Mount Holyoke College
Mount Holyoke College is a private women's liberal arts college in South Hadley, United States. It is the oldest institution within the Seven Sisters schools, an alliance of East Coast liberal arts colleges, founded to provide women with education equivalent to that provided for men in the men-only Ivy League. Mount Holyoke served as a model for other women's colleges and is part of the region's Five College Consortium, along with Amherst College, Smith College, Hampshire College, the University of Massachusetts Amherst; the school was founded in 1837 by Mary Lyon as Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. Mount Holyoke received its collegiate charter in 1888 as Mount Holyoke Seminary and College and became Mount Holyoke College in 1893. Mount Holyoke's buildings were designed between 1896 and 1960, it has a Donald Ross-designed 18-hole golf course, The Orchards, which hosted the U. S. Women's Open in 2004. U. S. News & World Report lists Mount Holyoke as the 30th-best liberal arts college in the United States in its 2019 rankings.
In 2011–2012, Mount Holyoke was one of the nation's top producers of Fulbright Scholars, ranking fourth among bachelor's institutions according to The Chronicle of Higher Education. Mount Holyoke's founder, Mary Lyon, is considered to have been an innovator in women's education. Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was one of several institutions of higher education for young women established during the first half of the 19th century. Lyon's contemporaries include Sarah Pierce. Prior to founding Mount Holyoke, Lyon contributed to the development of both Hartford Female Seminary and Ipswich Female Seminary, she was involved in the creation of Wheaton Female Seminary in 1834. Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was chartered as a teaching seminary in 1836 and opened its doors to students on 8 November 1837. Both Vassar College and Wellesley College were patterned after Mount Holyoke. From its founding, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary "had no religious affiliation". However, "students were required to attend church services, chapel talks, prayer meetings, Bible study groups.
Twice a day teachers and students spent time in private devotions. Every dorm room had two large lighted closets to give roommates privacy during their devotions". Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was the sister school to Andover Seminary; some Andover graduates looked to marry students from the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before becoming missionaries because the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions required its missionaries to be married before starting their missions. By 1859 there were more than 60 missionary alumnae; the change in admission from Seminary to College included fundraising by the Trustees, an overhaul of the entrance requirements, course catalogue. Entrance exams were introduced at this time, scheduled in September at the college. In 1889, students traveling from the midwest could take these examinations in Freeport and within a few years, this was expanded to other cities. Many additions were made to the course catalog, starting in the 1889 academic year, students could choose to pursue degrees of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science.
Mount Holyoke Female Seminary received its collegiate charter in 1888, becoming Mount Holyoke Seminary and College. Within 4 years, the seminary enrollment dropped from 269 to 122 to 8. In 1893, the seminary course was discontinued, the new title Mount Holyoke College was authorized. A movement towards what was referred to as cottage-style living started in 1889 by the New York Association after the change to Mount Holyoke Seminary and College. $15,000 was raised, plans were put in place for Mary Brigham Cottage, with accommodations for the president and thirty students, with priority given to those in the collegiate course. At the time, two South Hadley families agreed to host boarders, some students were permitted to live at the hotel. President Elizabeth Mead deemed both of these options unsatisfactory, pushed the Trustees to build yet another cottage. Mrs. Mead was ready to relieve the students of a large share of the drudgery of domestic work that had made up a good portion of their studies since Mary Lyon's conception of the seminary.
From 1895 to 1996 the trustees allotted funds for the employment of four women to wash the dinner dishes that had constituted the task of eight or ten students. The Mount Holyoke chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was established in 1905, it has been a sister school to Women's Christian College in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India since 1920. In the early 1970s Mount Holyoke had a long debate under the presidency of David Truman over the issue of coeducation. On 6 November 1971 the board of trustees voted to remain a women's college. On February 28, 1987, the United States Postal Service's Great Americans series issued a postage stamp featuring Mary Lyon, in honor of Mount Holyoke's Sesquicentennial. At Convocation on September 2, 2014, President Lynn Pasquerella announced a new policy allowing the admission of transgender individuals to the college, as well as the admission of students whose gender identities are non-binary. Mount Holyoke offers 50 departmental and interdepartmental majors, including the option to design a special major.
The primary degree conferred is the Bachelor of Arts degree, for which students complete 128 semester credits (one standard cour
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Mary A. Brigham
Mary Ann Brigham was an American educator, the 8th President of Mount Holyoke College in 1889. After a teaching for a few years, "she was elected President of Mount Holyoke Seminary and College in 1889, but died in a railway accident before she could take up her appointment." Mary Ann Brigham was born 6 December 1829 in Westborough, Massachusetts to Dexter Brigham and Mary Ann Brigham. She was a descendant of Thomas Brigham and Edmund Rice, early immigrants to Massachusetts Bay Colony, she was educated as part of the 1849 class. Brigham began her academic career in 1855. In 1858 she was named assistant principal at Ingham University, remaining in that post until 1863. From 1863 to 1889 she served as associate principal at Brooklyn Heights Seminary, she served for several years as president of the Mt. Holyoke Alumnae Club in New York City, shortly after the 1888 charter of Mount Holyoke College, she was elected as 8th President of her alma mater. On 29 June 1889, as she was traveling from New York to South Hadley, Massachusetts to assume her post, the train crashed at New Haven, Connecticut.
She died in the wreck. In 1897 a dormitory was erected by the New York Alumnae Club on the Mt. Holyoke campus, it was named The Mary Brigham Hall
Professor is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being an expert in arts or sciences, a teacher of the highest rank. In most systems of academic ranks the word "Professor" only refers to the most senior academic position, sometimes informally known as "full professor". In some countries or institutions, the word professor is used in titles of lower ranks such as associate professor and assistant professor; this colloquial usage would be considered incorrect among most other academic communities. However, the unqualified title Professor designated with a capital letter refers to a full professor in English language usage. Professors conduct original research and teach undergraduate and postgraduate courses in their fields of expertise. In universities with graduate schools, professors may mentor and supervise graduate students conducting research for a thesis or dissertation.
In many universities,'full professors' take on senior managerial roles, leading departments, research teams and institutes, filling roles such as president, principal or vice-chancellor. The role of professor may be more public facing than that of more junior staff, professors are expected to be national or international leaders in their field of expertise; the term "professor" was first used in the late 14th century to mean "one who teaches a branch of knowledge". The word comes "...from Old French professeur and directly from Latin professor'person who professes to be an expert in some art or science. As a title, "prefixed to a name, it dates from 1706"; the "hort form prof is recorded from 1838". The term "professor" is used with a different meaning: "ne professing religion; this canting use of the word comes down from the Elizabethan period, but is obsolete in England." A professor is an accomplished and recognized academic. In most Commonwealth nations, as well as northern Europe, the title professor is the highest academic rank at a university.
In the United States and Canada, the title of professor applies to most post-doctoral academics, so a larger percentage are thus designated. In these areas, professors are scholars with doctorate degrees or equivalent qualifications who teach in four-year colleges and universities. An emeritus professor is a title given to selected retired professors with whom the university wishes to continue to be associated due to their stature and ongoing research. Emeritus professors do not receive a salary, but they are given office or lab space, use of libraries, so on; the term professor is used in the titles assistant professor and associate professor, which are not considered professor-level positions in all European countries. In Australia, the title associate professor is used in place of the term reader as used in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries. Beyond holding the proper academic title, universities in many countries give notable artists and foreign dignitaries the title honorary professor if these persons do not have the academic qualifications necessary for professorship and they do not take up professorial duties.
However, such "professors" do not undertake academic work for the granting institution. In general, the title of professor is used for academic positions rather than for those holding it on honorary basis. Professors are qualified experts in their field who perform some or all the following tasks: Managing teaching and publications in their departments. Other roles of professorial tasks depend on the institution, its legacy, protocols and time. For example, professors at research-oriented universities in North America and at European universities, are promoted on the basis of research achievements and external grant-raising success. Many colleges and universities and other institutions of higher learning throughout the world follow a similar hierarchical ranking structure amongst scholars in academia. A professor earns a base salary and a range of benefits. In addition, a professor who undertakes additional roles in their institution earns additional income; some professors earn additional income by moonlighting in other jobs, such as consulting, publishing academic or popular press books, giving speeches, or coaching executives.
Some fields give professors more opportun
Mary Emma Woolley
Mary Emma Woolley was an American educator, peace activist and women's suffrage supporter. She was the first female student to attend Brown University and served as the 11th President of Mount Holyoke College from 1900 to 1937. Woolley was his second wife, Mary Augusta Ferris, she was given the nickname May, enjoyed a comfortable, nurturing childhood in New England. She was first raised in Meriden, Connecticut and, starting in 1871, Rhode Island, her father was a Congregational minister and his efforts to incorporate social work into religion influenced his daughter. Woolley attended Providence High School and a number of smaller schools run by women before finishing her secondary schooling, in 1884, at the Wheaton Seminary in Norton, Massachusetts. Woolley returned to teach there from 1885 to 1891. After traveling through Europe for two months during the summer of 1890, she intended to attend Oxford University, but her father agreed with Elisha Benjamin Andrews, the president of Brown University, that Woolley should become one of the first female students at Brown.
She began attending Brown in the fall of 1890. In 1894, she received her B. A. and in 1895, her M. A. for her thesis titled, The Early History of the Colonial Post Office. In 1895, Woolley began teaching biblical literature at Wellesley College, she was popular among her students and peers and, in 1896, she was made an associate professor. By 1899, she had been promoted to full professor. During her time at Wellesley, she made significant changes in the curriculum while gaining administrative experiences as the chair of her department, she met Jeannette Augustus Marks, a student at Wellesley. Beginning in 1899, the two women lived in a life-partnership for fifty-five years. In December, 1899, Brown offered her a job. Mount Holyoke College offered her its presidency. Woolley took Mount Holyoke's offer and on January 1, 1901, at the age of 38, became one of the youngest college presidents in the United States. In 1900, she became the first woman to receive an honorary degree from Amherst College. Upon arrival at Mount Holyoke, Woolley outlined her views on female education.
While in the past, the college had placed an emphasis on women's education in service to society, Woolley stressed that in the future, a women's education would not need to be justified by anything but intellectual grounds. Woolley believed education was a preparation for life, that an educated woman was able to achieve anything, she argued that if women had not succeeded in the past, it was because their education, or lack thereof, had held them back. As the president of a women's college, one of her many responsibilities was to publicly support female education. During her 36-year presidency, she worked to end the prejudice of the era that contended that women had a natural learning disability and that intellectual work negatively affected their health. Woolley began to have influence within the academic community, she led cooperative efforts with other women's colleges to raise funds, academic standards and public consciousness for women's education. During Woolley's presidency, she built a strong faculty, attracting scholars from the most prestigious graduate schools by offering increased salaries and sabbaticals.
Woolley attempted to improve the quality of students admitted to Mount Holyoke, after raising admission standards, introducing honors programs and general examinations for seniors. The college endowment grew from $500,000 to nearly $5 million and the campus added sixteen new building during her 36-year presidency. One of her most significant changes came when she abolished the domestic work system, instituted by the college's founder, Mary Lyon; when Lyon founded the college in 1837, students were required to cook and clean for economic reasons, other women's colleges followed the example. By 1901, Mount Holyoke was the only women's college with the system still in place and Woolley thought the system was old fashioned and an obstacle in her goal of making Mount Holyoke intellectually equal to male colleges, she created a position for Jeanette Marks, who taught English and Theater at Mount Holyoke until her retirement in 1941. Though the women never publicly acknowledged a lesbian relationship, there were some undercurrents of resentment at the college for Woolley's alleged "favoritism" towards Marks.
Woolley managed to devote her time to a number of organizations during her presidency, advocating for social reform of all kinds, including suffrage and church matters. She served as the vice president of the American Civil Liberties Union and worked on U. S. entry into the League of Nations. She worked with President Herbert Hoover on women's rights and with President Franklin D. Roosevelt on pacifism, she was an early member of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae which became the American Association of University Women. From 1927-1933, she served as President of AAUW, she gained international recognition after President Hoover appointed her as a delegate to the Conference on Reduction and Limitation of Armaments, which met in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1932. She was on the board of electors of the Hall of Fame, the national board of the Y. W. C. A; the executive committee of the American School Peace League, the council of the National Institute for Moral Instruction, the Commission on Peace and Arbitration.
She was a senator of the United Chapters of Phi Beta Kappa and honorary vice president of the National Consumers' League. In 1900, Woolley was one of 60 signers of the "Call for the Lincoln Emancipation Conference to Discuss M
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Mary Mason Lyon was an American pioneer in women's education. She established the Wheaton Female Seminary in Norton, Massachusetts, in 1834, she established Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in South Hadley, Massachusetts in 1837 and served as its first president for 12 years. Lyon's vision fused moral purpose, she valued socioeconomic diversity and endeavored to make the seminary affordable for students of modest means. The daughter of a farming family in Buckland, Lyon had a hardscrabble childhood, her father died when she was five, the entire family pitched in to help run the farm. Lyon was thirteen when her mother moved away, she attended various district schools intermittently and, in 1814, began teaching in them as well. Lyon's modest beginnings fostered her lifelong commitment to extending educational opportunities to girls from middling and poor backgrounds. Lyon was able to attend two secondary schools, Sanderson Academy in Ashfield and Byfield Seminary in eastern Massachusetts. At Byfield, she was befriended by the headmaster, Rev. Joseph Emerson, his assistant, Zilpah Polly Grant.
She soaked up Byfield's ethos of rigorous academic education infused with Christian commitment. Lyon taught at several academies, including Sanderson, a small school of her own in Buckland, Adams Female Academy, the Ipswich Female Seminary. Lyon's attendance at the novel, lectures in laboratory botany by Amos Eaton influenced her involvement in the female seminary movement. In 1834, Laban Wheaton and his daughter-in-law, Eliza Baylies Chapin Wheaton, called upon Mary Lyon for assistance in establishing the Wheaton Female Seminary in Norton, Massachusetts. Miss Lyon created the first curriculum with the goal that it be equal in quality to those of men's colleges, she provided the first principal, Eunice Caldwell. Wheaton Female Seminary opened on 22 April 1835, with three teachers. Mary Lyon and Eunice Caldwell left Wheaton, along with eight Wheaton students, to open Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. During these early years, Lyon developed her vision for Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, which would resemble Grant's schools in many respects but, Lyon hoped, draw its students from a wider socioeconomic range.
The college was unique in that it was founded by people of modest means and served their daughters, rather than the children of the rich. She was influenced by Reverend Joseph Emerson, whose Discourse on Female Education advocated that women should be trained to be teachers rather than "to please the other sex." Mount Holyoke opened in 1837: the seminary was ready for "the reception of scholars on November 8, 1837." Lyon strove to maintain high academic standards: she set rigorous entrance exams and admitted "young ladies of an adult age, mature character." In keeping with her social vision, she limited the tuition to $60/year, about one-third the tuition that Grant charged at Ipswich Female Seminary, central to her mission of "appeal to the intelligence of all classes."Lyon, an early believer in the importance of daily exercise for women, required her students to "walk one mile after breakfast. During New England's cold and snowy winters, she reduced the requirement to 45 minutes. Calisthenics—a form of exercise—was taught by teachers in unheated hallways until a storage area was cleared for a gymnasium.
In order to keep costs low, Lyon required students to perform domestic tasks—an early version of work/study. These tasks included washing floors and windows. Emily Dickinson, who attended the Seminary in 1847, was tasked with cleaning knives. Though Lyon's policies were sometimes controversial, the seminary attracted its target student body of 200. Lyon anticipated a change in the role of women and equipped her pupils with an education, comprehensive and innovative, with particular emphasis on the sciences, she required: seven courses in the sciences and mathematics for graduation, a requirement unheard of at other female seminaries. She introduced women to "a new and unusual way" to learn science—laboratory experiments which they performed themselves, she organized field trips on which students collected rocks and specimens for lab work, inspected geological formations and discovered dinosaur tracks. Conforti examines the central importance of religion to Lyon, she was raised a Baptist but converted to a Congregationalist under the influence of her teacher Reverend Joseph Emerson.
Lyon preached revivals at Mount Holyoke, spoke elsewhere, though not a minister, was a member of the fellowship of New England's New Divinity clergy. She played a major role in the revival of the thought of Jonathan Edwards, whose works were read more then than in his day, she was attracted by his ideas of self-restraint, self-denial, disinterested benevolence. Lyon died of erysipelas on March 5, 1849. Lyon was buried on the Mount Holyoke College campus, in front of Porter Hall and behind the Amphitheatre, her burial site is marked with a granite marker surrounded by an iron fence. Many buildings have been named including Mary Lyon Hall at Mount Holyoke College. Built in 1897 on the site of the former Seminary Building, the hall houses college offices, a chapel; the main classroom building for Wheaton Female Seminary called New Seminary Hall, was renamed Mary Lyon Hall in 1910 and still feat