Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Great Greeks is a television program and broadcast by the Greek television network Skai TV, based on the BBC's equivalent show 100 Greatest Britons. The show features lists and biographies of influential persons, who came to prominence in their fields throughout the history of Greece, in order to be determined through a voting procedure, considered the greatest Greek of all time by the audience of Greece; the whole format of the show is made up of three parts. The first part consisted of a voting procedure, which began on 16 April 2008 and lasted until 7 May 2008, in order to choose the 100 predominant personalities; the second part launched with a couple of two-hour-long episodes, which presented the top 100 and revealed the 10 nominees. A new voting began on 23 February 2009, with the audience assuming to vote for the greatest among the final 10 persons, while a series of ten episodes contains extensive biographies of the 10 nominees; each episode features a celebrity supporting a nominee.
The third part, the Great Final, took place on 18 May hosted by Alexis Papahelas. It was a live debate between the ten celebrity supporters of the previous episodes and twenty-five advocates, until the end of the voting and the announcement of the Greatest Greek; the final ranking of the 10 Greatest Greeks. Other honourable mentions: Yiannis Kelidis Ancient Greece Byzantine Era Basil II Constantine I Constantine XI Palaiologos Justinian I Plethon, Georgius Gemistos Theotokópoulos, Doménicos Modern Era Leaders Artists Intellectuals Religion Christodoulos, Archbishop of Athens Cosmas of Aetolia Margioris, Nikolaos A. Constantine ISports Galis, Nick Dimas, Pyrros Zagorakis, TheodorosBusiness Onassis, AristotleOther Unknown Soldier 100 greatest Britons Greatest Britons spin-offs List of Greeks Skai.gr. "Μεγάλοι Έλληνες" Skai TV official website BBC Press release on the original British version of the format Kathimerini. The 100 greatest Greeks of all time. 16 May 2008
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens referred to as the University of Athens, is a public university in Zografou, Greece. It has been in continuous operation since its establishment in 1837 and is the oldest higher education institution of the modern Greek state and the first contemporary university in the Eastern Mediterranean. Today it is one of the largest universities by enrollment in Europe, with over 100,000 registered students; the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens is an integral part of the modern Greek academic and intellectual tradition. The University of Athens was founded on May 3, 1837, by King Otto of Greece and was named in his honour Othonian University, it was the first university in the liberated Greek state and in the surrounding area of Southeast Europe as well. It was the second academic institution after the Ionian Academy; this fledgling university consisted of four faculties. During its first year of operation, the institution was staffed by 33 professors, while courses were attended by 52 students and 75 non-matriculated "auditors".
It was first housed in the residence of architects Stamatios Kleanthis and Eduard Schaubert, on the north slope of the Acropolis, in Plaka, which now houses the Museum of the University. In November 1841 the university relocated on the Central Building of the University of Athens, a building designed by Danish architect Christian Hansen, he followed a neoclassical approach, "combining the monument's magnificence with a human scale simplicity" and gave the building its H-shape. The building was decorated by painter Carl Rahl, forming the famous "architectural trilogy of Athens", together with the building of the National Library of Greece and the building of the Athens Academy. Construction began in 1839 in a location to the north of the Acropolis, its front wing known as the Propylaea, was completed in 1842–1843. The rest of the wings' construction, supervised at first by Greek architect Lysandros Kaftantzoglou and by his colleague Anastasios Theofilas, was completed in 1864; the building is nowadays part of what is called the "Athenian Neoclassical Trilogy".
The Othonian University was renamed to National University in 1862, following events that forced King Otto to leave the country. It was renamed to "National and Kapodistrian University of Athens" to honour Ioannis Kapodistrias, the first head of state of the independent modern Greek state. A major change in the structure of the University came about in 1904, when the faculty of Arts was divided into two separate faculties: that of Arts and that of Sciences, the latter consisting of the departments of Physics and Mathematics and the School of Pharmacy. In 1919, a department of chemistry was added, in 1922 the School of Pharmacy was renamed a Department. A further change came about. Between 1895 and 1911, an average of 1,000 new students matriculated each year, a number which increased to 2,000 at the end of World War I; this resulted in the decision to introduce entrance examinations for all the faculties, beginning for the academic year 1927–28. Since 1954 the number of students admitted each year has been fixed by the Ministry of Education and Religion, by proposal of the faculties.
From 1911 until 1932 the university was separated into the Kapodistrian University and the National University. In 1932, the two separate legal entities were merged into the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. During the 1960s construction work began on the University Campus in the suburb of Ilissia, which houses the Schools of Philosophy and Sciences. In 2013, the University Senate made the decision to suspend all operations in the wake of the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs cutting 1,655 administrative jobs from universities around the country. In a statement, the University Senate said that "any educational and administrative operation of the University of Athens is objectively impossible"; the University of Athens is divided into schools and departments as follows. The naming is nοt consistent in English for historical reasons, but in Greek the largest divisions are named "σχολές" and are divided in "τμήματα", furthermore subdivided in "τομείς". In 2015 the external evaluation of the institution cited University of Athens as Worthy of merit.
An external evaluation of all academic departments in Greek universities will be conducted by the Hellenic Quality Assurance and Accreditation Agency in the following years. School of Theology Department of Theology Department of Social Theology School of Philosophy Department of History and Archaeology Department of Philology Department of Philosophy and Psychology Department of English Language and Literature Department of French Language and Literature Department of German Language and Literature Department of Spanish Language and Literature Department of Italian Language and Literature Department of Theatre Studies Department of Music Studies School of Law Department of Law School of Sciences Department of Mathematics Department of Physics Department of Chemistry Department of Biology Department of Geology and Geoenvironment D
Ordre des Palmes Académiques
The Ordre des Palmes académiques is a national order bestowed by the French Republic to distinguished academics and figures in the world of culture and education. Established in 1808 by Emperor Napoleon as a decoration to honour eminent members of the University of Paris, it was changed into its current form as an order of merit on 4 October 1955 by President René Coty; the early Palmes académiques was instituted on 17 March 1808 and was bestowed only upon teachers or professors. In 1850, the decoration was divided into two known classes: Officier de l'Instruction Publique. In 1866, the scope of the award was widened to include major contributions to French national education and culture made by anyone, including foreigners, it was made available to any French expatriates making major contributions to the expansion of French culture throughout the rest of the world. Since 1955, the Ordre des Palmes académiques has comprised three grades, each grade having a fixed number of recipients: Commander — gold cross of 60 mm with a coronet worn on necklet.
Officer — gold cross of 55 mm worn on ribbon with rosette on left breast. Knight — silver cross of 50 mm worn on ribbon on left breast. Decisions on nominations and promotions are decided by the Minister of National Education. For those not connected to state-sponsored public education, or the Ministry of National Education, these honours are announced on 1 January, New Year's Day. For all others, they are made on 14 July, French National Day. Bruno Bernard, Belgian author dictionary French foreign languages Louis Dewis, born Isidore Louis Dewachter in Belgium. Successful merchant and a Post-Impressionist painter, he was honored for his civic endeavors in the early 1900s. Allan L. Goldstein, American biochemist and co-discoverer of the Thymosins John Kneller, English-American professor and fifth President of Brooklyn College Francis L. Lawrence, classical drama and baroque poetry scholar, President of Rutgers University Alice Lemieux-Lévesque, Canadian-American writer Ahmad Kamyabi Mask, Iranian littérateur Léopold Sédar Senghor Ali-Akbar Siassi, Iranian intellectual and politician during the 1930s and 1960s, serving as the country's Foreign Minister, Minister of Education, Chancellor of University of Tehran, Minister of State without portfolio.
Javad Tabatabai, Iranian thinker Buddy Wentworth, Namibian politician, for his contributions to the Namibian independence struggle Andrea Zitolo, Italian physical-chemist and material scientist Mirabel-Sérodes, Françoise. Les palmes académiques. Paris: NANEditions. ISBN 9782843680724. OCLC 377991989. Association des Membres de l'Ordre des Palmes Académiques France: Order of the Academic Palms Medals of the World
Centre Georges Pompidou
Centre Georges Pompidou shortened to Centre Pompidou and known as the Pompidou Centre in English, is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil, the Marais. It was designed in the style of high-tech architecture by the architectural team of Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano, along with Gianfranco Franchini, it houses a vast public library. Because of its location, the Centre is known locally as Beaubourg, it is named after Georges Pompidou, the President of France from 1969 to 1974 who commissioned the building, was opened on 31 January 1977 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. As of 2006, the Centre Pompidou has had over 180 million visitors since 1977 and more than 5,209,678 visitors in 2013, including 3,746,899 for the museum; the sculpture Horizontal by Alexander Calder, a free-standing mobile, 7.6 m tall, was placed in front of the Centre Pompidou in 2012. The idea for a multicultural complex, bringing together in one place different forms of art and literature, developed, in part, from the ideas of France's first Minister of Cultural Affairs, André Malraux, a western proponent of the decentralisation of art and culture by impulse of the political power.
In the 1960s, city planners decided to move the foodmarkets of Les Halles significant structures long prized by Parisians, with the idea that some of the cultural institutes be built in the former market area. Hoping to renew the idea of Paris as a leading city of culture and art, it was proposed to move the Musée d'Art Moderne to this new location. Paris needed a large, free public library, as one did not exist at this time. At first the debate concerned Les Halles, but as the controversy settled, in 1968, President Charles de Gaulle announced the Plateau Beaubourg as the new site for the library. A year in 1969, the new president adopted the Beaubourg project and decided it to be the location of both the new library and a centre for the contemporary arts. In the process of developing the project, the IRCAM was housed in the complex; the Rogers and Piano design was chosen among 681 competition entries. World-renowned architects Oscar Niemeyer, Jean Prouvé and Philip Johnson made up the jury.
It was the first time in France. The selection was announced in 1971 at a "memorable press conference" where the contrast between the sharply-dressed Pompidou and "hairy young crew" of architects represented a "grand bargain between radical architecture and establishment politics." It was the first major example of an'inside-out' building in architectural history, with its structural system, mechanical systems, circulation exposed on the exterior of the building. All of the functional structural elements of the building were colour-coded: green pipes are plumbing, blue ducts are for climate control, electrical wires are encased in yellow, circulation elements and devices for safety are red. According to Piano, the design was meant to be “not a building but a town where you find everything – lunch, great art, a library, great music”. National Geographic described the reaction to the design as "love at second sight." An article in Le Figaro declared "Paris has its own monster, just like the one in Loch Ness."
But two decades while reporting on Rogers' winning the Pritzker Prize in 2007, The New York Times noted that the design of the Centre "turned the architecture world upside down" and that "Mr. Rogers earned a reputation as a high-tech iconoclast with the completion of the 1977 Pompidou Centre, with its exposed skeleton of brightly coloured tubes for mechanical systems; the Pritzker jury said the Pompidou "revolutionised museums, transforming what had once been elite monuments into popular places of social and cultural exchange, woven into the heart of the city." The Centre was built by GTM and completed in 1977. The building cost 993 million French francs. Renovation work conducted from October 1996 to January 2000 was completed on a budget of 576 million francs; the nearby Stravinsky Fountain, on Place Stravinsky, features 16 whimsical moving and water-spraying sculptures by Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint-Phalle, which represent themes and works by composer Igor Stravinsky. The black-painted mechanical sculptures are by the coloured works by de Saint-Phalle.
The fountain opened in 1983. Video footage of the fountain appeared throughout the French language telecourse, French in Action; the Place Georges Pompidou in front of the museum is noted for the presence of street performers, such as mimes and jugglers. In the spring, miniature carnivals are installed temporarily into the place in front with a wide variety of attractions: bands and sketch artists, tables set up for evening dining, skateboarding competitions. By the mid-1980s, the Centre Pompidou was becoming the victim of its huge and unexpected popularity, its many activities, a complex administrative structure; when Dominique Bozo returned to the Centre in 1981 as Director of the Musée National d'Art Moderne, he re-installed the museum, bringing out the full range of its collections and displayed the many major acquisitions, made. By 1992, the Centre de Création Industrielle was incorporated into the Centre Pompidou; the Centre Pompidou was intended to handle 8,000 visitors a day. In its first two decade
The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, southern Albania, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age; until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, the Balkans and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization; the cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Alexandria and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of Cyprus.
The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church. Greeks have influenced and contributed to culture, exploration, philosophy, architecture, mathematics and technology, business and sports, both and contemporarily; the Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic. They are part of a group of classical ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an "archetypal diaspora people"; the Proto-Greeks arrived at the area now called Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, at the end of the 3rd millennium BC. The sequence of migrations into the Greek mainland during the 2nd millennium BC has to be reconstructed on the basis of the ancient Greek dialects, as they presented themselves centuries and are therefore subject to some uncertainties.
There were at least two migrations, the first being the Ionians and Aeolians, which resulted in Mycenaean Greece by the 16th century BC, the second, the Dorian invasion, around the 11th century BC, displacing the Arcadocypriot dialects, which descended from the Mycenaean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age and the Doric at the Bronze Age collapse. An alternative hypothesis has been put forth by linguist Vladimir Georgiev, who places Proto-Greek speakers in northwestern Greece by the Early Helladic period, i.e. towards the end of the European Neolithic. Linguists Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson in a 2003 paper using computational methods on Swadesh lists have arrived at a somewhat earlier estimate, around 5000 BC for Greco-Armenian split and the emergence of Greek as a separate linguistic lineage around 4000 BC. In c. 1600 BC, the Mycenaean Greeks borrowed from the Minoan civilization its syllabic writing system and developed their own syllabic script known as Linear B, providing the first and oldest written evidence of Greek.
The Mycenaeans penetrated the Aegean Sea and, by the 15th century BC, had reached Rhodes, Crete and the shores of Asia Minor. Around 1200 BC, the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus. Traditionally, historians have believed that the Dorian invasion caused the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, but it is the main attack was made by seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean around 1180 BC; the Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BC the landscape of Archaic and Classical Greece was discernible. The Greeks of classical antiquity idealized their Mycenaean ancestors and the Mycenaean period as a glorious era of heroes, closeness of the gods and material wealth; the Homeric Epics were and accepted as part of the Greek past and it was not until the time of Euhemerism that scholars began to question Homer's historicity. As part of the Mycenaean heritage that survived, the names of the gods and goddesses of Mycenaean Greece became major figures of the Olympian Pantheon of antiquity.
The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked to the development of Pan-Hellenism in the 8th century BC. According to some scholars, the foundational event was the Olympic Games in 776 BC, when the idea of a common Hellenism among the Greek tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was a matter of common culture; the works of Homer and Hesiod were written in the 8th century BC, becoming the basis of the national religion, ethos and mythology. The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period; the classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC. It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in eras; the Classical period is described as the "Golden Age" of Greek civilization, and
Academy of Athens (modern)
The Academy of Athens is Greece's national academy, the highest research establishment in the country. It was established in 1926, operates under the supervision of the Ministry of Education; the Academy's main building is one of the major landmarks of Athens. The organization of the Academy of Athens, whose title hearkens back to the ancient Academy of Plato, was first established on 18 March 1926, its charter was ratified by the law 4398/1929; this charter, with subsequent amendments, is still governs the Academy's affairs. According to it, the Academy is divided into three Orders: Natural Sciences and Arts, Moral and Political Sciences; the Academy today, maintains 14 research centres, seven research offices and the "Ioannis Sykoutris" central library. In 2002, the Foundation for Biomedical Research of the Academy of Athens was established; the Hellenic Institute for Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Studies in Venice functions under the supervision of the Academy. From its foundation, the Academy of Athens has been a member of the International Association of Academies, the International Council of Scientific Unions.
It participates in the following body: All European Academies, European Academies Science Advisory Council, Inter Academy Council, Inter Academy Medical Panel. The main building of the Academy is a neoclassical building between Panepistimiou Street and Akadimias Street in the centre of Athens; the building was designed as part of an architectural "trilogy" in 1859 by the Danish architect Theophil Hansen, along with the University and the National Library. Funds had been provided by the magnate Simon Sinas for the purpose, the foundation stone was laid on 2 August 1859. Construction proceeded after 1861 under the supervision of Ernst Ziller, but the internal tumults during the latter years of King Otto's reign, which resulted in his ousting in 1862, hampered construction until it was stopped in 1864. Works resumed in 1868, but the building was not completed until 1885, at a total cost of 2,843,319 gold drachmas, most of it provided by Sinas, after his death, by his wife Ifigeneia; the Greek neo-classical sculptor Leonidas Drosis sculpted the principle multi-figure pediment sculpture, on the theme of the birth of Athena, based on a design by painter Carl Rahl.
This brought first prize at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873. Drosis is responsible for the figures of Athena and Apollo with lyre on the Academy's flanking pillars, the seated marble figures of Plato and Socrates, which were executed "by the Italian sculptor Piccarelli"; the eight smaller pediments in the Academy complex are the terra-cotta work of Austrian sculptor Franz Melnitzky. Interior murals and paintings were done by the Austrian artist Christian Griepenkerl. On 20 March 1887, the building of the "Sinaean Academy", as it was called, was delivered by Ziller to the Greek Prime Minister, Charilaos Trikoupis. In the absence of a national Academy, the building was used for housing the Numismatic Museum in 1890, in 1914 the Byzantine Museum and the State Archives. On 24 March 1926, the building was handed over to the newly established Academy of Athens; the Academy of Athens was selected as main motif for a high value euro collectors' coin. In the obverse of the coin, a close view of the building is depicted.
The intention was to highlight the premise that in the city of Athena, the Olympic Games should not only be the most important athletic event, but reflect equal importance toward intellectual and cultural activities. All three should be equivalent to the style and character of the city, the birthplace and the matrix for the revival of the modern Olympic Games. List of members of the Academy of Athens Bibliotheca Alexandrina, a "restored" Library of Alexandria Academy of Athens website 3D Scan of Academy of Athens