Osamu Tezuka was a Japanese manga artist, cartoonist and film producer. Born in Osaka Prefecture, his prolific output, pioneering techniques, innovative redefinitions of genres earned him such titles as "the father of manga", "the godfather of manga" and "the god of manga". Additionally, he is considered the Japanese equivalent to Walt Disney, who served as a major inspiration during Tezuka's formative years. Though this phrase praises the quality of his early manga works for children and animations, it blurs the significant influence of his more literary, gekiga works. Tezuka began what was known as the manga revolution in Japan with his New Treasure Island published in 1947, his legendary output would spawn some of the most influential and well received manga series including the children mangas Astro Boy, Princess Knight and Kimba the White Lion, the adult oriented series Black Jack and Buddha, all of which won several awards. Tezuka died of stomach cancer in 1989, his death had an immediate impact on other cartoonists.
A museum was constructed in Takarazuka dedicated to his memory and life works, Tezuka received many posthumous awards. Several animations were in production at the time of his death along with the final chapters of Phoenix, which were never released. Tezuka was the eldest of three children in Osaka; the Tezuka family were well-educated. His mother's family had a long military history. Tezuka's nickname was gashagasha-atama. In life, he gave his mother credit for inspiring confidence and creativity through her stories, she took him to the Takarazuka Grand Theater, which headlined the Takarazuka Revue, an all-female musical theater troupe. Their romantic musicals aimed at a female audience, had a large influence of Tezuka's works, including his costume designs. Not only that, but the large, sparkling eyes had an influence on Tezuka's art style, he has said" for Takarazuka. When Tezuka was young, his father showed him Disney films, he became a Disney movie buff, seeing the films multiple times in a row, most famously seeing Bambi more than 80 times.
Tezuka started to draw comics around his second year of elementary school, drawing so much that his mother would have to erase pages in his notebook in order to keep up with his output. Tezuka was inspired by works by Suihō Tagawa and Unno Juza. Around his fifth year he found a bug named "Osamushi", it so resembled his name. He continued to develop his manga skills throughout his school career. During this period he created his first adept amateur works. During high school in 1944, Tezuka was drafted to work for a factory, supporting the Japanese war effort during World War II. In 1945, Tezuka began studying medicine. During this time, he began publishing his first professional works. Tezuka came to the realization that he could use manga as a means of helping to convince people to care for the world. After World War II, at age 17, he published his first piece of work: Diary of Ma-chan. Tezuka began talks with fellow manga artist Shichima Sakai, who had pitched Tezuka a manga based around the famous story Treasure Island.
Sakai promised Tezuka a publishing spot from Ikuei Shuppan. Tezuka finished the manga. Shin Takarajima was published and became an overnight success which began the golden age of manga, a craze comparable to American comic books at the time. In 1951, Tezuka joined a group known as Tokyo Children Manga Association consisting of other manga artists such as Baba Noboru, Ota Jiro, Furusawa Hideo, Fukui Eiichi, Irie Shigeru, Negishi Komichi. With the success of New Treasure Island, Tezuka traveled to Tokyo in search of a publisher for more of his work. After visiting Kobunsha Tezuka was turned down. However, publisher Shinseikaku agreed to purchase The Strange Voyage of Dr. Tiger and Domei Shuppansha would purchase The Mysterious Dr. Koronko. Whilst continuing his study in medical school Tezuka published his first masterpieces: a trilogy of science fiction epics called Lost World and Next World. Soon after Tezuka published his first major success Jungle Emperor Leo, it was serialized in Manga Shonen from 1950 to 1954.
In 1951 Tezuka graduated from the Osaka School of Medicine and published Ambassador Atom, the first appearance of the Astro Boy character. By 1952, Ambassador Atom proved to be only a mild success in Japan. Tezuka received several letters from many young boys. Expecting success with a series based around Atom, Tezuka's producer suggested that he be given human emotions. One day while working at a hospital Tezuka was punched in the face by a frustrated American G. I; this encounter gave Tezuka the idea to create Atom. On February 4, 1952, Tetsuwan Atom began serialization in Weekly Shonen Magazine; the character Atom and his adventures became an instant phenomenon in Japan. Due to the success of Tetsuwan Atom, in 1953 Tezuka published shōjo manga Ribon no Kishi, serialized in Shojo Club from 1953 to 1956. In 1954 Tezuka first published what he would consider his life's
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Hayao Miyazaki is a Japanese animator, screenwriter, cartoonist and manga artist. A co-founder of Studio Ghibli, a film and animation studio, he has attained international acclaim as a masterful storyteller and as a maker of anime feature films, is regarded as one of the greatest animation filmmakers. Born in Bunkyō Ward of Tokyo, Miyazaki expressed interest in manga and animation from an early age, he joined Toei Animation in 1963. During his early years at Toei Animation he worked as an in-between artist and collaborated with director Isao Takahata. Notable films to which Miyazaki contributed at Toei include Doggie March and Gulliver's Travels Beyond the Moon, he provided key animation to other films at Toei, such as Puss in Boots and Animal Treasure Island, before moving to A-Pro in 1971, where he co-directed Lupin the Third Part I alongside Takahata. After moving to Zuiyō Eizō in 1973, Miyazaki worked as an animator on World Masterpiece Theater, directed the television series Future Boy Conan.
He joined Telecom Animation Film/Tokyo Movie Shinsha in 1979 to direct his first feature films, The Castle of Cagliostro in 1979 and Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind in 1984, as well as the television series Sherlock Hound. Miyazaki co-founded Studio Ghibli in 1985, he directed multiple films with Ghibli, including Castle in the Sky in 1986, My Neighbor Totoro in 1988, Kiki's Delivery Service in 1989, Porco Rosso in 1992. The films were met with critical success in Japan. Miyazaki's film Princess Mononoke was the first animated film to win the Japan Academy Prize for Picture of the Year, became the highest-grossing film in Japan following its release in 1997, his 2001 film Spirited Away became the highest-grossing film in Japanese history, winning the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature at the 75th Academy Awards and considered among the greatest films of the decade. Miyazaki's films—Howl's Moving Castle and The Wind Rises—also enjoyed critical and commercial success. Following the release of The Wind Rises, Miyazaki announced his retirement from feature films, though he returned to work on a new feature film in 2016.
Miyazaki's works are characterized by the recurrence of themes such as humanity's relationship with nature and technology, the wholesomeness of natural and traditional patterns of living, the importance of art and craftsmanship, the difficulty of maintaining a pacifist ethic in a violent world. The protagonists of his films are strong girls or young women, several of his films present morally ambiguous antagonists with redeeming qualities. Miyazaki's works have been praised and awarded. In 2002, American film critic Roger Ebert suggested that Miyazaki may be the best animation filmmaker in history, praising the depth and artistry of his films. Hayao Miyazaki was born on January 5, 1941, in the town of Akebono-cho in Bunkyō, the second of four sons, his father, Katsuji Miyazaki, was the director of Miyazaki Airplane, which manufactured rudders for fighter planes during World War II. The business allowed his family to remain affluent during Miyazaki's early life. During the war, when Miyazaki was three years old, his family evacuated to Utsunomiya.
After the bombing of Utsunomiya in July 1945, Miyazaki's family evacuated to Kanuma. The bombing left a lasting impression on Miyazaki, aged four at the time. From 1947 to 1955, Miyazaki's mother suffered from spinal tuberculosis. Miyazaki's mother was a intellectual woman, she died in July 1983 at the age of 71. Miyazaki began school in 1947, at an elementary school in Utsunomiya, completing the first through third grades. After his family moved back to Suginami-ku, Miyazaki completed the fourth grade at Ōmiya Elementary School, fifth grade at Eifuku Elementary School. After graduating from Eifuku, he attended Ōmiya Junior High School, he discovered he could not draw people. Miyazaki was influenced by several manga artists, such as Tetsuji Fukushima, Soji Yamakawa and Osamu Tezuka. Miyazaki destroyed much of his early work, believing it was "bad form" to copy Tezuka's style as it was hindering his own development as an artist. After graduating from Ōmiya Junior High, Miyazaki attended Toyotama High School.
During his third year, Miyazaki's interest in animation was sparked by the Magic Serpent. He "fell in love" with the movie's heroine and it left a strong impression on him. After graduating from Toyotama, Miyazaki attended Gakushuin University and was a member of the "Children's Literature Research Club", the "closest thing to a comics club in those days". In his free time, Miyazaki would visit his art teacher from middle school and sketch in his studio, where the two would drink and "talk about politics, all sorts of things". Miyazaki graduated from Gakushuin in 1963 with degrees in political science and economics. In 1963, Miyazaki was employed at Toei Animation, he worked as an in-between artist on the theatrical feature anime Doggie March and the television anime Wolf Boy Ken. He worked on Gulliver's Travels Beyond the Moon, he was a leader in a labor dispute soon after his arrival, became chief secretary of Toei's labor union in 1964. Miyazaki worked as chi
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from or associated with Japan. The word anime is the Japanese term for animation. Outside Japan, anime refers to animation from Japan or as a Japanese-disseminated animation style characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastical themes; the culturally abstract approach to the word's meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan. For simplicity, many Westerners view anime as a Japanese animation product; some scholars suggest defining anime as or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of Orientalism. The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, Japanese anime production has since continued to increase steadily; the characteristic anime art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of Osamu Tezuka and spread internationally in the late twentieth century, developing a large domestic and international audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, by way of television broadcasts, directly to home media, over the Internet.
It is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences. Anime is a diverse art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies, it consists of an ideal story-telling mechanism, combining graphic art, characterization and other forms of imaginative and individualistic techniques. The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of camera effects, including panning and angle shots. Being hand-drawn, anime is separated from reality by a crucial gap of fiction that provides an ideal path for escapism that audiences can immerse themselves into with relative ease. Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, including characteristically large emotive or realistically sized eyes; the anime industry consists of over 430 production studios, including major names like Studio Ghibli and Toei Animation.
Despite comprising only a fraction of Japan's domestic film market, anime makes up a majority of Japanese DVD sales. It has seen international success after the rise of English-dubbed programming; this rise in international popularity has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style. Whether these works are anime-influenced animation or proper anime is a subject for debate amongst fans. Japanese anime accounts for 60% of the world's animated cartoon television shows, as of 2016. Anime is an art form animation, that includes all genres found in cinema, but it can be mistakenly classified as a genre. In Japanese, the term anime is used as a blanket term to refer to all forms of animation from around the world. In English, anime is more restrictively used to denote a "Japanese-style animated film or television entertainment" or as "a style of animation created in Japan"; the etymology of the word anime is disputed. The English term "animation" is written in Japanese katakana as アニメーション and is アニメ in its shortened form.
The pronunciation of anime in Japanese differs from pronunciations in other languages such as Standard English, which has different vowels and stress with regards to Japanese, where each mora carries equal stress. As with a few other Japanese words such as saké, Pokémon, Kobo Abé, English-language texts sometimes spell anime as animé, with an acute accent over the final e, to cue the reader to pronounce the letter, not to leave it silent as Standard English orthography may suggest; some sources claim that anime derives from the French term for animation dessin animé, but others believe this to be a myth derived from the French popularity of the medium in the late 1970s and 1980s. In English, anime—when used as a common noun—normally functions as a mass noun. Prior to the widespread use of anime, the term Japanimation was prevalent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In the mid-1980s, the term anime began to supplant Japanimation. In general, the latter term now only appears in period works where it is used to distinguish and identify Japanese animation.
The word anime has been criticised, e.g. in 1987, when Hayao Miyazaki stated that he despised the truncated word anime because to him it represented the desolation of the Japanese animation industry. He equated the desolation with animators lacking motivation and with mass-produced, overly expressionistic products relying upon a fixed iconography of facial expressions and protracted and exaggerated action scenes but lacking depth and sophistication in that they do not attempt to convey emotion or thought; the first format of anime was theatrical viewing which began with commercial productions in 1917. The animated flips were crude and required played musical components before adding sound and vocal components to the production. On July 14, 1958, Nippon Television aired Mogura no Abanchūru, both the first televised and first color anime to debut, it wasn't until the 1960s when the first televised series were broadcast and it has remained a popular medium since. Works released in a direct to video format are called "original video animation" or "original animation video".
The emergence of the Internet has led some animators to distribute works online in a format called "original net anime". The home distribution of anime releases were
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website