University of Bordeaux
The University of Bordeaux was founded in 1441 in France. The University of Bordeaux is part of the Community of universities and higher education institutions of Aquitaine; the original Université de Bordeaux was established by the papal bull of Pope Eugene IV on 7 June 1441 when Bordeaux was an English town. The initiative for the creation of the university is attributed to Archbishop Pey Berland, it was composed of four faculties: arts, medicine and theology. The law faculty split into faculties of civil law and canon law. A professorship in mathematics was founded in 1591 by Bishop François de Foix, son of Gaston de Foix, Earl of Kendal; this university was disestablished in 1793, was re-founded on 10 July 1896. In 1970 the university was split into three universities: Bordeaux 1, Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux 3. In 1995, Bordeaux 4 split off from Bordeaux 1. In 2007 the universities were grouped together as Communauté d'universités et établissements d'Aquitaine From 1 January 2014, the university of Bordeaux were reunited, except for Bordeaux 3 which chose not to take part to the merger.
Geoffrey Keating, Irish historian Léon Duguit, French scholar of public law Henri Moysset, French historian and politician Jacques Ellul, French philosopher, lay theologian, professor James Joll, British historian and university lecturer Théophile Obenga, Congolese Egyptologist Spencer C. Tucker, American military historian Charles Butterworth, American political philosopher Helene Hagan, Moroccan–American anthropologist and Amazigh activist Pascal Salin, French economist and professor Marie-France Vignéras, French mathematician Alfredo Co, Filipino Sinologist Idowu Bantale Omole, Nigerian professor and academic administrator Aubrey Willis Williams, American social and civil rights activist Jean-Claude Bajeux, Haitian political activist and professor Louis Clayton Jones, African-American international attorney and civil rights leader Mireille Gillings, French Canadian neurobiologist and entrepreneur Thomas Barclay, Scottish jurist and professor James Marshall Sprouse, United States Circuit judge François Mauriac French novelist, critic, poet and Nobel Laureate Saint-John Perse, French poet-diplomat Lucien Xavier Michel-Andrianarahinjaka, Malagasy writer and politician Esther Seligson, Mexican writer, poet and historian Lee Mallory, American poet and academic Marc Saikali, Lebanese–French journalist Sarah Ladipo Manyika, British Nigerian writer Luc Plissonneau, French screenwriter and film director Morteza Heidari, Iranian TV presenter Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac, French statesman Jean Ybarnégaray, Basque–French politician Jean-Fernand Audeguil, French politician Michel Kafando, Burkinabé diplomat Xavier Darcos, French politician, civil servant and former Minister of Labour Jean-Paul Gonzalez, French virologist Mario Aoun, Lebanese politician Alain Vidalies, the French Secretary of State for Transport, the Sea and Fisheries Nagoum Yamassoum, Chadian politician and former Prime Minister of Chad Anicet-Georges Dologuélé, Central African politician Reza Taghipour, Iranian conservative politician Thierry Santa, French Polynesian politician in New Caledonia Germaine Kouméalo Anaté, Togolese government minister and writer Olivier Falorni, French politician Myriam El Khomri, French politician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, French physician and freemason and namesake of the guillotine Célestin Sieur, French physician Charles-Joseph Marie Pitard, French pharmacist and botanist Pierre-Paul Grassé, French zoologist Émile Peynaud, French oenologist Laure Gatet, French pharmacist and spy Basile Adjou Moumouni, Beninese physician Roland Paskoff, French geologist Jean-Marie Tarascon, French chemist and professor Bruno Vallespir, French engineer and professor Jean-Pierre Escalettes, French retired footballer Karounga Keïta, Malian football official and former coach and player Bixente Lizarazu, Basque–French retired footballer Charles James, English-American fashion designer List of medieval universities Le projet Babord-Num
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Pine Ridge Indian Reservation
The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation called Pine Ridge Agency, is an Oglala Lakota Native American reservation located in the U. S. state of South Dakota. Included within the territory of the Great Sioux Reservation, Pine Ridge was created by the Act of March 2, 1889, 25 Stat. 888. in the southwest corner of South Dakota on the Nebraska border. Today it consists of 3,468.85 sq mi of land area and is the second-largest reservation in the United States, larger than Delaware and Rhode Island combined. The reservation encompasses the entirety of Oglala Lakota County and Bennett County, the southern half of Jackson County, a small section of Sheridan County added by Executive Order No. 2980 of February 20, 1904. Of the 3,142 counties in the United States, these are among the poorest. Only 84,000 acres of land are suitable for agriculture; the 2000 census population of the reservation was 15,521. Pine Ridge is the site of several events that mark milestones in the history between the Sioux of the area and the United States government.
Stronghold Table—a mesa in what is today the Oglala-administered portion of Badlands National Park—was the location of the last of the Ghost Dances. The U. S. authorities' attempt to repress this movement led to the Wounded Knee Massacre on December 29, 1890. A mixed band of Miniconjou Lakota and Hunkpapa Sioux, led by Chief Spotted Elk, sought sanctuary at Pine Ridge after fleeing the Standing Rock Agency, where Sitting Bull had been killed during efforts to arrest him; the families were intercepted by a armed detachment of the Seventh Cavalry, which attacked them, killing many women and children as well as warriors. This was the last large engagement between U. S. marked the end of the western frontier. Changes accumulated in the last quarter of the 20th century. In 1973 decades of discontent at the Pine Ridge Reservation resulted in a grassroots protest that escalated into the Wounded Knee Incident, gaining national attention. Members of the Oglala Lakota, the American Indian Movement and supporters occupied the town in defiance of federal and state law enforcement in a protest that turned into an armed standoff lasting 71 days.
This event inspired American Indians across the country and led to changes at the reservation, with a revival of some cultural traditions. In 1981 the Lakota Tim Giago started the Lakota Times at Pine Ridge. Located at the southern end of the Badlands, the reservation is part of the mixed grass prairie, an ecological transition zone between the short-grass and tall-grass prairies. A great variety of plant and animal life flourishes on and adjacent to the reservation, including the endangered black-footed ferret; the area is important in the field of paleontology. As stipulated in the Fort Laramie Treaty, the U. S. government built Indian agencies for the various Lakota and other Plains tribes. These were forerunners to the modern Indian reservations; the Red Cloud Agency was established for the Oglala Lakota in 1871 on the North Platte River in Wyoming Territory. The location was one mile west of the present town of Nebraska; the location of the Red Cloud Agency was moved to two other locations before being settled at the present Pine Ridge location.
Pine Ridge Reservation was part of the Great Sioux Reservation established by the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868. In 1874 George Armstrong Custer led the U. S. Army Black Hills Expedition, which set out on July 2 from Fort Abraham Lincoln in the Dakota Territory, with orders to travel to the uncharted Black Hills of South Dakota, its mission was to look for suitable locations for a fort, find a route to the southwest, to investigate the potential for gold mining. After his discovery of gold was made public, miners began migrating there illegally although it was reservation land. "Custer's florid descriptions of the mineral and timber resources of the Black Hills, the land's suitability for grazing and cultivation... received wide circulation, had the effect of creating an intense popular demand for the'opening' of the Hills for settlement." The U. S. military tried to turn away trespassing settlers. President Grant, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of War, "decided that the military should make no further resistance to the occupation of the Black Hills by miners."
These orders were to be enforced "quietly", the President's decision was to remain "confidential." As more settlers and gold miners invaded the Black Hills, the Government determined it had to acquire the land from the Sioux, appointed a commission to negotiate the purchase. The negotiations failed; the U. S. resorted to military force. They declared the Sioux Indians "hostile" for failing to obey an order to return from an off-reservation hunting expedition by a specific date. In the dead of winter, the Sioux found. Th
Human rights are "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled" Examples of rights and freedoms which are thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and property, freedom of expression, pursuit of happiness and equality before the law. All human beings are born equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Ancient peoples did not have the same modern-day conception of universal human rights; the true forerunner of human-rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval natural law tradition that became prominent during the European Enlightenment. From this foundation, the modern human rights arguments emerged over the latter half of the 20th century.17th-century English philosopher John Locke discussed natural rights in his work, identifying them as being "life and estate", argued that such fundamental rights could not be surrendered in the social contract.
In Britain in 1689, the English Bill of Rights and the Scottish Claim of Right each made illegal a range of oppressive governmental actions. Two major revolutions occurred during the 18th century, in the United States and in France, leading to the United States Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen both of which articulated certain human rights. Additionally, the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 encoded into law a number of fundamental civil rights and civil freedoms. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life and the pursuit of Happiness. Philosophers such as Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill and Hegel expanded on the theme of universality during the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1831 William Lloyd Garrison wrote in a newspaper called The Liberator that he was trying to enlist his readers in "the great cause of human rights" so the term human rights came into use sometime between Paine's The Rights of Man and Garrison's publication.
In 1849 a contemporary, Henry David Thoreau, wrote about human rights in his treatise On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, influential on human rights and civil rights thinkers. United States Supreme Court Justice David Davis, in his 1867 opinion for Ex Parte Milligan, wrote "By the protection of the law, human rights are secured. In Western Europe and North America, labour unions brought about laws granting workers the right to strike, establishing minimum work conditions and forbidding or regulating child labour; the women's rights movement succeeded in gaining for many women the right to vote. National liberation movements in many countries succeeded in driving out colonial powers. One of the most influential was Mahatma Gandhi's movement to free his native India from British rule. Movements by long-oppressed racial and religious minorities succeeded in many parts of the world, among them the civil rights movement, more recent diverse identity politics movements, on behalf of women and minorities in the United States.
The foundation of the International Committee of the Red Cross, the 1864 Lieber Code and the first of the Geneva Conventions in 1864 laid the foundations of International humanitarian law, to be further developed following the two World Wars. The League of Nations was established in 1919 at the negotiations over the Treaty of Versailles following the end of World War I; the League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation and improving global welfare. Enshrined in its Charter was a mandate to promote many of the rights which were included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the League of Nations had mandates to support many of the former colonies of the Western European colonial powers during their transition from colony to independent state. Established as an agency of the League of Nations, now part of United Nations, the International Labour Organization had a mandate to promote and safeguard certain of the rights included in the UDHR: the primary goal of the ILO today is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity and human dignity.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a non-binding declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 in response to the barbarism of World War II. The UDHR urges member nations to promote a number of human, civil and social rights, asserting these rights are part of the "foundation of freedom and peace in the world"; the declaration was the first international legal effort to limit the behavior of states and press upon them duties to their citizens following the model of the rights-duty duality....recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom and peace in the world The UDHR was framed by members of the Human Rights Commission, with Eleanor Roosevelt as Chair, who began to discuss an International Bill of Rights in 1947. The members of the Commission did not agree on the form of such a bill of rights, whe
The Catalans are an iberian/european ethnic group of mediterranean and pyrenean descent, having its roots in the Pyrenees mountains. The only official category of "catalans" is that of the citizens of Catalonia, an autonomous community in Spain and the inhabitants of the Roussillon historical region in southeast France, today the Pyrénées Orientales departments called Catalonia Nord and Pays Catalan in French; some authors extend the word "Catalans" to encompass the inhabitants of all the regions where Catalan language is spoken, namely those from Andorra, the Balearic islands, eastern Aragon and the city of Alghero in Sardinia. These territories are known as the Països Catalans or "Catalan Countries". In 1500 BCE the area, now known as Catalonia was, along with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula, inhabited by Proto-Celtic Urnfield people who brought with them the rite of burning the dead; these Indo-European people were absorbed by the Iberians beginning in 600 BCE in a process that would not be complete until the fourth century BCE.
These groups came under the rule of various invading groups starting with the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, who set up colonies along the coast, including Barcino itself. Following the Punic Wars, the Romans replaced the Carthaginians as the dominant power in the Iberian eastern coast, including parts of Catalonia, by 206 BCE. Rome established Latin as the official language and imparted a distinctly Roman culture upon the local population, which merged with Roman colonists from the Italian peninsula. An early precursor to the Catalan language began to develop from a local form of popular Latin before and during the collapse of the Roman Empire. Various Germanic tribes arrived following nearly six centuries of Roman rule, which had transformed the area into the Roman province of Tarraconensis; the Visigoths established themselves in the fifth century, making their first capital in the Iberian peninsula Barcelona, they would move to Toledo. This continued until 718 when Muslim Arabs conquered the region in order to pass through the Pyrenees into French territory.
With the help of the Frankish, a land border was created known nowadays as Old Catalonia which faced Muslim raids but resisted any kind of settlement from them. "New Catalonia" and its native peoples were in control of the Arab invaders for around a century. The Franks on the other side of the Pyrenees held back the main Muslim raiding army which had penetrated unchallenged as far as central France at the Battle of Tours in 732. Frankish suzerainty was extended over much of present-day Catalonia. Larger wars with the Muslims began in the March of Barcelona which led to the beginnings of the Reconquista by Catalan forces over most of Catalonia by the year 801. Barcelona would become an important center for Christian forces in the Iberian Peninsula. Catalonia emerged from the conflicts in Muslim Spain as a regional power, as Christian rulers entrenched themselves in the region during the Carolingian period. Rulers such as Wilfred the Hairy became masters of a larger territory encompassing Catalonia.
The Crown of Aragón included the Principality of Catalonia and the kingdoms of Aragon and Majorca. The marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon was a dynastic union in which the Kingdom of Castille and the Kingdom of Aragon were under the same crown but kept their own laws, power structures and monetary systems. Regional unrest led to conflicts such as the Revolt of the Germanies in Valencia and Majorca, the 1640 revolt in Catalonia known as the Reapers' War; this latter conflict embroiled Spain in a larger war with France as many Catalan nobles allied themselves with Louis XIII. The war continued until 1659 and ended with the Peace of the Pyrenees, which partitioned Catalonia as the northern strip of the March came under French rule, while the rest remained under Spanish hegemony; the Catalan government took sides with the Habsburg pretender against the Bourbon one during the War of the Spanish Succession that started in 1705 and ended in 1714. The Catalan failure to defend the continuation of Habsburg rule in Spain culminated in the surrender of Barcelona on 11 September 1714 which came to be commemorated as Catalonia's National Day.
During the Napoleonic Wars, much of Catalonia was seized by French forces by 1808, as France ruled the entire country of Spain until Napoleon's surrender to Allied Armies. In France, strong assimilationist policies integrated many Catalans into French society, while in Spain a Catalan identity was suppressed in favor of a Spanish national identity; the Catalans regained autonomy during the Spanish Second Republic from 1932 until Francisco Franco's nationalist forces retook Catalonia by 1939. It was not until 1975 and the death of Franco that the Catalans as well as other Spaniards began to regain their right to cultural expression, restarted by the Spanish Constitution of 1978. Since this period, a balance between a sense of local identity versus the broader Spanish one has emerged as the dominant political force in Catalonia; the former tends to advocate for greater autonomy and independence. As a result, there tends to be much fluctuation depending on regional and national politics during a given election cycle.
Given the stronge
Sonoma County, California
Sonoma County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 483,878, its county seat and largest city is Santa Rosa. It is to the south of Mendocino County, it is west of Lake County. Sonoma County comprises the Santa Rosa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, it is the northwesternmost county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. Sonoma is the southwestern county and largest producer of California’s Wine Country region, which includes Napa and Lake counties, it possesses thirteen approved over 250 wineries. In 2002, Sonoma County ranked as the 32nd county in the United States in agricultural production; as early as 1920, Sonoma County was ranked as the eighth most agriculturally productive US county and a leading producer of hops, prunes and dairy and poultry products due to the extent of available, fertile agricultural land in addition to the abundance of high quality irrigation water.
More than 7.4 million tourists visit each year, spending more than $1 billion in 2006. Sonoma County is the home of Santa Rosa Junior College. Sonoma County is home to several Native American tribes. By the 1830s, European settlement had set a new direction that would prove to radically alter the course of land use and resource management of this region. Sonoma County has rich agricultural land, albeit divided between two nearly monocultural uses as of 2007: grapes and pasturage; the voters have twice approved open space initiatives that have provided funding for public acquisition of natural areas, preserving forested areas, coastal habitat, other open space. The Pomo, Coast Miwok and Wappo peoples were the earliest human settlers of Sonoma County, between 8000 and 5000 BC living within the natural carrying capacity of the land. Archaeological evidence of these First people includes a number of occurrences of rock carvings in southern Sonoma County. Spaniards and other Europeans claimed and settled in the county from the late 16th to mid-19th century, seeking timber and farmland.
The Russians were the first newcomers to establish a permanent foothold in Sonoma County, with the Russian-American Company establishing Fort Ross on the Sonoma Coast in 1812. This settlement and its outlying Russian settlements came to include a population of several hundred Russian and Aleut settlers and a stockaded fort with artillery. However, the Russians abandoned it in 1841 and sold the fort to John Sutter and Mexican land grantee of Sacramento; the Mission San Francisco Solano, founded in 1823 as the last and northernmost of 21 California missions, is in the present City of Sonoma, at the northern end of El Camino Real. El Presidio de Sonoma, or Sonoma Barracks, was established in 1836 by Comandante General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, his duties included keeping an eye on the Russian traders at Fort Ross, secularizing the Mission, maintaining cooperation with the Native Americans of the entire region, doling out the lands for large estates and ranches. The City of Sonoma was the site of the Bear Flag Revolt in 1846.
Sonoma was one of the original counties formed when California became a state in 1850, with its county seat the town of Sonoma. However, by the early 1850s, Sonoma had declined in importance in both commerce and population, its county buildings were crumbling, it was remote; as a result, elements in the newer growing towns of Petaluma, Santa Rosa, Healdsburg began vying to move the county seat to their towns. The dispute was between the bigger, richer commercial town of Petaluma and the more centrally located, growing agricultural center of Santa Rosa; the fate was decided following an election for the state legislature in which James Bennett of Santa Rosa defeated Joseph Hooker of Sonoma and introduced a bill that resulted in Santa Rosa being confirmed as county seat in 1854. Several Santa Rosans, not caring to wait, decided to take action and, one night, rode down the Sonoma Valley to Sonoma, took the county seals and records, brought them to Santa Rosa; some of the county's land was annexed from Mendocino County between 1850 and 1860.
Early post-1847 settlement and development focused on the city of Sonoma the region's sole town and a common transit and resting point in overland travel between the region and Sacramento and the gold fields to the east. However, after 1850, a settlement that soon became the city of Petaluma began to grow near the farthest navigable point inland up the Petaluma River. A hunting camp used to obtain game to sell in other markets, by 1854 Petaluma had grown into a bustling center of trade, taking advantage of its position in the river near a region of productive agricultural land, being settled. Soon, other inland towns, notably Santa Rosa and Healdsburg began to develop due to their locations along riparian areas in prime agricultural flatland. However, their development lagged behind Petaluma which, until the arrival of railroads in the 1860s, remained the primary commercial and break-of-bulk point for people and goods in the region. After the arrival of the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad in 1870, Santa Rosa began to boom, soon equalling and surpassing Petaluma as the region's population and commercial center.
The railroad bypassed Petaluma for southern connections to ferries of San Francisco Bay. Six nations have claimed Sonoma County fro