The Haddingjar refers on the one hand to legends about two brothers by this name, on the other hand to related legends based on the Hasdingi, the royal dynasty of the Vandals. The accounts vary greatly, it has been suggested that they were two Proto-Germanic legendary heroes by the name *Hazdingōz, meaning the "longhairs", that they were identical to the Alci mentioned by Tacitus. According to Tacitus, the Alci were worshiped as gods by priests in female clothing: and the Nahanarvali. Among these last is shown a grove of immemorial sanctity. A priest in female attire has the charge of it, but the deities are described in Roman language as Pollux. Such, are the attributes of the divinity, the name being Alcis, they have no images, or, any vestige of foreign superstition, but it is as brothers and as youths that the deities are worshipped. Cassius Dio mentioned c. 170 the Astingoi as a noble clan among the Vandals, the Asdingi reappear, in the 6th century in Jordanes' work as the royal dynasty of the Vandals.
The root appears in Old Icelandic as haddr meaning "woman's hair", the motivation for the name Haddingjar/Astingoi/Asdingi was that men from Germanic royal dynasties sported long hair as a mark of dignity. In the Middle High German heroic lays, there are two brothers named Hartunge, who appear in the Scandinavian Þiðrekssaga as Hertnið and Hartnið. In Middle High German works, they appear as Ortnīt and Hirðir. In the Hervarar saga, Gesta Danorum, Orvar-Odd's saga and Lay of Hyndla, there are two Haddingjar among the twelve sons of the berserker Arngrim. Oddly, in Orvar-Odd's saga, after his friend Orvar-Odd had killed these two Haddingjar, Hjalmar mentions in his death song two Haddingjar among his friends back in Sigtuna. In Hversu Noregr byggðist, there is a Hadding Raumsson, the king of Haddingdalen in Norway, he is succeeded by a grandson by the same name. After his great-grandson Högni, there is a succession of three more generations named Hadding, making six Haddingjar in the same line.
The prose section following Helgakviða Hundingsbana II, there is a Helgi Haddingjaskati referring to a now lost poem named Káruljóð, named after Helgi's beloved, the Valkyrie Kára. This poem survives in an altered form as Hrómundar saga Gripssonar, where Helgi fights in the service of two Swedish kings by the name Haldingr. In the oldest one of the Gudrun lays, the Guðrúnarkviða II, Gudrun says that the potion of oblivion that her mother had given her contained several runes, among them the "unshorn corn ear of Haddingland" a magic Vandal rune. In Kálfsvísa, in Snorri Sturluson's Skáldskaparmál, it is said that the king of the Haddingjar rode a horse named Skævað. In Gesta Danorum there is a Haddingus about, he is a memory of the Hasdingi, the royal clan of the Vandals. The original name of the Norwegian valley Hallingdal was Haddingjadalr. Local legends state that Hadding was a king of this valley, that it was named after him. After him, his sons, the two Haddings, fought over control of the valley.
One of them was killed, was buried in a mound in Gol, still known for sightings of huldufolk. Ohlmarks, Åke.. Fornnordiskt lexikon. Tiden. ISBN 91-550-2511-0 The article Hadding in Nordisk familjebok
In Germanic mythology, Týr, Tíw, Ziu is a god. Stemming from the Proto-Germanic deity *Tīwaz and from the Proto-Indo-European deity *Dyeus, little information about the god survives beyond Old Norse sources. Due to the etymology of the god's name and the shadowy presence of the god in the extant Germanic corpus, some scholars propose that Týr may have once held a more central place among the deities of early Germanic mythology. Týr is the namesake of the Tiwaz rune, a letter of the runic alphabet corresponding to the Latin letter T. By way of the process of interpretatio germanica, the deity is the namesake of Tuesday in Germanic languages, including English. Interpretatio romana, in which Romans interpret other gods as forms of their own renders the god as Mars, the ancient Roman war god, it is through that lens that most Latin references to the god occur. For example, the god may be referenced as Mars Thingsus on 3rd century Latin inscription, reflecting a strong association with the Germanic thing, a legislative body among the ancient Germanic peoples still in use among some of its modern descendants.
In Norse mythology, from which most surviving narratives about gods among the Germanic peoples stem, Týr sacrifices his arm to the monstrous wolf Fenrir, who bites off his limb while the gods bind the animal. Týr is foretold to be consumed by the monstrous dog Garmr during the events of Ragnarök. In Old Norse sources, Týr is alternately described as the son of the jötunn Hymir or of the god Odin. Lokasenna makes reference to an unnamed otherwise unknown consort also reflected in the continental Germanic record. Various place names in Scandinavia refer to the god, a variety of objects found in England and Scandinavia may depict the god or invoke him; the Old Norse theonym Týr has cognates including Old English tíw and tíʒ, Old High German Ziu. A cognate form appears in Gothic to represent the T rune. Like Latin Jupiter and Greek Zeus, Proto-Germanic *Tīwaz stems from the Proto-Indo-European theonym *Dyeus. Outside of its application as a theonym, the Old Norse common noun týr means' god'. In turn, the theonym Týr may be understood to mean "the god".
Modern English writers anglicize the god's name by dropping the proper noun's diacritic, rendering Old Norse Týr as Tyr. The modern English weekday name Tuesday means'Tíw's day', referring to the Old English extension of the deity. Tuesday derives from Old English tisdæi, which develops from an earlier tywesdæi, which itself extends from Old English Tīwesdæg; the word has cognates in numerous other Germanic languages, including Old Norse týsdagr, Frisian tīesdi, Old High German zīostag, Middle High German zīestac, Alemannic zīstac. All of these forms derive from a Proto-Germanic weekday name meaning'day of Tīwaz', itself a result of interpretatio germanica of Latin dies Martis; this attests to an early Germanic identification of *Tīwaz with Mars. The god is the namesake of the rune representing /t/ in the runic alphabets, the indigenous alphabets of the ancient Germanic peoples prior to their adaptation of the Latin alphabet; the name of the rune first occurs in the historical record as tyz, a character in the Gothic alphabet.
Germanic weekday names for'Tuesday' that do not transparently extend from the above lineage may ultimately refer to the deity, including modern German Dienstag, Middle Dutch dinxendach and dingsdag. These forms may refer to the god's associate with the thing, a traditional legal assembly common among the ancient Germanic peoples with which the god is associated; this may be either due to another form of the god's name or may be due to the god's strong association with the assembly. A variety of place names in Scandinavia refer to the god. For example, Viby, Denmark was once a stretch of meadow near a stream called Dødeå. Viby contained another theonym and religious practices associated with Odin and Týr may have occurred in these places. A spring dedicated to Holy Niels, a Christianization of prior indigenous pagan practice exists in Viby. Viby may mean "the settlement by the sacred site". Archaeologists have found traces of sacrifices going back 2,500 years in Viby. While Týr's etymological heritage reaches back to the Proto-Indo-European period few direct references to the god survive prior to the Old Norse period.
Like many other non-Roman deities, Týr receives mention in Latin texts by way of the process of interpretatio romana, in which Latin texts refer to the god by way of a perceived counterpart in Roman mythology. Latin inscriptions and texts refer to Týr as Mars; the first example of this occurs on record in Roman senator Tacitus's ethnography Germania: A. R. Birley translation: Among the gods Mercury is the one they principally worship, they regard it as a religious duty to sacrifice to him, on fixed days, human as well as other sacrificial victims. Hercules and Mars they appease by animal offerings of the permitted kind. Part of the Suebi sacrifice to Isis as well; these deities are understood by scholars to refer to *Wōđanaz, *Þunraz, *Tīwaz, respectively. The identity of the "Isis" of the Suebi remains a topics of debate among scholars. In Germania, Tacitus mentions a deity referred to as regnator omnium deus venerated by the Semnone
Snorri Sturluson was an Icelandic historian and politician. He was elected twice as lawspeaker to the Althing, he was the author of the Prose Edda or Younger Edda, which consists of Gylfaginning, a narrative of Norse mythology, the Skáldskaparmál, a book of poetic language, the Háttatal, a list of verse forms. He was the author of the Heimskringla, a history of the Norwegian kings that begins with legendary material in Ynglinga saga and moves through to early medieval Scandinavian history. For stylistic and methodological reasons, Snorri is taken to be the author of Egil's saga. Snorri Sturluson was born in Hvammur í Dölum into the wealthy and powerful Sturlungar family of the Icelandic Commonwealth in 1179, his parents were his second wife, Guðný Böðvarsdóttir. He had two older brothers, Þórðr Sturluson and Sighvatr Sturluson, two sisters and nine half-siblings. Snorri was raised from the age of three by Jón Loftsson, a relative of the Norwegian royal family, in Oddi, Iceland; as Sturla was trying to settle a lawsuit with the priest and chieftain Páll Sölvason, Páll's wife lunged at him with a knife — intending, she said, to make him like his one-eyed hero Odin — but bystanders deflected the blow to his cheek instead.
The resulting settlement would have beggared Páll, but Jón Loftsson intervened in the Althing to mitigate the judgment and, to compensate Sturla, offered to raise and educate Snorri. Snorri therefore received an excellent education and made connections that he might not otherwise have made, he attended the school of Sæmundr fróði, grandfather of Jón Loftsson, at Oddi, never returned to his parents' home. His father died in his mother as guardian soon wasted Snorri's share of the inheritance. Jón Loftsson died in 1197; the two families arranged a marriage in 1199 between Snorri and Herdís, the daughter of Bersi Vermundarson. From her father, Snorri inherited an estate at a chieftainship, he soon chieftainships. Snorri and Herdís were together for four years at Borg, they had Hallbera and Jón. The marriage succumbed to Snorri's philandering, in 1206, he settled in Reykholt as manager of an estate there, but without Herdís, he made significant improvements including a hot outdoor bath. The bath and the buildings have been preserved to some extent.
During the initial years at Reykholt he fathered five children by three different women: Guðrún Hreinsdóttir, Oddný, Þuríður Hallsdóttir. Snorri became known as a poet, but was a lawyer. In 1215, he became lawspeaker of the Althing, the only public office of the Icelandic commonwealth and a position of high respect. In the summer of 1218, he sailed to Norway, by royal invitation. There he became well acquainted with the teen-aged King Hákon Hákonarson and his co-regent, Jarl Skúli, he spent the winter as house-guest of the jarl. They showered gifts upon him, including the ship in which he sailed, he in return wrote poetry about them. In the summer of 1219 he met his Swedish colleague, the lawspeaker Eskil Magnusson, his wife, Kristina Nilsdotter Blake, in Skara, they were both related to royalty and gave Snorri an insight into the history of Sweden. Snorri was interested in history and culture; the Norwegian regents, cultivated Snorri, made him a skutilsvein, a senior title equivalent to knight, received an oath of loyalty.
The king hoped to extend his realm to Iceland, which he could do by a resolution of the Althing, of which Snorri had been a key member. In 1220, Snorri returned to Iceland and by 1222 was back as lawspeaker of the Althing, which he held this time until 1232; the basis of his election was his fame as a poet. Politically he was the king's spokesman, supporting union with Norway, a platform that acquired him enemies among the chiefs. In 1224, Snorri married Hallveig Ormsdottir, a granddaughter of Jón Loftsson, now a widow of great means with two young sons, made a contract of joint property ownership with her, their children did not survive to adulthood, but Hallveig's sons and seven of Snorri's children did live to adulthood. Snorri was the most powerful chieftain in Iceland during the years 1224–1230. Many of the other chiefs found his position as royal office-holder contrary to their interests the other Sturlungar. Snorri's strategy was to consolidate power over them, at which point he could offer Iceland to the king.
His first moves were civic. On the death in 1222 of Sæmundur, son of Jón Loftsson, he became a suitor for the hand of his daughter, Sólveig. Herdís' silent vote did nothing for his suit, his nephew, Sturla Sighvatsson, Snorri's political opponent, stepped in to marry her in 1223, the year before Snorri met Hallveig. A period of clan feuding followed. Snorri perceived that only resolute, saga-like actions could achieve his objective, but he proved unwilling or incapable of carrying them out, he raised an armed party under another nephew, Böðvar Þórðarson, another under his son, Órækja, with the intent of executing a first strike against his brother Sighvatur and Sturla Sighvatsson. On the eve of battle he dismissed those offered terms to his brother. Sighvatur and Sturla with a force of 1000 men drove Snorri into the countryside, where he sought refuge among the other chiefs. Órækja undertook guerrilla operations in the fjords of western Iceland and the war was on. Haakon IV made an effort to intervene from afar, inviting al
Old Norse religion
Norse paganism known as Old Norse religion, is the most common name for a branch of Germanic religion which developed during the Proto-Norse period, when the North Germanic peoples separated into a distinct branch of the Germanic peoples. It was displaced by Christianity during the Christianization of Scandinavia. Scholars reconstruct aspects of North Germanic religion by historical linguistics, archaeology and records left by North Germanic peoples, such as runic inscriptions in the Younger Futhark, a distinctly North Germanic extension of the runic alphabet. Numerous Old Norse works dated to the 13th century record Norse mythology, a component of North Germanic religion. Old Norse religion was polytheistic, entailing a belief in various goddesses. Norse mythology divided these deities into two groups, the Æsir and the Vanir, who engaged in an ancient war until realizing that they were powerful. Among the most widespread deities were the gods Odin and Thor; this world was inhabited by various other mythological races, including giants, dwarfs and land-spirits.
Norse cosmology revolved around a world tree known as Yggdrasil, with various realms existing alongside that of humans, named Midgard. These include multiple afterlife realms. Transmitted through oral culture rather than through codified texts, Old Norse religion focused on ritual practice, with kings and chiefs playing a central role in carrying out public acts of sacrifice. Various cultic spaces were used. Norse society contained practitioners of Seiðr, a form of sorcery which some scholars describe as shamanistic. Various forms of burial were conducted, including both inhumation and cremation accompanied by a variety of grave goods. Throughout its history, varying levels of trans-cultural diffusion occurred among neighbouring peoples, such as the Sami and Finns. By the twelfth century Old Norse religion had succumbed to Christianity, with elements continuing into Scandinavian folklore. A revival of interest in Old Norse religion occurred amid the romanticist movement of the nineteenth century, during which it inspired a range of artworks.
It attracted the interest of political figures, was used by a range of right-wing and nationalist groups. Academic research into the subject began in the early nineteenth century influenced by the pervasive romanticist sentiment; the archaeologist Anders Andrén noted that "Old Norse religion" is "the conventional name" applied to the pre-Christian religions of Scandinavia. See for instance Other terms used by scholarly sources include "pre-Christian Norse religion", "Norse religion", "Norse paganism", "Nordic paganism", "Scandinavian paganism", "Scandinavian heathenism", "Scandinavian religion", "Northern paganism", "Northern heathenism", "North Germanic religion", or "North Germanic paganism"; this Old Norse religion can be seen as part of a broader Germanic religion found across linguistically Germanic Europe. Rooted in ritual practice and oral tradition, Old Norse religion was integrated with other aspects of Norse life, including subsistence and social interactions. Open codifications of Old Norse beliefs were either non-existent.
The practitioners of this belief system themselves had no term meaning "religion", only introduced with Christianity. Following Christianity's arrival, Old Norse terms that were used for the pre-Christian systems were forn sið or heiðinn sið, terms which suggest an emphasis on rituals and behaviours rather than belief itself; the earliest known usage of the Old Norse term heiðinn is in the poem Hákonarmál. Old Norse religion has been classed as an ethnic religion, as a "non-doctrinal community religion", it varied across time, in different regions and locales, according to social differences. This variation is due to its transmission through oral culture rather than codified texts. For this reason, the archaeologists Andrén, Kristina Jennbert, Catharina Raudvere stated that "pre-Christian Norse religion is not a uniform or stable category", while the scholar Karen Bek-Pedersen noted that the "Old Norse belief system should be conceived of in the plural, as several systems"; the historian of religion Hilda Ellis Davidson stated that it would have ranged from manifestations of "complex symbolism" to "the simple folk-beliefs of the less sophisticated".
During the Viking Age, the Norse regarded themselves as a more or less unified entity through their shared Germanic language, Old Norse. The scholar of Scandinavian studies Thomas A. DuBois said Old Norse religion and other pre-Christian belief systems in Northern Europe must be viewed as "not as isolated, mutually exclusive language-bound entities, but as broad concepts shared across cultural and linguistic lines, conditioned by similar ecological factors and protracted economic and cultural ties". During this period, the Norse interacted with other ethno-cultural and linguistic groups, such as the Sámi, Balto-Finns, Anglo-Saxons, Greenlandic Inuit, various speakers of Celtic and Slavic languages. Economic and religious exchange occurred between the Norse and many of these other groups. Enslaved individuals from the British Isles were common throughout the Nordic world during the Viking Age. Different elements of Old Norse religion had different origins and his
In Norse mythology, Gerðr is a jötunn and the wife of the god Freyr. Gerðr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources. Gerðr is sometimes modernly anglicized as Gerth. In both the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda, Freyr sees Gerðr from a distance, becomes lovesick at the sight of her shimmering beauty, has his servant Skírnir go to Jötunheimr to gain her love. In the Poetic Edda Gerðr refuses, yet after a series of threats by Skírnir she agrees. In the Prose Edda, no mention of threats are made. In both sources, Gerðr agrees to meet Freyr at a fixed time at the location of Barri and, after Skírnir returns with Gerðr's response, Freyr laments that the meeting could not occur sooner. In both the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda, Gerðr is described as the daughter of Gymir and the jötunn Aurboða. In Heimskringla, Gerðr is recorded as the wife of Freyr, euhemerized as having been a beloved king of Sweden. In the same source, the couple are the founders of the Yngling dynasty and produced a son, Fjölnir, who rose to kinghood after Freyr's passing and continued their line.
Gerðr is theorized to be a goddess associated with the earth. Gerðr inspired works of literature. Gerðr is attested in two poems in the Poetic Edda, in two books of the Prose Edda, in two books in Heimskringla. In the Poetic Edda poem Skírnismál, the god Freyr sat on the high seat Hlidskjalf and looked into all worlds. Freyr saw a beautiful girl walking from the hall of her father to a storehouse. Freyr became heartsick for the girl. Freyr has a page named Skírnir. Freyr's father Njörðr and, in verse, the goddess Skaði tells Skírnir to find out what troubles Freyr. An exchange occurs between Freyr and Skírnir in verse, where Freyr tells Skírnir that he has seen a wondrous girl with shining arms at the home of Gymir, yet that the gods and elves do not wish for the two to be together: Skírnir requests that Freyr give him a horse and Freyr's sword. Under the cover of darkness, Skírnir rides the horse over nations and dew-covered mountains until he reaches Jötunheimr, the home of the jötnar, proceeds to Gymir's courts.
Ferocious dogs are tied before the wooden fence. Skírnir rides out to a herdsman sitting on a mound, greets him, asks the herdsman how he may speak to the maiden beyond Gymir's dogs. An exchange occurs between the herdsman and Skírnir, during which the herdsman tells Skírnir that he will never speak to the girl. Hearing a terrible noise in her dwellings, Gerðr asks where it is coming from, noting that the earth trembles and that all of Gymir's courts shake. A serving maid notes that outside a man has let it graze. Gerðr tells the serving maid to invite the man to come into their hall and to partake of some of their "famous mead," yet Gerðr expresses fear that the man outside may be her "brother's slayer". Gerðr asks the stranger if he is of the elves, Æsir, or the Vanir, why he comes alone "over the wild fire" to seek their company. Skírnir responds. Skírnir offers Gerðr 11 golden apples to gain her favor. Gerðr rejects the apples—no matter who offers them—and adds that neither will she and Freyr be together as long as they live.
Skírnir offers Gerðr a ring, here unnamed, that produces eight more gold rings every ninth night and "was burned with Odin's young son". Gerðr responds that she is not interested in the ring, for she shares her father's property, Gymir has no lack of gold. Skírnir turns to threats. Gerðr refuses. Skírnir again reminds Gerðr of his blade and predicts that Gerðr's jötunn father will meet his doom with it. Skírnir warns Gerðr that he will strike her with his Gambanteinn, a wand, that it will tame her to his desires, says that she will never again be seen by "the sons of men". From early morning, Gerðr will sit on an eagle's mound, looking outward to the world, facing Hel, that "food shall be more hateful to you than to every man is the shining serpent among men". Skírnir declares. Gerðr will experience "madness and howling, tearing affliction and unbearable desire" and that, in grief, tears will flow from her. Skírnir tells Gerðr to sit down, for her fate will be worse yet, she will be harassed by fiends all her weary days.
From the court of jötnar to the halls of the hrimthurs, Gerðr shall everyday crawl without choice, nor hope of choice. Gerðr will weep rather than feel suffering tearfully, she will live the rest of her life in misery with a three-headed thurs or otherwise be without a man altogether. Skírnir commands for Gerðr's mind to be seized, that she may waste away with pining, that she be as the thistle at the end of the harvest. Skírnir says, he declares that the gods Odin and Thor are angry with Gerðr, that Freyr will hate her. Skírnir declares to the hrimthursar, the sons of Suttungr, the "troops of
Freyr, sometimes anglicized as Frey, is a attested god associated with sacral kingship and prosperity, with sunshine and fair weather, pictured as a phallic fertility god in Norse mythology. Freyr is said to "bestow peace and pleasure on mortals". Freyr, sometimes referred to as Yngvi-Freyr, was associated with Sweden and seen as an ancestor of the Swedish royal house. In the Icelandic books the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda, Freyr is presented as one of the Vanir, the son of the sea god Njörðr, as well as the twin brother of the goddess Freyja; the gods gave him the realm of the Elves, as a teething present. He rides the shining dwarf-made boar Gullinbursti and possesses the ship Skíðblaðnir which always has a favorable breeze and can be folded together and carried in a pouch when it is not being used. Freyr is known to have been associated with the horse cult, he kept sacred horses in his sanctuary at Thrandheim in Norway. He has the servants Skírnir and Beyla; the most extensive surviving Freyr myth relates Freyr's falling in love with the female jötunn Gerðr.
She becomes his wife but first Freyr has to give away his sword which fights on its own "if wise be he who wields it." Although deprived of this weapon, Freyr defeats the jötunn Beli with an antler. However, lacking his sword, Freyr will be killed by the fire jötunn Surtr during the events of Ragnarök. Like other Germanic deities, veneration of Freyr is revived in the modern period in Heathenry movement. Written around 1080, one of the oldest written sources on pre-Christian Scandinavian religious practices is Adam of Bremen's Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum. Adam claimed to have access to first-hand accounts on pagan practices in Sweden, he refers to Freyr with the Latinized name Fricco and mentions that an image of him at Skara was destroyed by the Christian missionary, Bishop Egino. His description of the Temple at Uppsala gives some details on the god. In the account Adam states that when a marriage is performed a libation is made to the image of Fricco. Historians are divided on the reliability of Adam's account.
While he is close in time to the events he describes he has a clear agenda to emphasize the role of the Archbishopric of Hamburg-Bremen in the Christianization of Scandinavia. His timeframe for the Christianization of Sweden conflicts with other sources, such as runic inscriptions and archaeological evidence does not confirm the presence of a large temple at Uppsala. On the other hand, the existence of phallic idols was confirmed in 1904 with a find at Rällinge in Södermanland, Sweden; when Snorri Sturluson was writing in 13th century Iceland, the indigenous Germanic gods were still remembered although they had not been worshiped for more than two centuries. In the Gylfaginning section of his Prose Edda, Snorri introduces Freyr as one of the major gods; this description has similarities to the older account by Adam of Bremen but the differences are interesting. Adam assigns control of the weather and produce of the fields to Thor but Snorri says that Freyr rules over those areas. Snorri omits any explicitly sexual references in Freyr's description.
Those discrepancies can be explained in several ways. It is possible that the Norse gods did not have the same roles in Icelandic and Swedish paganism but it must be remembered that Adam and Snorri were writing with different goals in mind. Either Snorri or Adam may have had distorted information; the only extended myth related about Freyr in the Prose Edda is the story of his marriage. The woman is a beautiful giantess. Freyr falls in love with her and becomes depressed and taciturn. After a period of brooding, he consents to talk to his foot-page, he tells Skírnir that he has fallen in love with a beautiful woman and thinks he will die if he cannot have her. He asks Skírnir to woo her for him; the loss of Freyr's sword has consequences. According to the Prose Edda, Freyr had to slew him with an antler, but the result at Ragnarök, the end of the world, will be much more serious. Freyr is fated to fight the fire-giant Surtr and since he does not have his sword he will be defeated. After the loss of his weapon Freyr still has two magical artifacts, both of them dwarf-made.
One is the ship Skíðblaðnir, which will have favoring breeze wherever its owner wants to go and can be folded together like a napkin and carried in a pouch. The other is the boar Gullinbursti. No myths involving Skíðblaðnir have come down to us but Snorri relates that Freyr rode to Baldr's funeral in a wagon pulled by Gullinbursti. Freyr is referred to several times in skaldic poetry. In Húsdrápa preserved in the Prose Edda, he is said to ride a boar to Baldr's funeral. In a poem by Egill Skalla-Grímsson, Freyr is called upon along with Njörðr to drive Eric Bloodaxe from Norway; the same skald mentions in Arinbjarnarkviða. In Nafnaþulur Freyr is said to ride the horse Blóðughófi. Freyr is mentioned in several of the poems in the Poetic Edda; the information there is consistent with that of the Prose Edda while each collection has some details not found in the other. Völuspá, the best known of the Eddic poems, describes the final confrontation between Freyr and Surtr during Ragnarök; some scholars have preferred a different translation, in which the sun shines "from the sword of the gods".
The idea is that the sword which Surtr slays Freyr with is the "sword of the gods" which Freyr had earlier bargained away for Gerðr. This would add a further layer of tragedy to the myth. Sigurður Nordal argued for this view but the possibility represented by Ursu
The second part of Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda the Skáldskaparmál is a dialogue between Ægir, the Norse god of the sea, Bragi, the god of poetry, in which both Norse mythology and discourse on the nature of poetry are intertwined. The origin of a number of kennings is given, he goes on to discuss poetic language in some detail, in particular heiti, the concept of poetical words which are non-periphrastic, again systematises these. This in a way forms an early form of poetic thesaurus. Anthony Faulkes, "The sources of Skáldskaparmál: Snorri’s intellectual background", in: Alois Wolf, Snorri Sturluson, Volume 51 of ScriptOralia, Gunter Narr Verlag, 59–76. EditionsSveinbjörn Egilsson Edda Snorra Sturlusonar:: eða Gylfaginníng, Skáldskaparmál og Háttatal, 45–143. Guðni Jónsson, Eddukvaeði,Íslendingasagnaútgáfan Anthony Faulkes, Edda. TranslationsRasmus Björn Anderson Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur