SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, helically-shaped, microaerophilic bacterium found in the stomach. Its helical shape is thought to have evolved in order to penetrate the mucoid lining of the stomach and thereby establish infection; the bacterium was first identified in 1982 by Australian doctors Barry Marshall and Robin Warren, who found that it was present in a person with chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers, conditions not believed to have a microbial cause. H. pylori has been linked to the development of duodenal ulcers, polyps, i. e. benign growths, in the small intestine, large intestine, rectum, malignancies of the stomach's secretory glands, of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the stomach, colon, rectum, or tissues around the eye, of lymphoid tissue in the stomach. Many investigators have proposed causal associations between H. pylori and a wide range of other diseases. The bacterial infection has been proposed to have protective effects for its hosts against infections by other pathogens, obesity, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, atopic dermatitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal cancer.

However, these deleterious and protective effects have been based on correlative rather than direct relationship studies and have been contradicted by other studies that show either the opposite or no effect on the cited disease. Many of these relationships are regarded as questionable and in need of more definitive studes, they are not considered further here. Some studies suggest that H. pylori plays an important role in the natural stomach ecology, e.g. by influencing the type of bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Other studies suggest that non-pathogenic strains of H. pylori may be beneficial, e.g. by normalizing stomach acid secretion, may play a role in regulating appetite, since the bacterium's presence in the stomach results in a persistent but reversible reduction in the level of ghrelin, a hormone that increases appetite. In general, over 50% of the world's population has H. pylori in their upper gastrointestinal tracts with this infection being more common in developing countries.

In recent decades, however the prevalence of H. pylori colonization of the gastrointestinal tract has declined in many countries. This is attributed to improved socioeconomic conditions: in the United States of America, for example, the prevalence of H. pylori, as detected by endoscopy conducted on a referral population, fell from 65.8 to 6.8% over a recent 10-year period while over the same time period in some developing countries H. pylori colonization remained common with prevalence levels as high as 80%. In all events, H. pylori infection is asymptomatic, being associated with overt disease in less than 20% of cases. Up to 90 % of people infected with H. pylori never experience complications. However, individuals infected with H. pylori have a 10 to 20% lifetime risk of developing peptic ulcers. Acute infection may appear as an acute gastritis with abdominal nausea. Where this develops into chronic gastritis, the symptoms, if present, are those of non-ulcer dyspepsia: stomach pains, bloating and sometimes vomiting.

Pain occurs when the stomach is empty, between meals, in the early morning hours, but it can occur at other times. Less common ulcer symptoms include nausea and loss of appetite. Bleeding in the stomach can occur as evidenced by the passage of black stools. If bleeding is heavy, hematochezia, or melena may occur. Inflammation of the pyloric antrum, which connects the stomach to the duodenum, is more to lead to duodenal ulcers, while inflammation of the corpus is more to lead to gastric ulcers. Individuals infected with H. pylori may develop colorectal or gastric polyps, i.e. a non-cancerous growth of tissue projecting from the mucous membranes of these organs. These polyps are asymptomatic but gastric polyps may be the cause of dyspepsia, bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract, gastric outlet obstruction while colorectal polyps may be the cause of rectal bleeding, constipation, weight loss, abdominal pain. Individuals with chronic H. pylori infection have an increased risk of acquiring a cancer, directly related to this infection.

These cancers are stomach adenocarcinoma, less diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the stomach, or extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the stomach, or, more of the colon, esophagus, or ocular adenexa. The signs, symptoms

Morion (helmet)

A morion is a type of open helmet from the Kingdom of Castile, used from the beginning 16th to early 17th centuries having a flat brim and a crest from front to back. Its introduction was contemporaneous with the exploration of North and South America. Explorers such as Hernando de Soto and Coronado may have supplied them to their foot soldiers in the 1540s; the iconic morion, though popularly identified with early Spanish explorers and conquistadors, was not in use until after the conquest of Mexico by Hernán Cortés or Francisco Pizarro's conquest of the Incas in South America. It was used by the Spanish, but thirty to forty years was common among foot soldiers of many other European nationalities. Low production costs aided its popularity and dissemination, although officers and elite guards would have theirs elaborately engraved to display their wealth and status; the crest or comb on the top of the helmet was designed to strengthen it. Versions had cheek guards and removable faceplates to protect the soldier from sword cuts.

The morion's shape is derived from that of an older helmet, the Spanish kettle hat in 15th century called capacete. Other sources suggest it was based on Moorish armor and its name is derived from Moro, the Spanish word for Moor; the New Oxford American Dictionary, claims the word derives from the Spanish morrión and morro. The Dictionary of the Spanish Language, published by the Royal Spanish Academy, indicates that the Spanish term for the helmet, morrión, derives from the noun morra, which means "the upper part of the head". In England, this helmet is associated with the New Model Army, one of the first professional militaries, it was worn by pikemen, together with a breastplate and buff coat as they stood in phalanx-like pike and shot formations, protecting the flanks of the unarmored musketeers. The helmet provided protection during the push of pike maneuvers known for their high casualty rates. Although issued to Oliver Cromwell's Parliamentarian troops, many Cavaliers wore the morion as well, leading to confusion in battles.

It was for this reason. First, these were simple colored sashes, but soon the Roundheads introduced red coats, which were retained by the army after the 1660 Restoration of Charles II. Surviving morions from the 1648 Siege of Colchester have been unearthed and preserved at Colchester Castle along with a lobster tail pot, a helmet associated with Cromwell's armored Ironside cavalry; some captured Spanish armor was worn by Native Americans as late as the 19th century as protection from bullets and a sign of their status. The most famous of these was the Comanche chief Iron Jacket who lived in Texas and wore armor that belonged to a conquistador. In the Philippines, the native Moro people adopted the morion and burgonet design for helmets during the Spanish–Moro Wars and the Moro Rebellion; the indigenously produced helmets were made of iron or brass and elaborately decorated with floral arabesque designs in silver. They had a large visor and neck guard, movable cheek guards, a high crest and three tall feathered plumes reaching 60 cm inserted on the front.

A similar helmet, the cabasset, was introduced around the same time in Italy. Like its Spanish counterpart, it was worn by infantry in the shot formations; the stalk-like projection on the top resembled a pear, how it gained its name. It was used during the Civil War. Several of these helmets were taken to the New World by the Pilgrim fathers, one of these has been found on Jamestown Island; the morion may have influenced the design of the Adrian helmet issued to French and Italian troops during World War I. Both are of a similar shape; the comb morion is part of the uniform of the Pope's Swiss Guards. A Swiss guardsman in his morion appears on the Vatican City commemorative two-Euro coin. From 1928 until 1961, the morion served as the logo of automobile manufacturer DeSoto, named after the 16th century explorer Hernando de Soto, it appeared as the hood ornament on cars of the 1950s such as the DeSoto Deluxe. The seal of the city of Cupertino, includes a morion; the morion appears on the insignia of the 53rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, the largest of the Florida Army National Guard, in tribute to the early militias of Florida under Spanish rule.

Helmets like the morion and cabasset feature in historical dramas set in the Elizabethan period worn by extras portraying guards. Such works include the films Elizabeth: The Golden Age, Witchfinder General and BBC TV series like The Tudors and Blackadder 2. In both the stage and film versions of the musical Man of La Mancha, the soldiers of the Spanish Inquisition all wear morion helmets, in the film, Don Quixote's helmet is a morion with a makeshift visor artificially attached, as Cervantes describes in his novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. In the Disney movie Pocahontas, English soldiers like Captain John Smith wear morions. Morions appear in the fantasy film The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian. Burgonet Sallet Paseki, a copy of morion from Indonesia

ISO/TC 68

ISO/TC 68 is a technical committee formed within the International Organization for Standardization, of Geneva, tasked with developing and maintaining international standards covering the areas of banking and other financial services. As the standards organization under ISO responsible for the development of all international financial services standards, ISO/TC 68 plays a key role in the development and adoption of new technologies in the banking and insurance industries. Many of its current work projects involve developing ecommerce standards such as better online security for financial transactions, XML standards for financial transactions and standards to reduce the cost and delays of international financial transactions; the membership of ISO/TC 68, consists of more than 30 organizations assigned by participating national standards bodies plus additional international standards development organizations that work collaboratively toward global financial services standards development.

Within TC 68 there are, at present, three technical subcommittees, or SC's: ISO/TC 68/SC 2, ISO/TC 68/SC 8, ISO/TC 68/SC 9. Subcommittees manage international standards within specific areas of concentration. Subcommittees review existing standards. New standards are developed by subcommittees under the New Work Item process. New Work Items are proposed by three or more countries that are members of ISO/TC 68. If a New Work Item is approved by a super majority of countries that are members of ISO/TC 68 the New Work Item is assigned to a Working Group under a Technical Subcommittee; each Working Group consists of technical experts in the field appointed to represent their member countries. After a sequence of revisions to committee drafts, proposed standards developed by a Working Group must be approved by a super majority of countries that are members of ISO/TC 68 before being submitted to ISO for approval as an ISO standard. Where appropriate, national standards setting bodies can propose existing national standards to ISO/TC 68 to become adopted as international standards with the approval of ISO/TC 68 and ISO.

These standards must be submitted as New Work Items by three or more member countries of ISO/TC 68. In the late 1940s, members of the financial industry came together under the International Organization for Standardization to begin developing technical standards for the banking industry to use on a world-wide basis; the original name of the organization working on banking standards was Technical Committee 68, or TC 68-Banking. Over time the scope of TC 68 expanded to include all financial services. TC 68 has continued its basic mission through industry changes and the adoption of new scientific technologies that have fostered increased international commerce. One of the changes made to reflect changes to the financial industry is TC 68's name, it is now referred to as Technical Committee 68 on Banking and other Financial Services. ANSI ASC X9 holds a unique position within this ISO framework, it is the Secretariat to TC 68 and is the leader of the official United States Technical Advisory Group which represents the U.

S. financial services industry to the international technical committee. Steve, Stevens. "History of ASC X9". Archived from the original on 2006-10-01. Retrieved 2006-11-18. Note: Citation of copyrighted material used by permission of author. Official website ISO TC68 Committee Website