Euthyneura is a taxonomic clade of snails and slugs, which includes species from freshwater, marine and terrestrial gastropod mollusks in the clade Heterobranchia. Euthyneura are considered the crown group of Gastropoda, are characterised by several autapomorphies, but are named for euthyneury, they are considered to be the most diverse group of Gastropoda. Within this taxon, the Gastropoda have reached their peak in species richness and ecological diversity; this obvious evolutionary success can be attributed to several factors. Marine Opisthobranchia, e.g. have evolved several clades specialised on less used food resources such as sponges or cnidarians. A key innovation in the evolution of Pulmonata was the colonization of freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Various phylogenetic studies focused on Euthyneura: Dayrat et al. Dayrat & Tillier and Grande et al.. Morphological analyses by Dayrat and Tillier demonstrated the need to explore new datasets in order to critically analyse the phylogeny of this controversial group of gastropods.
Klussmann-Kolb et al. traced an evolutionary scenario regarding colonisation of different habitats based on phylogenetic hypothesis and they showed that traditional classification of Euthyneura needs to be reconsidered. Jörger et al. have redefined major groups within the Heterobranchia and a cladogram showing phylogenic relations of Euthyneura is as follows: Cladogram showing phylogenic relations of Euthyneura sensu Wägele et al.: Kano et al. proposed a new taxon Ringipleura and classified Ringiculoidea as sister group to Nudipleura: This article incorporates CC-BY-2.0 text from the reference
A land snail is any of the numerous species of snail that live on land, as opposed to the sea snails and freshwater snails. Land snail is the common name for terrestrial gastropod mollusks. However, it is not always easy to say which species are terrestrial, because some are more or less amphibious between land and fresh water, others are amphibious between land and salt water; the majority of land snails are pulmonates. That is, they have a lung and breathe air. A minority, belong to much more ancient lineages whose anatomy includes a gill and an operculum. Many of these operculate land snails live in habitats or microhabitats that are sometimes damp or wet, such as in moss. Land snails have a strong muscular foot. Like other mollusks, land snails have a mantle, they have one or two pairs of tentacles on their head, their internal anatomy includes a primitive brain. In terms of reproduction, all known species of land snails are hermaphrodites and most lay clutches of eggs in the soil. Tiny snails hatch out of the egg with a small shell in place, the shell grows spirally as the soft parts increase in size.
Most land snails have shells. A wide range of different vertebrate and invertebrate animals prey on land snails, they are used as food by humans in various cultures worldwide, are raised on farms in some areas for use as food. Land snails move by gliding along on their muscular foot, lubricated with mucus and covered with epithelial cilia; this motion is powered by succeeding waves of muscular contractions that move down the ventral of the foot. This muscular action is visible when a snail is crawling on the glass of a window or aquarium. Snails move at a proverbially low speed. Snails secrete mucus externally to keep their soft bodies from drying out, they secrete mucus from the foot to aid in locomotion by reducing friction, to help reduce the risk of mechanical injury from sharp objects, meaning they can crawl over a sharp edge like a straight razor and not be injured. The mucus that land snails secrete with the foot leaves a slime trail behind them, visible for some hours afterwards as a shiny "path" on the surface over which they have crawled.
Snails have a mantle, a specialized layer of tissue which covers all of the internal organs as they are grouped together in the visceral mass. The mantle extends outward in flaps which reach to the edge of the shell and in some cases can cover the shell, which are retractable; the mantle is attached to the shell, creates the shell and makes shell growth possible by secretion. Most molluscs, including land snails, have a shell, part of their anatomy since the larval stage, which grows with them in size by the process of secreting calcium carbonate along the open edge and on the inner side for extra strength. Although some land snails create shells that are entirely formed from the protein conchiolin, most land snails need a good supply of calcium in their diet and environment to produce a strong shell. A lack of calcium, or low pH in their surroundings, can result in thin, cracked, or perforated shells. A snail can repair damage to its shell over time if its living conditions improve, but severe damage can be fatal.
When retracted into their shells, many snails with gills are able to protect themselves with a door-like anatomical structure called an operculum. Land snails range in size; the largest living species is the Giant African Snail or Ghana Tiger Snail, which can measure up to 30 cm. The largest land snails of non-tropical Eurasia are endemic Caucasian snails Helix buchi and Helix goderdziana from the south-eastern Black Sea area in Georgia and Turkey. In most land snails the eyes are carried on the first set of tentacles which are roughly 75% of the width of the eyes; the second set of tentacles act as olfactory organs. Both sets of tentacles are retractable in land snails. A snail breaks up its food using the radula inside its mouth; the radula is a chitinous ribbon-like structure containing rows of microscopic teeth. With this the snail scrapes at food, transferred to the digestive tract. In a quiet setting, a large land snail can be heard'crunching' its food: the radula is tearing away at the surface of the food that the snail is eating.
The cerebral ganglia of the snail form a primitive brain, divided into four sections. This structure is much simpler than the brains of mammals and birds, but nonetheless, snails are capable of associative learning; as the snail grows, so does its calcium carbonate shell. The shell grows additively, by the addition of new calcium carbonate, secreted by glands located in the snail's mantle; the new material is added to the edge of the shell aperture. Therefore, the centre of the shell's spiral was made when the snail was younger, the outer part when the snail was older; when the snail reaches full adult size, it may build a thickened lip around the shell aperture. At this point the snail stops growing, begins reproducing. A snail's shell forms a logarithmic spiral. Most snail shells are right-handed or dextral in coiling, meaning that if the shell is hel
10th edition of Systema Naturae
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature. In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals, something he had done for plants in his 1753 publication of Species Plantarum. Before 1758, most biological catalogues had used polynomial names for the taxa included, including earlier editions of Systema Naturae; the first work to apply binomial nomenclature across the animal kingdom was the 10th edition of Systema Naturae. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature therefore chose 1 January 1758 as the "starting point" for zoological nomenclature, asserted that the 10th edition of Systema Naturae was to be treated as if published on that date. Names published before that date are unavailable if they would otherwise satisfy the rules; the only work which takes priority over the 10th edition is Carl Alexander Clerck's Svenska Spindlar or Aranei Suecici, published in 1757, but is to be treated as if published on January 1, 1758.
During Linnaeus' lifetime, Systema Naturae was under continuous revision. Progress was incorporated into ever-expanding editions; the Animal Kingdom: Animals enjoy sensation by means of a living organization, animated by a medullary substance. They have members for the different purposes of life, they all originate from an egg. Their external and internal structure; the list has been broken down into the original six classes Linnaeus described for animals. These classes were created by studying the internal anatomy, as seen in his key: Heart with 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, red blood Viviparous: Mammalia Oviparous: Aves Heart with 1 auricle, 1 ventricle. Cold, red blood Lungs voluntary: Amphibia External gills: Pisces Heart with 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood Have antennae: Insecta Have tentacles: VermesBy current standards Pisces and Vermes are informal groupings, Insecta contained arachnids and crustaceans, one order of Amphibia comprised sharks and sturgeons. Linnaeus described mammals as: Animals.
In external and internal structure they resemble man: most of them are quadrupeds. The largest, though fewest in number, inhabit the ocean. Linnaeus divided the mammals based upon the number and structure of their teeth, into the following orders and genera: Primates: Homo, Lemur & Vespertilio Bruta: Elephas, Bradypus, Myrmecophaga & Manis Ferae: Phoca, Felis, Mustela & Ursus Bestiae: Sus, Erinaceus, Sorex & Didelphis Glires: Rhinoceros, Lepus, Mus & Sciurus Pecora: Camelus, Cervus, Ovis & Bos Belluae: Equus & Hippopotamus Cete: Monodon, Physeter & Delphinus Linnaeus described birds as: A beautiful and cheerful portion of created nature consisting of animals having a body covered with feathers and down, they are areal, vocal and light, destitute of external ears, teeth, womb, epiglottis, corpus callosum and its arch, diaphragm. Linnaeus divided the birds based upon the characters of the bill and feet, into the following 6 orders and 63 genera: Accipitres: Vultur, Strix & Lanius Picae: Psittacus, Buceros, Corvus, Gracula, Cuculus, Picus, Alcedo, Upupa, Certhia & Trochilus Anseres: Anas, Alca, Diomedea, Phaethon, Larus, Sterna & Rhyncops Grallae: Phoenicopterus, Mycteria & Tantulus, Scolopax, Charadrius, Haematopus, Rallus, Otis & Struthio Gallinae: Pavo, Crax, Phasianus & Tetrao Passeres: Columba, Sturnus, Loxia (cardina
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
The European Commission is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU. Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg City, pledging to respect the treaties and to be independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate. Unlike in the Council of the European Union, where members are directly and indirectly elected, the European Parliament, where members are directly elected, the Commissioners are proposed by the Council of the European Union, on the basis of suggestions made by the national governments, appointed by the European Council after the approval of the European Parliament; the Commission operates with 28 members of the Commission. There is one member per member state, but members are bound by their oath of office to represent the general interest of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. One of the 28 is the Commission President proposed by the European Council and elected by the European Parliament.
The Council of the European Union nominates the other 27 members of the Commission in agreement with the nominated President, the 28 members as a single body are subject to a vote of approval by the European Parliament. The current Commission is the Juncker Commission, which took office in late 2014, following the European Parliament elections in May of the same year; the term Commission is variously used, either in the narrow sense of the 28-member College of Commissioners or to include the administrative body of about 32,000 European civil servants who are split into departments called directorates-general and services. The procedural languages of the Commission are English and German; the Members of the Commission and their "cabinets" are based in the Berlaymont building in Brussels. The European Commission derives from one of the five key institutions created in the supranational European Community system, following the proposal of Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, on 9 May 1950.
Originating in 1951 as the High Authority in the European Coal and Steel Community, the Commission has undergone numerous changes in power and composition under various presidents, involving three Communities. The first Commission originated in 1951 as the nine-member "High Authority" under President Jean Monnet; the High Authority was the supranational administrative executive of the new European Coal and Steel Community. It took office first on 10 August 1952 in Luxembourg City. In 1958, the Treaties of Rome had established two new communities alongside the ECSC: the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community; however their executives were called "Commissions" rather than "High Authorities". The reason for the change in name was the new relationship between the Council; some states, such as France, expressed reservations over the power of the High Authority, wished to limit it by giving more power to the Council rather than the new executives. Louis Armand led the first Commission of Euratom.
Walter Hallstein led the first Commission of the EEC, holding the first formal meeting on 16 January 1958 at the Château of Val-Duchesse. It achieved agreement on a contentious cereal price accord, as well as making a positive impression upon third countries when it made its international debut at the Kennedy Round of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade negotiations. Hallstein notably began the consolidation of European law and started to have a notable impact on national legislation. Little heed was taken of his administration at first but, with help from the European Court of Justice, his Commission stamped its authority solidly enough to allow future Commissions to be taken more seriously. In 1965, accumulating differences between the French government of Charles de Gaulle and the other member states on various subjects triggered the "empty chair" crisis, ostensibly over proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy. Although the institutional crisis was solved the following year, it cost Etienne Hirsch his presidency of Euratom and Walter Hallstein the EEC presidency, despite his otherwise being viewed as the most'dynamic' leader until Jacques Delors.
The three bodies, collectively named the European Executives, co-existed until 1 July 1967 when, under the Merger Treaty, they were combined into a single administration under President Jean Rey. Owing to the merger, the Rey Commission saw a temporary increase to 14 members—although subsequent Commissions were reduced back to nine, following the formula of one member for small states and two for larger states; the Rey Commission completed the Community's customs union in 1968, campaigned for a more powerful, European Parliament. Despite Rey being the first President of the combined communities, Hallstein is seen as the first President of the modern Commission; the Malfatti and Mansholt Commissions followed with work on monetary co-operation and the first enlargement to the north in 1973. With that enlargement, the Commission's membership increased to thirteen under the Ortoli Commission, which dealt with the enlarged community during economic and international instability at that time; the external representation of the Community took a step forward when President Roy Jenkins, recruited to the presidency in January 1977 from his role as Home Secretary of the United Kingdom's Labour government, became the first President to att
Escargots, IPA:, are a delicacy consisting of cooked edible land snails. They are served as an hors d'oeuvre and consumed by the French people, as well as people from Portugal and Spain, they are a typical of the cuisines of Crete, Greece, as well as such North African countries as Algeria and Morocco. The word escargot is sometimes applied to living examples of those species which are eaten in this way. In British English, the menu item is referred to as snails; the first recorded use in English of the French word escargot to mean "edible snail" dates from 1892. The French word derives from escaragol and thence escargol, is – via Vulgar Latin coculium and Classical Latin conchylium – from the Ancient Greek konchylion, which meant "edible shellfish, oyster"; the Online Etymological Dictionary writes, "The form of the word in Provençal and French seems to have been influenced by words related to scarab." Not all species of land snail are edible, many are too small to make it worthwhile to prepare and cook them.
Among the edible species, the palatability of the flesh varies from species to species. In France, the species Helix pomatia is most eaten; the "petit-gris" Cornu aspersa is eaten, as is Helix lucorum. Several additional species, such as Elona quimperiana, are popular in Europe. Apple snails are consumed in Asia and can be found in Asian markets in North America. Snail shells have been found in archaeological excavations, indicating snails have been eaten since prehistoric times. A number of archaeological sites around the Mediterranean have been excavated yielding physical evidence of culinary use of several species of snails; the Romans in particular are known to have considered escargot an elite food, as noted in the writings of Pliny. The edible species Otala lactea has been recovered from the Roman-era city Volubilis in present-day Morocco. More African land snails have been known to be edible. In the late 1980s, escargots represented a $300-million-a-year business in the United States. May 24 has been designated "National Escargot Day" in the United States.
In French cuisine, the snails are purged, removed from their shells, cooked, placed back into the shells with the butter and sauce for serving. Additional ingredients may be added, such as garlic, thyme and pine nuts. Special tongs for holding the shell and forks for extracting the meat are normally provided, they are served on indented metal trays with places for six or 12 snails. In Cretan cuisine the snails are first boiled in white wine with bay leaves and onion and coated with flour and fried with rosemary and vinegar. In Maltese cuisine, snails of the petit gris variety are simmered in red wine or ale with mint and marjoram; the snails are cooked, served in their shells. In Moroccan cuisine, snails called"Ghlal", are a popular street food, they are cooked in a jar filled with special spices and herbs. After cooking time, Moroccan snails are consumed hot. Moroccan snails are enjoyed during winter as they are believed to be beneficial for health when dealing with the common cold or rheumatism.
Like most molluscs, escargots are high in protein and low in fat content. Escargots are estimated to contain 2.4 % fat and about 80 % water. The snails are first prepared by purging them of the undesirable contents of their digestive systems; the process used to accomplish this varies, but involves a combination of fasting and purging or feeding them on a wholesome replacement. The methods most used can take several days. Farms producing Helix aspersa for sale exist in the United States. In both regions, escargot are considered a delicacy. Farm-raised snails are fed a diet of ground cereals. Escargot de Quimper Common periwinkle Snail caviar ConchGeneral: Snails as food List of delicacies Escargot - nutritional value Escargot Recipes from Gourmet Recipe
Heterobranchia, the heterobranchs, is a taxonomic clade of snails and slugs, which includes marine and terrestrial gastropod mollusks. Heterobranchia is one of the main clades of gastropods. Heterobranchia comprises three informal groups: the lower heterobranchs, the opisthobranchs and the pulmonates; the three subdivisions of this large clade are quite diverse: The Lower Heterobranchia includes shelled marine and freshwater species. Opisthobranchia are all marine species, some shelled and some not; the internal organs of the opisthobranchs have undergone detorsion. The Pulmonata includes the majority of land snails and slugs, many freshwater snails, a small number of marine species; the mantle cavity of the Pulmonata is modified into an air-breathing organ. They are characterized by detorsion and a symmetrically-arranged nervous system; the pulmonates always lack an operculum and are hermaphroditic. The families included in Heterobranchia have been placed in many different parts of the taxonomic class of gastropods.
Earlier authors considered Heterobranchia to consist of only marine gastropods, conceptualized it as a borderline category, intermediate between the Opisthobranchia & Pulmonata, all the other gastropods. The category Heterostropha within the Heterobranchia, which includes such families as Architectonicidae, the sundial or staircase snails, is characterized by a shell which has a heterostrophic protoconch, in other words the apical whorls are coiled in the opposite plane to the adult whorls; the classification of this group was revised by Ponder & Warén in 1988. According to the older taxonomy of the Gastropoda the Heterobranchia were ranked as a superorder. Heterobranchia is one of the main clades of gastropods. For a detailed taxonomy, see Taxonomy of the Gastropoda #Clade Heterobranchia. Jörger et al. have redefined major groups within the Heterobranchia: they created the new clades Euopisthobranchia and Panpulmonata. A cladogram showing phylogenic relations of Heterobranchia as proposed by Jörger et al.: Dinapoli A..
Phylogeny and Evolution of the Heterobranchia. Thesis, Frankfurt am Main, 176 pp. PDF. Dinapoli A.. "The long way to diversity – Phylogeny and evolution of the Heterobranchia"". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 55: 60–76. Doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.09.019. PMID 19778622