown and Pembroke. Barnard has an independent faculty (subject to Columbia University tenure appr