The bony labyrinth is the rigid, bony outer wall of the inner ear in the temporal bone. It consists of three parts: the vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea; these are cavities hollowed out of the substance of the bone, lined by periosteum. They contain the perilymph, in which the membranous labyrinth is situated. A fracture classification system in which temporal bone fractures detected on CT are delineated based on disruption of the otic capsule has been found to be predictive for complications of temporal bone trauma such as facial nerve injury, sensorineural deafness and cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea. On radiographic images, the otic capsule is the most dense portion of the temporal bone. In otospongiosis, a leading cause of adult-onset hearing loss, the otic capsule is affected; this area undergoes no remodeling in adult life, is dense. With otospongiosis, the dense enchondral bone is replaced by haversian bone, a spongy and vascular matrix that results in sensorineural hearing loss due to compromise of the conductive capacity of the inner ear ossicles.
This results in hypodensity on CT, with the portion first affected being the fissula ante fenestram. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1047 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
The ear canal is a pathway running from the outer ear to the middle ear. The adult human ear canal extends from the pinna to the eardrum and is about 2.5 centimetres in length and 0.7 centimetres in diameter. The human ear canal is divided into two parts; the elastic cartilage part forms the outer third of the canal. The cartilage is the continuation of the cartilage framework of pinna; the cartilaginous portion of the ear canal contains small hairs and specialized sweat glands, called apocrine glands, which produce cerumen. The bony part forms the inner two thirds; the bony part is only a ring in the newborn. The layer of epithelium encompassing the bony portion of the ear canal is much thinner and therefore, more sensitive in comparison to the cartilaginous portion. Size and shape of the canal vary among individuals; the canal is 2.5 centimetres long and 0.7 centimetres in diameter. It runs from behind and above downward and forward. On the cross-section, it is of oval shape; these are important factors to consider.
Due to its relative exposure to the outside world, the ear canal is susceptible to diseases and other disorders. Some disorders include: Atresia of the ear canal Cerumen impaction Bone exposure, caused by the wearing away of skin in the canal Auditory canal osteoma Cholesteatoma Contact dermatitis of the ear canal Fungal infection Ear mites in animals Ear myiasis, an rare infestation of maggots Foreign body in ear Granuloma, a scar caused by tympanostomy tubes Otitis externa, bacteria-caused inflammation of the ear canal Stenosis, a gradual closing of the canal Earwax known as cerumen, is a yellowish, waxy substance secreted in the ear canals, it plays an important role in the human ear canal, assisting in cleaning and lubrication, provides some protection from bacteria and insects. Excess or impacted cerumen can press against the eardrum and/or occlude the external auditory canal and impair hearing, causing conductive hearing loss. If left untreated, cerumen impaction can increase the risk of developing an infection within the ear canal.
List of specialized glands within the human integumentary system Veterans Health Administration web site OSHA web site Continuing Medical Education Ear Photographs Otoscopy Tutorial w/ Images "Anatomy diagram: 34257.000-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01
Pars flaccida of tympanic membrane
In human anatomy, the Pars flaccida of tympanic membrane or Shrapnell's membrane is the small, flaccid portion of the tympanic membrane, or eardrum. It lies above the malleolar folds attached directly to the petrous bone at the notch of Rivinus. On the inner surface of the tympanic membrane, the chorda tympani crosses this area, it is named after Henry Jones Shrapnell
Medial to the opening for the carotid canal and close to its posterior border, in front of the jugular fossa, is a triangular depression. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 144 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis
Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis is a public research university in Indianapolis, Indiana. A core campus of Indiana University that offers Purdue University degrees, it is the result of a merger in 1969 of the Purdue Indianapolis Extension Center and Indiana University Indianapolis. Located along the White River and Fall Creek, it sits upon a peninsula adjacent to Downtown Indianapolis. Among more than 200 degree programs, the urban university hosts the primary campuses for both the Indiana University School of Medicine, with more than 2,000 students, the Indiana University School of Dentistry. Represented among the graduate schools, the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law is one of only two law schools operated by Indiana University, with the Indiana University Maurer School of Law being the Bloomington equivalent. More than 8,000 students in 2014 were enrolled in professional schools. Total enrollment of 30,690 was reported in 2014, making it the third largest university in the state.
Nearly 89% of the student body is composed of native Hoosiers, with 6% coming from abroad and the remaining from out of state. The IUPUI Jaguars compete in the NCAA's Division I in the Horizon League. Several athletics venues are located on the campus, including the IU Michael A. Carroll Track & Soccer Stadium and Indiana University Natatorium, the largest indoor pool in the United States, with a seating capacity of 4,700. Founded in 1969, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis is an urban campus in Indianapolis, the 15th largest city in the United States, with a population of 2 million in the metropolitan statistical area; the campus is just west of downtown, within walking distance of the state capitol and other governmental offices, the site of numerous nationally renowned businesses and art, sports and health facilities. In 1968, Dr. Maynard K. Hine, dean of the IU School of Dentistry began working with then-Mayor of Indianapolis Richard Lugar, IU President Joseph L. Sutton, Purdue President Frederick L. Hovde, others to establish IUPUI in 1969 through the merger of the Indianapolis extension programs of both IU and Purdue.
Some schools, were established before the merger, including the IU School of Medicine, IU School of Dentistry, IU Robert H. McKinney School of Law, IU School of Liberal Arts, IU Herron School of Art. IUPUI includes the nation’s largest nursing school, the second largest medical school in the country, the only dental school in the state, the country’s oldest school of physical education. IUPUI is among the top 20 campuses in the nation; as a core campus of Indiana University, IUPUI is governed by the IU Board of Trustees. IUPUI includes two Purdue University schools; the campus offers more than 225 degrees provided by 18 different schools. IUPUI has more students from Indiana than any other campus in the state, the largest number of underrepresented minorities in the Indiana University system and the largest population of graduate and professional students of any university in Indiana. 75 percent of IUPUI classes have 25 or fewer students. IUPUI has tenure-track faculty members. With research expenditures of nearly $272 million in 2014, IUPUI is the second-largest site for research in Indiana.
Ranked among the Top 200 "National Universities", ranked 7th for "Up and Coming School", was recognized for its first-year experience, learning communities and efforts to help veterans and active-duty service members by U. S. News & World Report; as of 2013, for 13 consecutive years U. S. News has highlighted IUPUI for offering programs that help ensure a positive collegiate experience for new freshman and undergraduates. Ranked among the Academic Ranking of World Universities 2014 Listed "With Distinction" in the 2014 President's Higher Education Community Service Honor Roll Received the Carnegie Community Engagement Classification for 2015 by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Achieved Sustainability Tracking and Rating System silver rating by the Association for Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education. Received the Higher Education Excellence in Diversity Award from INSIGHT into Diversity magazine Was named among the 30 best non-Historically Black Colleges and Universities for minorities in the United States by Diverse: Issues in Higher Education.
Ranked as "Best for Vets: Colleges 2014" by the Military Times Was designated a 2014 Military Friendly School by Victoria Media Inc. IUPUI has been accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools since 1972. In 2013, IUPUI, including its Columbus regional education center, received reaffirmation of its accreditation through 2022–2023. IUPUI maintains a full complement of disciplinary accreditations that can be found on the website dedicated to the accreditation process. IU Herron School of Art and Design Departments of: IU Kelley School of Business IU School of Dentistry Departments of: IU School of Education Departments of: Elementary Education • Secondary Education IU Fairbanks School of Public Health IU School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences Departments of: IU School of Informatics and Computing Departments of: Human-Centered Computing, BioHealth Informatics, Library and Information Science. IU Robert H. McKinney School of Law IU School of Liberal Arts Departments of: IU School of Medicine Departments of: IU School of Nursing IU School of Physical Education and Tourism Management Departments of: O'N
The modiolus is a conical shaped central axis in the cochlea. The modiolus consists of spongy bone and the cochlea turns 2.75 times around the central axis in humans. The cochlear nerve, as well as spiral ganglion is situated inside it; the cochlear nerve conducts impulses from the receptors located within the cochlea. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1050 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy http://www.univ-brest.fr/S_Commun/Biblio/ANATOMIE/Web_anat/Tete_Cou/Oreille/Modiolus.jpg http://www.kumc.edu/instruction/medicine/anatomy/histoweb/eye_ear/ear01.htm
The base of the cartilaginous portion of the auditory tube lies directly under the mucous membrane of the nasal part of the pharynx, where it forms an elevation, the torus tubarius, the torus of the auditory tube, or cushion, behind the pharyngeal orifice of the tube. The torus tubarius is close to the tubal tonsil, sometimes called the tonsil of torus tubarius. Equating the torus with its tonsil however might be seen as incorrect or imprecise. Two folds run posteriorly and anteriorly: posteriorly, the vertical fold of mucous membrane, the salpingopharyngeal fold, stretches from the lower part of the torus tubarius. Anteriorly, the second and smaller fold, the salpingopalatine fold, smaller than the salpingopharyngeal fold, contains some fibers of muscle, called salpingopalatine muscle by Simkins, it stretches from the superior border of lateral lamina of the cartilage, anteroinferiorly, to the back of the hard palate; the tensor veli palatini does not contribute to the fold, since the origin is deep to the cartilaginous opening.
This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1043 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:31:14-0102 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center MedEd at Loyola grossanatomy/dissector/labs/h_n/nasal/na4_1.html "Anatomy diagram: 25420.000-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01