Washington Allston was an American painter and poet, born in Waccamaw Parish, South Carolina. Allston pioneered America's Romantic movement of landscape painting, he was well known during his lifetime for his experiments with dramatic subject matter and his bold use of light and atmospheric color. Allston was born on a rice plantation on the Waccamaw River near South Carolina, his mother Rachel Moore had married Captain William Allston in 1775, though her husband died in 1781, shortly after the Battle of Cowpens. Moore remarried to Dr. Henry C. Flagg, the son of a wealthy shipping merchant from Newport, Rhode Island. Named in honor of the leading American general of the Revolution, Washington Allston graduated from Harvard College in 1800 and moved to Charleston, South Carolina for a short time before sailing to England in May 1801, he was admitted to the Royal Academy Schools in London in September, when painter Benjamin West was the president. From 1803 to 1808, he visited the great museums of Paris and for several years, those of Italy, where he met Washington Irving in Rome and Coleridge, his lifelong friend.
In 1809, Allston married sister of William Ellery Channing. Samuel F. B. Morse was one of Allston's art pupils and accompanied Allston to Europe in 1811. After traveling throughout western Europe, Allston settled in London, where he won fame and prizes for his pictures. Allston was a published writer. In London in 1813, he published The Sylphs of the Seasons, with Other Poems, republished in Boston, Massachusetts that year, his wife died in February 1815, leaving him saddened and homesick for America. In 1818, he returned to the United States and lived in Cambridge, for twenty-five years, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1826. He was the uncle of the artists George Whiting Flagg and Jared Bradley Flagg, both of whom studied painting under him; the first American exhibition of Allston's work was in 1827 when twelve of his paintings were shown at the Boston Athenæum. In 1830 Allston married Martha Remington Dana, the sister of the novelist Richard Henry Dana.
In 1841, he published Monaldi, a romance illustrating Italian life, in 1850, a volume of his Lectures on Art, Poems. Allston died on July 9, 1843, at age 63. Allston is buried in Harvard Square, in "the Old Burying Ground" between the First Parish Church and Christ Church. Allston was sometimes called the "American Titian" because his style resembled the great Venetian Renaissance artists in their display of dramatic color contrasts, his work influenced the development of U. S. landscape painting. The themes of many of his paintings were drawn from literature Biblical stories, his artistic genius was much admired by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Ralph Waldo Emerson was influenced by his paintings and poems, but so were both Margaret Fuller and Sophia Peabody, wife of Nathaniel Hawthorne. The influential critic and editor Rufus Wilmot Griswold dedicated his famous anthology The Poets and Poetry of America to Allston in 1842. Poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 17 years after Allston's death, wrote that: "One man may sweeten a whole time.
I never pass through Cambridge Port without thinking of Allston. His memory is the quince in the drawer and perfumes the atmosphere."Boston painter William Morris Hunt was an admirer of Allston's work, in 1866 founded the Allston Club in Boston, in his arts classes passed on to his students his knowledge of Allston's techniques. Washington Allston was the first to use the term Objective Correlative in 1840 which subsequently revived and made famous by T. S Eliot in essay on Hamlet; the term denotes a set of objects, a situation, a chain of events which shall be the formula of that particular emotion. The west Boston, Massachusetts neighborhood of Allston is named after him, as is Allston Way, in the "Poets Corner" neighborhood of Berkeley, California. A Landscape after Sunset, c. 1819, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC Allston, Lectures on Art and Poems, 1850. 3 paintings by or after Washington Allston at the Art UK site Washington Allston in the New Students Reference Work.
Google Art Project, Washington Allston Guide to Washington Allston's papers at Houghton Library, Harvard University Washington Allston at American Art Gallery Works by Washington Allston at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Washington Allston at Internet Archive Works by Washington Allston at LibriVox Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Allston, Washington". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Washington Allston letter fragment, 1818 Mar. 2 from the Smithsonian Archives of American Art Washington Allston at Find a Grave Profile on Royal Academy of Arts Collections
Dream of a Summer Night
Dream of a Summer Night is a 1983 Italian musical film written and directed by Gabriele Salvatores, at his directorial debut. Based on a rock musical directed by the same Salvatores, it is a musical adaptation of William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, it was screened in the "De Sica" section at the 40th edition of the Venice International Film Festival. The wedding day of Teseo and Ippolita, two young heirs of the Milanese bourgeoisie, is near. Everything has been arranged: the party will take place in the splendid family villa in the Lombard plain. Among the guests there are Lisandro, Demetrio and Elena, inseparable and involved in a strange relationship made of impulses and whims. Meanwhile, in a nearby farmhouse, some guys are trying out the show they will perform during the party; the neighboring forest, however, is populated by elves and other strange creatures, ruled by King Oberon and his wife Titania, queen of the night. Over the course of the night, the king and his subjects enjoy spying on the four youngsters and pushing them to each other without a reason, thanks to the powerful elixirs given to them by the elf Puck.
Only on the wedding day, while the show is going on stage in the big hall, Demetrio and Elena will be able to shed light on their true feelings. Alberto Lionello as Theseus Erika Blanc as Hippolyta Luca Barbareschi as Lysander Ferdinando Bruni as Puck Flavio Bucci as Oberon Alessandro Haber as Egeus Giuseppe Cederna as Demetrius Sabina Vannucchi as Helena Gianna Nannini as Titania Augusta Gori as Hermia Renato Sarti as Quince Elio De Capitani as Bottom Cristina Crippa as Shout Luca Toracca as Flute Doris von Thury as Starveling Claudio Bisio as Moth Ida Marinelli as Eugenia List of Italian films of 1983 Dream of a Summer Night on IMDb
Nick Bottom is a character in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream who provides comic relief throughout the play. A weaver by trade, he is famously known for getting his head transformed into that of a donkey by the elusive Puck. Bottom and Puck are the only two characters who converse with and progress the three central stories in the whole play. Puck is first introduced in the fairies' story and creates the drama of the lovers' story by messing up who loves whom, places the donkey head on Bottom's in his story. Bottom is performing in a play in his story intending it to be presented in the lovers' story, as well as interacting with Titania in the fairies' story. While they are in the woods rehearsing, the fairy Puck, a mischievous sprite and minion of Oberon, king of the fairies, happens upon their rehearsal, he decides to have some fun with them, carrying out part of Oberon's orders in the process, when Bottom exits the stage, he transforms his head into a donkey's. When Bottom returns, unaware of his own transformation, his fellow actors run away from him with Quince screaming, "We are haunted!"
Bottom believes they are playing a prank on him, proclaiming, "This is to make an ass of me, to fright me if they could." So he sings loudly to show them he isn't afraid. The Fairy Queen Titania is awakened by Bottom's song, she has been enchanted by a love potion, which will cause her to fall in love with the first living thing that she sees when she wakes, made from the juice of a rare flower, once hit by Cupid's arrow, that her husband, King of the Fairies, spread on her eyes in an act of jealous rage. During his enchantment over her, he utters "Wake when some vile thing is near." The first thing she sees when she wakes is the transformed Bottom, she falls in love with him. She commands her fairy minions to serve and wait upon him. Oberon releases Titania from her enchantment. After being confronted with the reality that her romantic interlude with the transformed Bottom was not just a dream, she is disgusted with the image of him and seems suspicious of how "these things came to pass." After Oberon instructs Puck to return Bottom's head to his human state, which Puck reluctantly does, the fairies leave him sleeping in the woods, nearby the four Athenian lovers, Helena and Lysander.
He wakes up. His first thought is that he has missed his cue, he realises he has had "a most rare vision". He is amazed by the events of this dream, soon begins to wonder if it was in fact a dream at all, he decides that he will "get Peter Quince to write a ballad of this dream", that "it shall be called'Bottom's Dream,' because it hath no Bottom". Upon being reunited with his friends, he is not able to utter what has happened and says "For if I tell you, I am no true Athenian". Theseus ends up choosing Pyramus and Thisbe as the performance for his amusement, now the wedding day of the young Athenian lovers; the play is poorly written and poorly acted, though performed with a great deal of passion. Bottom performs the famous Pyramus death scene in the play within the play, one of the most comedic moments in the play. In performance, like Horatio in Hamlet is the only major part that can't be doubled, i.e. that can't be played by an actor who plays another character, since he is present in scenes involving nearly every character.
Bottom's discussion of his dream is considered by Ann Thompson to have emulated two passages from Chaucer's The Book of the Duchess. Critics have commented on the profound religious implications of Bottom's speech on his awakening without the ass's head in act 4 of A Midsummer Night's Dream: " The eye of man hath not heard, the ear of man hath not seen, man's hand is not able to taste, his tongue to conceive, nor his heart to report, what my dream was. I will get Peter Quince to write a ballad of this dream: it shall be called'Bottom's Dream', because it hath no bottom. Peradventure, to make it the more gracious, I shall sing it at her death." This speech seems to be a comically jumbled evocation of a passage from the New Testament's 1 Corinthians 2.9–10: "The things which eye hathe not sene, nether eare hath heard, nether came into man's heart, which God hathe prepared for them that love him. But God hathe reveiled them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, the deepe things of God."
Steven Doloff suggests that Bottom's humorous and foolish performance at the end of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" mimics a passage from the previous chapter of Corinthians: "For seing the worlde by wisdome knewe not God in the wisdome of God, it pleased God by the foolishnes of preaching to save them that believe: Seing that the Jewes require a signe, the Grecians seke after wisdome. But we preache Christ crucified: unto the Jewes a stombling blocke, & unto the Grecians, foolishnes: But unto them which are called, bothe of the Jewes & Grecias we preache Christ, the power of GOD, the wisdome of God. For the foolishnes of God is wiser the men." This passage's description of the sceptical reception Christ was given by his Greek audience appears to be alluded to in Bottom's performance. Just as Christ's preaching is regarded as "foolishnes," Bottom's audience perceives his acting as without value, except for the humor they can find in the actors' hopelessly flawed rendering of their subject matter.
Doloff writes that this allusion is likely because, in both texts, the sc
Elopement, colloquially speaking, is used to refer to a marriage conducted in sudden and secretive fashion involving a hurried flight away from one's place of residence together with one's beloved with the intention of getting married. Elopements, in which a couple runs away together and seeks the consent of their parents may be referred to as non-consensual and consensual abductions respectively. To elope, most means to run away and to not come back to the point of origin. Today the term "elopement" is colloquially used for any marriage performed in haste, with a limited public engagement period or without a public engagement period; some couples elope because they wish to avoid objections from religious obligations. In addition, the term elopement is used in psychiatric hospitals to refer to a patient leaving the psychiatric unit without authorization. In some modern cases, the couple collude together to elope under the guise of a bride kidnapping, presenting their parents with a fait accompli.
In most cases, the men who resort to capturing a wife are of lower social status, because of poverty, poor character or criminality. They are sometimes deterred from legitimately seeking a wife because of the payment the woman's family expects, the bride price. In England, a legal prerequisite of religious marriage is the "reading of the banns"—for the three Sundays prior to the intended date of the ceremony, the names of every couple intending marriage has to be read aloud by the priest of their parish of residence, or the posting of a'Notice of Intent to Marry' in the registry office for civil ceremonies; the intention of this is to prevent bigamy or other unlawful marriages by giving fair warning to anybody who might have a legal right to object. In practice, however, it gives warning to the couples' parents, who sometimes objected on purely personal grounds. To work around this law, it is necessary to get a special licence from the Archbishop of Canterbury—or to flee somewhere the law did not apply, across the border to Gretna Green, for instance.
For civil marriages notices must be posted at the appropriate register office. In the Philippines, elopement is called "tanan". Tanan is a long-standing practice in Filipino culture when a woman leaves her home without her parents' permission to live a life with her partner, she will elope during the nighttime hours and is awaited by her lover nearby, who takes her away to a location not of her origin. The next morning, the distraught parents are clueless to the whereabouts of their daughter. Tanan occurs as a result of an impending arranged marriage or in defiance to parents' dislike of a preferred suitor. In Indonesia, an elopement is considered as "kawin lari" or in literal translation, marriage on a run; this happens if the bride didn't get the permission to get married with each other. As Indonesia is a religiously strict country, a couple couldn't get married without parent's consent, hence, it is practiced. Thus, most Indonesian couples who engage in elopement end up marrying without their marriage recognized/registered by the government.
In Assyrian society, elopement against parental request is disreputable, is practised. In the 19th and early 20th century, Assyrians had guarded their females from abduction and consensual elopement, when it came to their neighbours such as Kurds and Turks, who would abduct Assyrian women and marry them, in some cases forcefully, where they would convert them to Islam. Bride kidnapping Marriage law Fuitina
RSC production of A Midsummer Night's Dream (1970)
The 1970 Royal Shakespeare Company production of A Midsummer Night's Dream was directed by Peter Brook, is known as Peter Brook's Dream. It opened in the Royal Shakespeare Theatre at Stratford-upon-Avon and moved to the Aldwych Theatre in London's West End in 1971, it was taken on a world tour in 1972–1973. Brook's production of A Midsummer Night's Dream for the RSC is described as one of the 20th century's most influential productions of Shakespeare, as it rejected many traditional ideas about the staging of classic drama. Shakespeare's play is set in a fairy-inhabited forest nearby. Brook's aim was to reject the 19th-century traditions of realism and illusionism in the theatre, focus instead on locating the play in "the heightened realm of metaphor", he wanted to liberate the play from encrusted "bad tradition" so that the actors could feel that they were encountering the text for the first time. As such, he avoided props. Instead, the set, designed by Sally Jacobs, was a simple white box, with two doors.
In Stratford, black drapes were hung above the box to hide the stage machinery. The purpose of this was to return the stage to the simplicity of the Elizabethan theatre, in which there was little scenery and the sense of location was generated by the poet's words. However, this approach was blended with modern elements: the trees of the forest were represented by giant slinky toys, Titania's bower was a huge red feather; the fairy magic was represented by circus tricks. For example, the fairies entered on trapeze bars, the love potion that Puck fetches was a spinning plate on a rod, which Puck handed to Theseus from a trapeze fifteen feet above the stage; when Bottom turned into an ass, he acquired not the traditional ass's head, but a clown's red nose. The costumes were non-Athenian and non-English Renaissance. Instead, they were a colourful mixture of elements from different places. Oberon wore a purple satin gown. Puck wore a yellow jumpsuit from the Chinese circus; the mechanicals were dressed as 20th-century factory workers.
The young lovers looked like 1960s "flower children" in ankle-length dresses. There were unusual casting choices, it had been traditional for the fairies to be played by children or women, but Brook cast adult men instead, an effect described as "disconcertingly strange and threatening", which made the forest a more frightening, adult place than in earlier productions. Brook decided to double the roles of Theseus/Oberon, Hippolyta/Titania, Philostrate/Puck and Egeus/Quince; this was to create a smaller, more intimate company, but to suggest that the fairies were not so much different characters, as different aspects of the human characters' personalities, an idea signified when Theseus and Hippolyta'became' Oberon and Titania by putting on robes. Brook believed that Theseus and Hippolyta have failed to achieve "the true union as a couple" and work through their quarrels as Oberon and Titania; the production emphasized, to a level never before seen, the supposed sexual undercurrents of the story of Titania's infatuation with Bottom after he turns into an ass.
Brook was influenced by Jan Kott's study of the play in Shakespeare Our Contemporary, in which Kott notes the phallic properties of the donkey, argues that Oberon deliberately degrades Titania by exposing her to this monstrous sexuality. In Brook's staging, Bottom entered Titania's bower carried by the fairies, one of whom thrust his upraised arm between Bottom's legs to represent a phallus. In a jab at more traditional stagings, the sequence was accompanied by Mendelssohn's Wedding March, a piece of music written to be played as an intermezzo between Acts IV and V, but used in more genteel productions for the final marriage scene of the play. Despite the disturbing undercurrents of this view of sexuality, many audience members found the play witty and affectionate in its treatment of sex, in tune with the spirit of 1960s permissiveness; the end of the production stressed the idea of community between audience and actors. As Oberon spoke his final lines about sunrise, the house lights rose, so that the audience was visible to each other while Puck spoke the play's closing speech.
Upon the line "Give me your hands, if we be friends", the entire cast rushed into the auditorium to shake hands with the audience, turning the theatre into a "lovefest". The production was popular, both in terms of box office and reviews. On the opening night, the audience gave a standing ovation at the interval; the majority of critics were in raptures over the production. It was a box office success, was recognized as a theatrical landmark, the product of a great artist: the Sunday Times reviewer called it "the sort of thing one only sees once in a lifetime, only from a man of genius". There were naysayers, the commonest criticism was that the production distracted the viewer from the play by prioritizing Brook's cleverness over Shakespeare's. Theatre historian John Russell Brown felt that the play was constrained by Brook's eccentric personal interpretations; however those critics who disliked the staging choices praised the verse-speaking for its clarity and freshness. One Shakespearean scholar watched it with his eyes shut, loving the acting, but hating the visuals.
Theatre historian Gary Jay Williams says the production was so influential that it became "the reference point for Shakespearean performance practice in general over the next decade". It encouraged the exploration of the play's darker, adult themes, which had b
Theseus was the mythical king and founder-hero of Athens. Like Perseus, Cadmus, or Heracles, Theseus battled and overcame foes that were identified with an archaic religious and social order: “This was a major cultural transition, like the making of the new Olympia by Hercules”. Theseus was a founding hero for the Athenians in the same way that Heracles was the founding hero for the Dorians; the Athenians regarded Theseus as a great reformer. The myths surrounding Theseus – his journeys and friends – have provided material for fiction throughout the ages. Theseus was responsible for the synoikismos – the political unification of Attica under Athens – represented emblematically in his journey of labours, subduing ogres and monstrous beasts; because he was the unifying king, Theseus built and occupied a palace on the fortress of the Acropolis that may have been similar to the palace, excavated in Mycenae. Pausanias reports that after the synoikismos, Theseus established a cult of Aphrodite Pandemos and Peitho on the southern slope of the Acropolis.
Plutarch's Life of Theseus makes use of varying accounts of the death of the Minotaur, Theseus' escape, the love of Ariadne for Theseus. Plutarch's sources, not all of whose texts have survived independently, included Pherecydes, Demon and Cleidemus; as the subject of myth, the existence of Theseus as a real person has not been proven, but scholars believe that he may have been alive during the Late Bronze Age as a king in the 8th or 9th century BC. Aegeus, one of the primordial kings of Athens, was childless. Desiring an heir, he asked the Oracle of Delphi for advice, her cryptic words were "Do not loosen the bulging mouth of the wineskin until you have reached the height of Athens, lest you die of grief." Aegeus was disappointed. He asked the advice of king of Troezen. Pittheus understood the prophecy, got Aegeus drunk, gave Aegeus his daughter Aethra, but following the instructions of Athena in a dream, Aethra left the sleeping Aegeus and waded across to the island of Sphairia that lay close to Troezen's shore.
There she poured a libation to Sphairos and Poseidon, was possessed by the sea god in the night. The mix gave Theseus a combination of divine as well as mortal characteristics in his nature. After Aethra became pregnant, Aegeus decided to return to Athens. Before leaving, however, he buried his sandals and sword under a huge rock and told Aethra that when their son grew up, he should move the rock, if he were heroic enough, take the tokens for himself as evidence of his royal parentage. In Athens, Aegeus was joined by Medea, who had left Corinth after slaughtering the children she had borne, had taken Aegeus as her new consort. Priestess and consort together represented the old order in Athens, thus Theseus was raised in his mother's land. When Theseus grew up and became a brave young man, he moved the rock and recovered his father's tokens, his mother told him the truth about his father's identity and that he must take the sword and sandals back to king Aegeus to claim his birthright. To journey to Athens, Theseus could choose to go by sea or by land, following a dangerous path around the Saronic Gulf, where he would encounter a string of six entrances to the Underworld, each guarded by a chthonic enemy.
Young and ambitious, Theseus decided to go alone by the land route and defeated a great many bandits along the way. At the first site, Epidaurus, sacred to Apollo and the healer Asclepius, Theseus turned the tables on the chthonic bandit, the Club Bearer, who beat his opponents into the Earth, taking from him the stout staff that identifies Theseus in vase-paintings. At the Isthmian entrance to the Underworld was a robber named Sinis called "Pityokamptes", he would capture travellers, tie them between two pine trees that were bent down to the ground, let the trees go, tearing his victims apart. Theseus killed him by his own method, he became intimate with Sinis's daughter, fathering the child Melanippus. In another deed north of the Isthmus, at a place called Crommyon, he killed an enormous pig, the Crommyonian Sow, bred by an old crone named Phaea; some versions name the sow herself as Phaea. The Bibliotheca by Pseudo-Apollodorus described the Crommyonian Sow as an offspring of Typhon and Echidna.
Near Megara, an elderly robber named Sciron forced travellers along the narrow cliff-face pathway to wash his feet. While they knelt, he kicked them off the cliff behind them. Theseus pushed him off the cliff. Another of these enemies was Cercyon, king at the holy site of Eleusis, who challenged passers-by to a wrestling match and, when he had beaten them, killed them. Theseus beat Cercyon at wrestling and killed him instead; the last bandit was Procrustes the Stretcher, who had two beds, one of which he offered to passers-by in the plain of Eleusis. He made them fit into it, either by stretching them or by cutting off their feet. Since he had two beds of different lengths, no one would fit. Theseus turned the tables on Procrustes, decapitating him with his own axe; when Theseus arrived at Athens, he did not reveal his true identity immediately. Aegeus gave him
In classical mythology, Cupid is the god of desire, erotic love and affection. He is portrayed as the son of the love goddess Venus and the war god Mars, he is known in Latin as Amor. His Greek counterpart is Eros. Although Eros is portrayed as a slender winged youth in Classical Greek art, during the Hellenistic period, he was portrayed as a chubby boy. During this time, his iconography acquired the bow and arrow that represent his source of power: a person, or a deity, shot by Cupid's arrow is filled with uncontrollable desire. In myths, Cupid is a minor character who serves to set the plot in motion, he is a main character only in the tale of Cupid and Psyche, when wounded by his own weapons, he experiences the ordeal of love. Although other extended stories are not told about him, his tradition is rich in poetic themes and visual scenarios, such as "Love conquers all" and the retaliatory punishment or torture of Cupid. In art, Cupid appears in multiples as the Amores, or amorini in the terminology of art history, the equivalent of the Greek erotes.
Cupids are a frequent motif of both Roman art and Western art of the classical tradition. In the 15th century, the iconography of Cupid starts to become indistinguishable from the putto. Cupid continued to be a popular figure in the Middle Ages, when under Christian influence he had a dual nature as Heavenly and Earthly love. In the Renaissance, a renewed interest in classical philosophy endowed him with complex allegorical meanings. In contemporary popular culture, Cupid is shown drawing his bow to inspire romantic love as an icon of Valentine's Day; the Romans reinterpreted myths and concepts pertaining to the Greek Eros for Cupid in their own literature and art, medieval and Renaissance mythographers conflate the two freely. In the Greek tradition, Eros had a contradictory genealogy, he was among the primordial gods. In Hesiod's Theogony, only Chaos and Gaia are older. Before the existence of gender dichotomy, Eros functioned by causing entities to separate from themselves that which they contained.
At the same time, the Eros, pictured as a boy or slim youth was regarded as the child of a divine couple, the identity of whom varied by source. The influential Renaissance mythographer Natale Conti began his chapter on Cupid/Eros by declaring that the Greeks themselves were unsure about his parentage: Heaven and Earth and Aphrodite, Night and Ether, or Strife and Zephyr; the Greek travel writer Pausanias, he notes, contradicts himself by saying at one point that Eros welcomed Aphrodite into the world, at another that Eros was the son of Aphrodite and the youngest of the gods. In Latin literature, Cupid is treated as the son of Venus without reference to a father. Seneca says. Cicero, says that there were three Cupids, as well as three Venuses: the first Cupid was the son of Mercury and Diana, the second of Mercury and the second Venus, the third of Mars and the third Venus; this last Cupid was the equivalent of Anteros, "Counter-Love," one of the Erotes, the gods who embody aspects of love.
The multiple Cupids frolicking in art are the decorative manifestation of these proliferating loves and desires. During the English Renaissance, Christopher Marlowe wrote of "ten thousand Cupids". In the classical tradition, Cupid is most regarded as the son of Venus and Mars, whose love affair represented an allegory of Love and War; the duality between the primordial and the sexually conceived Eros accommodated philosophical concepts of Heavenly and Earthly Love in the Christian era. Cupid is winged because lovers are flighty and to change their minds, boyish because love is irrational, his symbols are the arrow and torch, "because love wounds and inflames the heart." These attributes and their interpretation were established by late antiquity, as summarized by Isidore of Seville in his Etymologiae. Cupid is sometimes depicted blindfolded and described as blind, not so much in the sense of sightless—since the sight of the beloved can be a spur to love—as blinkered and arbitrary; as described by Shakespeare in A Midsummer Night's Dream: In Botticelli's Allegory of Spring known by its Italian title La Primavera, Cupid is shown blindfolded while shooting his arrow, positioned above the central figure of Venus.
In ancient Roman art, cupids may carry or be surrounded by fruits, animals, or attributes of the Seasons or the wine-god Dionysus, symbolizing the earth's generative capacity. Cupid carries two kinds of arrows, or darts, one with a sharp golden point, the other with a blunt tip of lead. A person wounded by the golden arrow is filled with uncontrollable desire, but the one struck by the lead feels aversion and desires only to flee; the use of these arrows is described by the Latin poet Ovid in the first book of his Metamorphoses. When Apollo taunts Cupid as the lesser archer, Cupid shoots him with the golden arrow, but strikes the object of his desire, the nymph Daphne, with the lead. Trapped by Apollo's unwanted advances, Daphne prays to her father, the river god Peneus, who turns her into a laurel, the tree sacred to Apollo, it is the first of several tragic love affairs for Apollo. A variation is found in The Kingis Quair, a 15th-century poem attributed to James I of Scotland, in which Cupid has three arrows: gold, for a gentle "smiting", cured