Novo Celje is a small settlement in the Municipality of Žalec in east-central Slovenia. Its territory is basically the estate of Novo Celje Mansion, a late 18th-century mansion just southeast of Žalec, the area is part of the traditional region of Styria. The municipality is now included in the Savinja Statistical Region, Novo Celje became a separate settlement in 1999, when its territory was administratively separated from Dobriša Vas
Kropa is a settlement in the Municipality of Radovljica in the Upper Carniola region of Slovenia. The settlement was first attested in 1498 as Chropp or Krupp and it is believed to derive from the identical hydronym, first attested in 1481 as pach Khrappa or Khroppa, which has its source at Kroparica Spring above the settlement. The hydronym is derived from the Slovene common noun kropa powerful spring and it is known for its traditional smithies, which produce a variety of decorative metal fittings. There is an iron forging museum in Kropa, metalworking has an ancient tradition in Kropa, with evidence of metalworks from Celtic times in the wider area and the earliest furnaces actually in Kropa from the 14th century onwards. There are two churches in Kropa, St Leonards Church and a dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Saint Leonards Church is originally a Gothic structure that was expanded in 1694, remodeled in the Baroque style in 1768 and it stands below the Jelovica Plateau on the northwest edge of the historic center of Kropa and is flanked by the cemetery.
The chancel and nave with two chapels are barrel-vaulted and were painted by Matija Bradaška in 1900 and 1901. The churchs Baroque altars were created by Peter Žiwobski and the paintings are by Leopold Layer, Ivana Kobilca, Matevž Langus, saint Marys Church stands on a slope east of the historic town center. It is a Baroque structure with a nave and chancel. The bell tower is Baroque with a roof and an entry portico in the lower part. The furnishings of the church are Baroque, notable people that were born or lived in Kropa include, Anton Dermota, tenor Janez Potočnik, European commissioner Kropa on a travel guide to Slovenia Kropa at Geopedia
Hell Gorge is a 1. 5-kilometre gorge in central Slovenia, located near the settlement of Ohonica,4 km southwest of the village of Borovnica and 23 km from Ljubljana. Borovniščica Creek has created many erosion features such as pools, rapids and it has been proclaimed a natural value of national significance. The first footpaths through Hell Gorge were made one hundred years ago by charcoal burners collecting wood for charcoal. There were several mills and sawmills above and below the inaccessible gorge, the first records about Hell Gorge as a tourist attraction were published in 1897 by Josip Ciril Oblak, who named it a tourist heaven. At that time organized groups of hikers started coming to Hell Gorge and it was officially opened to the public on June 29,1904, after the original footpath that leads to the second waterfall and a wooden ladder to the third one were created. The complete footpath, including bridges and ladders, leading through the gorge was finished in 1925, the deeply cut bed of Otavščica Creek flows down into the Ljubljana Marshes from the Bloke–Rakitna Plateau and changes its name to the Borovniščica.
The gorge is carved into layers of dolomite, the steeply cascading tectonic fault in this area indicated the way for the water to flow. Intensive tectonics caused the formation of several geomorphological curiosities, a mountain named the Devils Tooth, a natural window. Fossils of some seashells and snails can be found in the gorge, both Alpine and Dinaric vegetation can be seen in Hell Gorge, including the endemic Carniolan primrose. There is a variety of tree species. One can encounter chamois and the water ouzel, which nests in the gorge. Media related to Hell Gorge at Wikimedia Commons
Arja Vas is a roadside settlement in the Municipality of Žalec in east-central Slovenia. The A1 motorway crosses the territory of the settlement north of the village, the area is part of the traditional region of Styria. The municipality is now included in the Savinja Statistical Region, arja Vas was attested in written sources in 1368 as Bernstorf. In the 19th century the German name was Arndorf, and in the dialect the settlement is known as Vrja ves. Based on the name and the medieval transcriptions, the name is based on an adjective form of the personal name *Var or *Varo. The initial Slovene V- and German W- was lost because it was reanalyzed as the Slovene preposition v in, the village chapel-shrine dates to the early 20th century and was renovated in 2008
Zabukovica is a settlement in the Municipality of Žalec in east-central Slovenia. It lies in the south of Žalec. The area is part of the region of Styria. The Municipality of Žalec is included in the Savinja Statistical Region, Zabukovica includes the hamlets of Kurja Vas, Močle, Podvine, Slovenski Dol, Sončni Hrib, and Zabukovška Vas. Zabukovica is the site of a mass associated with the Second World War. The Liboje Pond Mass Grave is located east of Zabukovica, neat the Potočnik farm, the remains of unknown victims were discovered at the site by children after the war. The pond was created after the war
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.
Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary caves
Gotovlje is a settlement in the Municipality of Žalec in east-central Slovenia. The A1 motorway crosses the territory of the settlement north of the village core, the area is part of the traditional region of Styria. The municipality is now included in the Savinja Statistical Region, the parish church in the settlement is dedicated to Saint George and belongs to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Celje. It is a Gothic building that was restyled in the Baroque in the mid-18th century, a second church belonging to the same parish stands in the hills north of the settlement. It is dedicated to Saint Gertrude and dates to the first half of the 16th century
Neanderthals, or more rarely Neandertals, were a species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo that became extinct about 40,000 years ago. Neanderthals and modern humans share 99. 7% of their DNA and are closely related. Neanderthals left bones and stone tools in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central, from the 1950s to the early 1980s, Neanderthals were widely considered a subspecies of Homo sapiens and a minority of scholars still hold this view. Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe, the earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 160,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorhams Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar, male Neanderthals had cranial capacities averaging 1600 cm3, females 1300 cm3, extending to 1736 cm3 in Amud 1. This is notably larger than the 1250–1400 cm3 typical of modern humans, males stood 164–168 cm and females 152–156 cm tall. Recent studies show that a few Neanderthals began mating with ancestors of modern humans long before the out of Africa migration of present day non-Africans.
Claims that Neanderthals deliberately buried their dead, and if they did, the debate on deliberate Neanderthal burials has been active since the 1908 discovery of the well-preserved Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 skeleton in a small hole in a cave in southwestern France. In 2013, scientists sequenced the genome of a Neanderthal for the first time. The genome was extracted from the bone of a 50. In 2016, elaborate constructions of rings of broken stalagmites made by early Neanderthals around 176,000 years ago were discovered 336 m inside Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France and this would have required a more advanced social structure than previously known for Neanderthals. Thal is a spelling of the German word Tal, which means valley. Nevertheless, Kings name had priority over the proposal put forward in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel, the practice of referring to the Neanderthals and a Neanderthal emerged in the popular literature of the 1920s. The German pronunciation of Neanderthaler or Neandertaler is in the International Phonetic Alphabet, in British English, Neanderthal is pronounced with the /t/ as in German, but different vowels.
In laymans American English, Neanderthal is pronounced with a /θ/ and /ɔ/ instead of the longer British /aː/, during the early 20th century the prevailing view was heavily influenced by Arthur Keith and Marcellin Boule, who wrote the first scientific description of a nearly complete Neanderthal skeleton. During the 1930s scholars Ernst Mayr, George Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky reinterpreted the existing fossil record, Neanderthal man was classified as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis - an early subspecies contrasted with what was now called Homo sapiens sapiens. The obviously unbroken succession of fossil sites of both subspecies in Europe was considered evidence that there was a slow and gradual evolutionary transition from Neanderthals to modern humans, contextual interpretations of similar excavation sites in Asia lead to the hypothesis of multiregional origin of modern man in the 1980s. Current scientific ideas hold that both evolved from a common African ancestor, Homo erectus