Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th
A cave or cavern is a natural void in the ground a space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form by the weathering of rock and extend deep underground; the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, grottos, though speaking a cave is exogene, meaning it is deeper than its opening is wide, a rock shelter is endogene. Speleology is the science of study of all aspects of caves and the cave environment. Visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking; the formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis. Caves can range in size, are formed by various geological processes; these may involve a combination of chemical processes, erosion by water, tectonic forces, microorganisms and atmospheric influences. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, to determine the timescale of the geological events which formed and shaped present-day caves, it is estimated that a cave cannot exceed 3,000 metres in depth due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the lower limit of karst forming processes, coinciding with the base of the soluble carbonate rocks. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution. Caves can be classified in various other ways as well, including a contrast between active and relict: active caves have water flowing through them. Types of active caves include inflow caves, outflow caves, through caves. Solutional caves or karst caves are the most occurring caves; such caves form in rock, soluble. Rock is dissolved by natural acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, faults and comparable features. Over time cracks enlarge to become caves and cave systems; the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3 and occurring organic acids; the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage.
Limestone caves are adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation. These include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns; these secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems. The portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded. Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of another type of solutional cave, they were formed by H2S gas rising from below. This gas mixes with groundwater and forms H2SO4; the acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, by acidic water percolating from the surface. Caves formed at the same time. Lava tubes are the most common primary caves; as lava flows downhill, its surface solidifies. Hot liquid lava continues to flow under that crust, if most of it flows out, a hollow tube remains; such caves can be found in the Canary Islands, Jeju-do, the basaltic plains of Eastern Idaho, in other places.
Kazumura Cave near Hilo, Hawaii is a remarkably deep lava tube. Lava caves are not limited to lava tubes. Other caves formed through volcanic activity include rifts, lava molds, open vertical conduits, blisters, among others. Sea caves are found along coasts around the world. A special case is littoral caves, which are formed by wave action in zones of weakness in sea cliffs; these weaknesses are faults, but they may be dykes or bedding-plane contacts. Some wave-cut caves are now above sea level because of uplift. Elsewhere, in places such as Thailand's Phang Nga Bay, solutional caves have been flooded by the sea and are now subject to littoral erosion. Sea caves are around 5 to 50 metres in length, but may exceed 300 metres. Corrasional or erosional caves are those that form by erosion by flowing streams carrying rocks and other sediments; these can form in any type including hard rocks such as granite. There must be some zone of weakness to guide the water, such as a fault or joint. A subtype of the erosional cave is the aeolian cave, carved by wind-born sediments.
Many caves formed by solutional processes undergo a subsequent phase of erosional or vadose enlargement where active streams or rivers pass through them. Glacier caves are formed by flowing water within and under glaciers; the cavities are influenced by the slow flow of the ice, which tends to collapse the caves again. Glacier caves are sometimes misidentified as "ice caves", though this latter term is properly reserved for bedrock caves that contain year-round ice formations. Fracture caves are formed when layers of more soluble minerals, such as gypsum, dissolve out from between layers of less soluble rock; these rocks fracture and collapse in blocks of stone. Talus caves are formed by the openings among large boulders that have fallen down into a random heap at the bases of cliffs; these unstable deposits are called talus or scree, may be subject to frequent rockfalls and landslides. Anchialine ca
Symmetry in biology
Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism. In nature and biology, symmetry is always approximate. For example, plant leaves – while considered symmetrical – match up when folded in half. Symmetry creates a class of patterns in nature, where the near-repetition of the pattern element is by reflection or rotation; the body plans of most multicellular organisms exhibit some form of symmetry, whether radial, bilateral, or spherical. A small minority, notably among the sponges, exhibit no symmetry. Symmetry was once important in animal taxonomy. Radially symmetric organisms resemble a pie where several cutting planes produce identical pieces; such an organism exhibits no right sides. They have a front and a back. Symmetry has been important in the taxonomy of animals. Most radially symmetric animals are symmetrical about an axis extending from the center of the oral surface, which contains the mouth, to the center of the opposite, end.
Radial symmetry is suitable for sessile animals such as the sea anemone, floating animals such as jellyfish, slow moving organisms such as starfish. Animals in the phyla Cnidaria and Echinodermata are radially symmetric, although many sea anemones and some corals have bilateral symmetry defined by a single structure, the siphonoglyph. Many flowers are radially actinomorphic. Identical flower parts – petals and stamens – occur at regular intervals around the axis of the flower, the female part, with the carpel and stigma. Many viruses have radial symmetries, their coats being composed of a small number of protein molecules arranged in a regular pattern to form polyhedrons, spheres, or ovoids. Most are icosahedrons. Tetramerism is a variant of radial symmetry found in jellyfish, which have four canals in an otherwise radial body plan. Pentamerism means. Among animals, only the echinoderms such as sea stars, sea urchins, sea lilies are pentamerous as adults, with five arms arranged around the mouth.
Being bilaterian animals, they develop with mirror symmetry as larvae gain pentaradial symmetry later. Flowering plants show fivefold symmetry in various fruits; this is well seen in the arrangement of the five carpels in an apple cut transversely. Hexamerism is found in the corals and sea anemones which are divided into two groups based on their symmetry; the most common corals in the subclass Hexacorallia have a hexameric body plan. Octamerism is found in corals of the subclass Octocorallia; these have polyps with octameric radial symmetry. The octopus, has bilateral symmetry, despite its eight arms. Spherical symmetry occurs in an organism if it is able to be cut into two identical halves through any cut that runs through the organism's center. Organisms which show approximate spherical symmetry include the freshwater green alga Volvox. In bilateral symmetry, only one plane, called the sagittal plane, divides an organism into mirror image halves, thus there is approximate reflection symmetry. Internal organs are however not symmetric.
Animals that are bilaterally symmetric have mirror symmetry in the sagittal plane, which divides the body vertically into left and right halves, with one of each sense organ and limb group on either side. At least 99% of animals are bilaterally symmetric, including humans, where facial symmetry influences people's judgements of attractiveness; when an organism moves in one direction, it has a front or head end. This end encounters the environment before the rest of the body as the organism moves along, so sensory organs such as eyes tend to be clustered there, it is the site for a mouth as food is encountered. A distinct head, with sense organs connected to a central nervous system, therefore tends to develop. Given a direction of travel which creates a front/back difference, gravity which creates a dorsal/ventral difference and right are unavoidably distinguished, so a bilaterally symmetric body plan is widespread and found in most animal phyla. Bilateral symmetry permits streamlining to reduce drag, on a traditional view in zoology facilitates locomotion.
However, in the Cnidaria, different symmetries exist, bilateral symmetry is not aligned with the direction of locomotion, so another mechanism such as internal transport may be needed to explain the origin of bilateral symmetry in animals. The phylum Echinodermata, which includes starfish, sea urchins and sand dollars, is unique among animals in having bilateral symmetry at the larval stage, but pentamerism as adults. Bilateral symmetry is not broken. In experiments using the fruit fly, Drosophila, in contrast to other traits, right- or left-sidedness in eye size, or eye facet number, wing-folding behavior show a lack of response. Females of some species select for symmetry, presumed by biologists to be a ma
Speleothems known as cave formations, are secondary mineral deposits formed in a cave. Speleothems form in limestone or dolostone solutional caves; the term "speleothem" as first introduced by Moore, is derived from the Greek words spēlaion "cave" + théma "deposit". The definition of "speleothem" in most publications excludes secondary mineral deposits in mines, tunnels and on man-made structures. Hill and Forti more concisely defined "secondary minerals". 319 variations of cave mineral deposits have been identified. The vast majority of speleothems are calcareous, composed of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite, or calcium sulfate in the form of gypsum. Calcareous speleothems form via carbonate dissolution reactions. Rainwater in the soil zone reacts with soil CO2 to create weakly acidic water via the reaction: H2O + CO2 → H2CO3As the lower pH water travels through the calcium carbonate bedrock from the surface to the cave ceiling, it dissolves the bedrock via the reaction: CaCO3 + H2CO3 → Ca2+ + 2 HCO3−When the solution reaches a cave, degassing due to lower cave pCO2 drives precipitation of CaCO3: Ca2+ + 2 HCO3− → CaCO3 + H2O + CO2Over time the accumulation of these precipitates form stalagmites and flowstones, which compose the major categories of speleothems.
Calthemites which occur on concrete structures, are created by different chemistry to speleothems. Speleothems take various forms, depending on whether the water drips, condenses, flows, or ponds. Many speleothems are named for their resemblance to natural objects. Types of speleothems include: Dripstone is calcium carbonate in the form of stalactites or stalagmites Stalactites are pointed pendants hanging from the cave ceiling, from which they grow Soda straws are thin but long stalactites having an elongated cylindrical shape rather than the usual more conical shape of stalactites Helictites are stalactites that have a central canal with twig-like or spiral projections that appear to defy gravity Include forms known as ribbon helictites, rods, hands, curly-fries, "clumps of worms" Chandeliers are complex clusters of ceiling decorations Ribbon stalactites, or "ribbons", are shaped accordingly Stalagmites are the "ground-up" counterparts of stalactites blunt mounds Broomstick stalagmites are tall and spindly Totem pole stalagmites are tall and shaped like their namesakes Fried egg stalagmites are small wider than they are tall Columns result when stalactites and stalagmites meet or when stalactites reach the floor of the cave Flowstone is sheet like and found on cave floors and walls Draperies or curtains are thin, wavy sheets of calcite hanging downward Bacon is a drapery with variously colored bands within the sheet Rimstone dams, or gours, occur at stream ripples and form barriers that may contain water Stone waterfall formations simulate frozen cascades Cave crystals Dogtooth spar are large calcite crystals found near seasonal pools Frostwork is needle-like growths of calcite or aragonite Moonmilk is white and cheese-like Anthodites are flower-like clusters of aragonite crystals Cryogenic calcite crystals are loose grains of calcite found on the floors of caves, are formed by segregation of solutes during the freezing of water.
Speleogens are formations within caves that are created by the removal of bedrock, rather than as secondary deposits. These include: Pillars Scallops Boneyard Boxwork Others Cave popcorn known as "coralloids" or "cave coral", are small, knobby clusters of calcite Cave pearls are the result of water dripping from high above, causing small "seed" crystals to turn over so that they form into near-perfect spheres of calcium carbonate Snottites are colonies of predominantly sulfur oxidizing bacteria and have the consistency of "snot", or mucus Calcite rafts are thin accumulations of calcite that appear on the surface of cave poolsSpeleothems made of sulfates, mirabilite or opal occur in some lava tubes. Although sometimes similar in appearance to speleothems in caves formed by dissolution, lava stalactites are formed by the cooling of residual lava within the lava tube. Speleothems formed from salt and other minerals are known. Speleothems made of pure calcium carbonate are a translucent white color, but speleothems are colored by chemicals such as iron oxide, copper or manganese oxide, or may be brown because of mud and silt particulate inclusions.
Many factors impact the shape and color of speleothem formations including the rate and direction of water seepage, the amount of acid in the water, the temperature and humidity content of a cave, air currents, the above ground climate, the amount of annual rainfall and the density of the plant cover. Most cave chemistry revolves around calcium carbonate, the primary mineral in limestone and dolomite, it is a soluble mineral whose solubility increases with the introduction of carbon dioxide. It is paradoxical in that its solubility decreases as the temperature increases, unlike the vast majority of dissolved solids; this decrease is due to interactions with the carbon dioxide, whose solubility is diminished by elevated temperatures. Most other solution caves that are not composed of limestone or dolostone are composed of gypsum, the solubility of, positively c
Wyandotte Caves, a pair of limestone caves located on the Ohio River in Harrison-Crawford State Forest in Crawford County, 5 miles north-east of Leavenworth and 12 miles from Corydon in southern Indiana, is a popular tourist attraction. Wyandotte Caves were designated a National Natural Landmark in 1972, they are now part of O'Bannon Woods State Park. The cave system is the 5th largest in the state of Indiana; the term "Wyandotte Caves" is used to refer to Wyandotte Cave and Little Wyandotte Cave, but the two caves are different. They are located close to each other, are owned and managed by the same entity. There the resemblance ends. Wyandotte Caves began to form in the Pliocene Era, about 2 million years ago. Like most of Southern Indiana's caves, the caves were formed when water dissolved limestone, causing hollow caves to form; the limestone which forms much of Southern Indiana's bedrock, from which Wyandotte and other local caves are formed, was first deposited in the Mississippian epoch, when Indiana was covered by a shallow inland sea.
Although the glaciers of the Pliocene and Pleistocene periods did not quite reach as far south as the area now known as Crawford County, where Wyandotte and Marengo Caves are located, they influenced the development of those caves. The Ohio River was formed at this time, today flows only minutes from Wyandotte Caves; the advancing and retreating glaciers destroyed the pre-existing Teays River, the Ohio River was formed, draining the land that the Teays once drained. As the glaciers melted, the icy cold water flowing towards the Ohio River dissolved the limestone, the bedrock for much of Southern Indiana, hollowing out caves such as Wyandotte; the main entrance to Wyandotte Cave is 220 feet above the level of the Blue River. Wyandotte Cave is known for large rooms. With 9.2 miles of passageways on five levels it is the fifth longest cave in Indiana. Included in its formations is Monument Mountain. At 135 feet tall, Monument Mountain is considered to be the world's largest underground mountain. Wyandotte Cave is home to a great many helictites, which are considered rare.
The cave is home to the tallest stalagmite in the world, known as the Pillar of the Constitution, but this is only visible on crawling tours. Long speleothems, formed by rainwater dissolving calcium carbonate, abound in Siberts Cave; the cave exhibits a wide variety of speleothems including. The temperature inside both caves maintains a constant 52 degrees Fahrenheit. Wyandotte Cave was used by Native Americans for nearly 4000 years before Europeans arrived in the area; the Native Americans used torches made of hickory bark and grape vines to light the cave where they mined for aragonite, which they used for pipes and necklaces, chert, which they used to make stone tools. The remains of their mining explorations can be seen on tours to this day; the discovery of Wyandotte Cave by European settlers is believed to have occurred around 1798. Shortly thereafter Wyandotte Cave became known as an excellent source of saltpeter, an integral component of gunpowder, of Epsom salts, which have medical uses.
Saltpeter mining in the cave reached a peak under a man by the name of Dr. Benjamin Adams during the War of 1812. Modern tours feature Dr. Adams' vats and hoppers, point out where magnesium sulfate is visible as a glittery substance lining the cave walls; the cave was used to store supplies for the army of William Henry Harrison. Wyandotte Cave was named by Governor David Wallace after the river, known as the Wyandotte, but, known as the Blue River. Before receiving its current name it was variously called the Mammoth Cave of Indiana, the Epsom Salts Cave, the Indiana Saltpetre Cave; the land beneath which the caves are located was bought by Henry Peter Rothrock in 1819. The Rothrocks seemed to have had little to do with the cave until 1850, when they offered the first commercial tours of the cave after the discovery of a large new section of cavern; this date of 1850 makes Wyandotte cave the fourth oldest commercial cave in the United States. Siberts Cave was named after the person who discovered it.
The caves were sold to the Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry in 1966, along with 1,174 acres of woodland. The caves were closed to visitation from 2009 to 2016 in order to slow the spread of White Nose Syndrome affecting the bat population. After eight years, the agencies studying the bats gave the "okay" to open up the caves, as long as "decontamination stations" were walked through at the end of each tour; the eight-year closure of the caves drastically affected the buildings on site, many were taken down due to structural damage. State Representative Lloyd Arnold and Lieutenant Governor Eric Holcomb showcased the $1.7 million project to replace the main building on-site and re-wire the interior of the cave. As of 2018, the lights in the cave have been repaired and replaced and a temporary gatehouse has been built; the Little Wyandotte Cave tour is the easiest trip available. This smaller cave separated from Big Wyandotte Cave, offers a comprehensive view of many flowstone and dripstone formations.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Timpanogos Cave National Monument
Timpanogos Cave National Monument is a United States National Monument protecting the Timpanogos Cave Historic District and a cave system on Mount Timpanogos in the Wasatch Mountains in American Fork Canyon near American Fork, Utah, in the United States. The site is managed by the National Park Service; the 1.5-mile trail to the cave is steep, gaining close to 1,000 feet, but paved and wide, so the caves are accessible to most. The three caves of the system, one of, called Timpanogos Cave, are only viewable on guided tours when the monument is open from May through September depending on snow conditions and funding. There is the standard tour going through the cave system, an Introduction to Caving tour which teaches Leave No Trace caving and goes further into Hansen Cave; the three caves of the Monument that are tourable are: Hansen Cave, Middle Cave, Timpanogos Cave. The three caves are connected by manmade tunnels blasted in the 1930s by the Works Progress Administration; the average temperature in the caves is 46 degrees Fahrenheit.
Many colorful cave features or speleothems can be seen. Among the most interesting are the helictites, which are hollowed, spiraling straws of deposited calcite or aragonite, they are formed when water travels through the tube and evaporates, leaving a trace mineral deposit at the end. Other speleothems found in the cave include: cave bacon, cave columns, cave popcorn, cave drapery and stalagmites. Martin Hansen discovered what became known as Hansen Cave in October 1887 while cutting timber he tracked cougar footprints high up the side of American Fork Canyon. Many of the features and formations in this chamber were damaged or removed by the Duke Onyx Company and the general public before the cave was made a national monument. In 1913, a second cave was discovered nearby. While in the area to explore Hansen Cave with their families, James W. Gough and Frank Johnson were climbing an adjacent slope when they discovered the entrance to what is now known as Timpanogos Cave. Several others entered the cave and viewed many of the formations inside, including the Great Heart of Timpanogos.
However, before long knowledge of the cave and its entrance was lost. Some sources indicate that the entrance was lost due to a landslide in the area, while others say it was, in part, caused by the extreme secrecy of the original finders. Several years after hearing rumors of another cave, Vearl J Manwill came with a group of associates in search of the mysterious hidden cave. On 14 February 1921 he rediscovered it, he shared the information with the other members of the group. Having in mind the extreme damage that had resulted in Hansen Cave, that night, the group dedicated themselves to the preservation of the cave. Of that night, Manwill wrote in his journal that they discussed ways "to preserve its beauty for posterity instead of allowing it to be vandalized as Hansen's Cave had been." Shortly thereafter they reported. That fall, on 15 October 1921, George Heber Hansen and Wayne E. Hansen, Martin Hansen's son and grandson, were hunting on the other side of the canyon. While using binoculars to try to find deer, they came across another hole in the mountain, in between the other two caves.
In a few days they came back, with 74-year-old Martin Hansen. Martin was the first to enter the cave, now called Middle Cave. Current tours of the cave system enter the caves though a manmade entrance close to the entrance discovered by Martin Hansen. Passing through a manmade tunnel, tours continue on to Middle Cave, before passing through another manmade tunnel to Timpanogos Cave. Tours return to the surface through a manmade exit near the original entrance. Although the site was designated a national monument on October 14, 1922, the site was developed and maintained by the U. S. Forest Service; the National Park Service took over management in 1933. A number of park structures were built by the Works Progress Administration in the 1930s and early 1940s; the Timpanogos Cave Historic District was designated in 1982 to include these structures. Middle Cave and Timpanogos Cave were discovered in an era where their formations and resources could be protected; the National Park Service, which oversees and preserves the cave complex, has continued to develop new ways to retain its natural features, including limiting lighting in the caves to retard growth of invasive organisms.
Preservation is a high priority. The resource management team at the monument is involved in protecting the cave and its surroundings; the National Park Service is continually monitoring and striving to determine a successful balance between visitor access and cave preservation. A limited number of people per tour was implemented to help lessen the human impacts in the caves; the National Park Service balances preservation with the needs of the Monument's staff. The Monument's original visitor's center burned down in 1991, the current staff have been working from a double-wide trailer house for 20 years. Not only is the current visitor's center inadequate, but it is located in a dangerous rock-fall zone. Plans for a new visitor's center to be built outside of American Fork Canyon are under consideration; this new center would house employees from the National Forest Service. However, similar plans have been worked on since the first center was destroyed, without any changes to the current situation.
The cave system is located in the Deseret Limestone, a Mississippian age limestone formed around 340 million years ago. Notably the cave cavity