The Hellas quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Research Program. The Hellas quadrangle is referred to as MC-28; the Hellas quadrangle covers the area from 240° to 300° west longitude and 30° to 65° south latitude on the planet Mars. Within the Hellas quadrangle lies the classic features Hellas Planitia and Promethei Terra. Many interesting and mysterious features have been discovered in the Hellas quadrangle, including the giant river valleys Dao Vallis, Niger Vallis and Reull Vallis—all of which may have contributed water to a lake in the Hellas basin in the distant past. Many places in the Hellas quadrangle show signs of ice in the ground places with glacier-like flow features; the Hellas quadrangle contains part of the Hellas Basin, the largest known impact crater on the surface of Mars and the second largest in the solar system. The depth of the crater is 7152 m below the standard topographic datum of Mars; the basin is located in the southern highlands of Mars and is thought to have been formed about 3.9 billion years ago, during the Late Heavy Bombardment.
Studies suggest that when an impact created the Hellas Basin, the entire surface of Mars was heated hundreds of degrees, 70 meters of molted rock fell on the planet, an atmosphere of gaseous rock was formed. This rock atmosphere was 10 times as thick as the Earth's atmosphere. In a few days, the rock would have condensed out and covered the whole planet with an additional 10 m of molten rock. In the Northwest portion of Hellas Planitia is a strange type of surface called complex banded terrain or taffy-pull terrain, its process of formation is still unknown, although it appears to be due to erosion of hard and soft sediment along with ductile deformation. Ductile deformation results from layers undergoing strain. Early in the planet's history, it is believed. Possible shorelines have been discovered; these are evident in alternating benches and scarps visible in Mars orbiting camera narrow-angle images. In addition, Mars orbiting laser altimeter data show that the contacts of these sedimentary units mark contours of constant elevation for thousands of km, in one case all around the basin.
Channels, believed to be formed by water, enter into the basin. The Hellas drainage basin may be one-fifth that of the entire northern plains. A lake in Hellas in today's Martian climate would form a thick ice at the top that would sublimate away; that is the ice. This is similar to. Glacial features have been found. One important feature common in east Hellas are piles of material surrounding cliffs; the formation is called a lobate debris apron. Research with the Shallow Radar on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has provided strong evidence that the LDAs are glaciers that are covered with a thin layer of rocks. Large amounts of water ice are believed to be in the LDAs. Available evidence suggests that the eastern part of Hellas accumulated snow in the past; when the tilt of Mars increases the southern ice cap releases large amounts of water vapor. Climate models predict that when this occurs, water vapor condenses and falls where LDAs are located; the tilt of the earth changes little because our large moon keeps it stable.
The two tiny Martian moons do not stabilize their planet, so the rotational axis of Mars undergoes large variations. Lobate debris aprons may be a major source of water for future Mars colonists, their major advantage over other sources of Martian water are that they can mapped from orbit and they are closer to the equator, where manned missions are more to land. On the floors of some channels are features called lineated valley fill, they are grooved materials that seem to deflect around obstacles. They are believed to be ice-rich; some glaciers on the Earth show such features. Lineated floor deposits may be related to lobate debris aprons, which have been proven to contain large amounts of ice. Reull Vallis, as pictured below, displays these deposits. Much of the surface of Mars is covered by a thick smooth mantle, thought to be a mixture of ice and dust; this ice-rich mantle, a few yards thick, smoothes the land, but in places it displays a bumpy texture, resembling the surface of a basketball.
Because there are few craters on this mantle, the mantle is young. The image at the right shows a good view of this smooth mantle around Niger Vallis, as observed with HiRISE. Changes in Mars's orbit and tilt cause significant changes in the distribution of water ice from polar regions down to latitudes equivalent to Texas. During certain climate periods water vapor enters the atmosphere; the water returns to the ground at lower latitudes as deposits of frost or snow mixed generously with dust. The atmosphere of Mars contains a great deal of fine dust particles. Water vapor condenses on the particles they fall down to the ground due to the additional weight of the water coating; when ice at the top of the mantling layer goes back into the atmosphere, it leaves behind dust, which insulates the remaining ice. Remnants of a 50-100 meter thick mantling, called the upper plains unit, has been discovered in the mid-latitudes of Mars. First investigated in the Deuteronilus Mensae region; the remnants consist of sets of dipping layers in craters and along mesas.
Sets of dipping layers may be of various sizes and shapes—
West Adelaide SC
West Adelaide Soccer Club is an Australian soccer club playing in the National Premier Leagues. Traditionally named Hellas, the club was founded by members of the Greek community of Adelaide. West Adelaide became a founding member of the National Soccer League in 1977 and a year became the first Adelaide team of any football code to be crowned national champion when it won the 1978 National Soccer League after a 1–1 draw with Adelaide City in the local derby. One of the most successful clubs in South Australia, West Adelaide competed in the national league for 19 seasons, interrupted by two short periods in which it was relegated back to state competition. In the late 1990s, the club renamed itself the Adelaide Sharks in an effort to attract support beyond its traditional base in the Greek community. At the end of the 1998–99 National Soccer League season, the club was overcome by financial turmoil and entered administration. West withdrew from the national competition and its senior arm declared bankruptcy while the club's juniors separated from the club and remained afloat.
In 2007, West Adelaide fielding senior teams in the South Australian competition once again. West gained promotion to the second tier in 2012 and returned to the top tier a year winning its first South Australian championship in 2015. West Adelaide's history dates back to 1936, when a small group of early Greek migrants to Adelaide founded the city's first Greek-backed soccer club called Hellenic; the team played informally at Adelaide High School, paid referees using their own money and, because most Greeks were yet to migrate to Australia, crowds exceeded 100 people. In 1945, the Greeks founded their club under the name Olympic but within 15 years, the South Australian Soccer Federation suspended the club from competition due to crowd violence; the club reformed a year and re-entered the state league as the Hellenic Athletic and Soccer Club. In 1962, the Greek club merged with the old West Adelaide Soccer Club, which had formed in 1910 and, until that point, did not have ties to the Greek community.
The new club, West Adelaide Hellas won promotion to the top tier of South Australian football and became a powerhouse. In its first 13 years, the club competed with Adelaide Juventus for supremacy in the local competition; the clubs shared nine titles between them in 10 years and matches between the two became the major derby of the city. In 1977, West Adelaide became founding members of the National Soccer League, Australia's first national competition for any football code; the club had the honour of scoring the NSL's first goal on 2 April 1977. The goal scorer was Socceroo striker John Kosmina, whom the club had signed for the national league from rival state league club Polonia Adelaide just days earlier. Kosmina's goal in the first national league game came against Canberra City at Manuka Oval. West won the game 3–1 in front of a modest crowd of 1700 people. Kosmina 20 years old, scored the goal having played two 1978 FIFA World Cup qualification matches for Australia against New Zealand, scoring in one, as well as a cup final for his former club, Polonia.
The greatest moment in West Adelaide's history came the following season, when it became the first football club of any code from Adelaide to be crowned national champion. West had finished the inaugural NSL season in seventh place, 11 points behind champions Eastern Suburbs renamed Sydney City; the New South Wales side would again be one of the strongest in 1978 although Hellas improved markedly. The team included star players such as sweeper Neil McGachey. John Margaritis began the year as coach but left after 10 rounds to be replaced first by player-coach McGachey and by Jim Adam, a coach from Victoria. Remarkably, the title was secured in a fashion West Adelaide fans could only dream about – at home in an Adelaide derby match against Adelaide City in the final round of the season. Needing a point to secure the title ahead of Eastern Suburbs, national team midfielder John Perin put City ahead with a 30 yard strike in the first half. With five minutes of normal time remaining, Vic Bozanic looped a ball over the goalkeeper to seal a 1–1 draw, the championship, sending the 16,000-strong Hindmarsh Stadium crowd into raptures.
The 1978 National Soccer League came 13 years before any South Australian side competed in the Australian Football League. A long lean spell followed West Adelaide's successful early years in the national league; the club narrowly avoided relegation in the early 1980s and was sent back to the state league after the 1986 season, when the league scrapped the conference system it had used for three seasons. The club spent four of the next five seasons in the relative limbo of the South Australian competition, interrupted by a brief return to the national flight in 1989-90. West Adelaide was invited back to the national league for the 1991-92 season. However, the club finished second last in its first season back in the top tier. New coach Raul Blanco led Hellas to the playoffs in 1992-93 and 1994-95. In a bid to attract support beyond its traditional base in the Greek community, the club adopted a new name in the mid-1990s – the West Adelaide Sharks. However, the new moniker failed to grow the club's membership and a series of unfortunate incidents pushed the club towards a permanent exit from the national league.
On 9 June 1998 fire destroyed the Sharks' change rooms and some administrative offices at their new Thebarton Oval base. The damage bill was expected to reach $150,000. At a general meeting in September 1998, Sharks members backed the privatisation of the club, endorsing prominent Adelaide Greek Australian businessman Con Makris as its new owner with a 51 pe
Colonies in antiquity
Colonies in antiquity were post-Iron Age city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. Bonds between a colony and its metropolis remained close, took specific forms during the period of classical antiquity. Colonies founded by the ancient Phoenicians, Rome, Alexander the Great and his successors remained tied to their metropolis, but Greek colonies of the Archaic and Classical eras were sovereign and self-governing from their inception. While Greek colonies were founded to solve social unrest in the mother-city, by expelling a part of the population, Roman and Han Chinese colonies were used for expansion and empire-building. An Egyptian colony, stationed in southern Canaan dates to before the First Dynasty. Narmer had Egyptian pottery produced in Canaan and exported back to Egypt, from regions such as Arad, En Besor and Tel ʿErani. Shipbuilding was known to the ancient Egyptians as early as 3000 BC, earlier; the Archaeological Institute of America reports that the earliest dated ship — dating to 3000 BC – may have belonged to Pharaoh Aha.
The Phoenicians were the major trading power in the Mediterranean in the early part of the first millennium BC. They had trading contacts in Egypt and Greece, established colonies as far west as modern Spain, at Gadir. From Gadir the Phoenicians controlled access to the trade routes to Britain; the most famous and successful of Phoenician colonies was founded by settlers from Tyre in 814–813 BC and called Kart-Hadasht, known to history as Carthage. The Carthaginians founded their own colony in the southeast of Spain, Carthago Nova, conquered by their enemy, Rome. According to María Eugenia Aubet, Professor of Archaeology at the Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona: "The earliest presence of Phoenician material in the West is documented within the precinct of the ancient city of Huelva, Spain... The high proportion of Phoenician pottery among the new material found in 1997 in the Plaza de las Monjas in Huelva argues in favour, not of a few first sporadic contacts in the zone, but of a regular presence of Phoenician people from the start of the ninth century BC.
The recent radiocarbon dates from the earliest levels in Carthage situate the founding of this Tyrian colony in the years 835–800 cal BC, which coincides with the dates handed down by Flavius Josephus and Timeus for the founding of the city." In Ancient Greece, a vanquished people would sometimes found a colony, leaving their homes to escape subjection at the hand of a foreign enemy. But in most cases colony-founders aimed to establish and facilitate relations of trade with foreign countries and to further the wealth of the mother-city. Colonies were established in Ionia and Thrace as early as the 8th century BC. More than thirty Greek city-states had multiple colonies, they became dotted across the Mediterranean world, with the most active colony-founding city, Miletus, of the Ionian League, spawning ninety colonies stretching throughout the Mediterranean Sea, from the shores of the Black Sea and Anatolia in the east, to the southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula in the west, as well as several colonies on the Libyan coast of northern Africa, from the late 9th to the 5th centuries BC.
Greeks founded two similar types of colony, one known as an ἀποικία apoikía – a designation reflecting the Greek roots ἀπό + οἶκος – and the other as an ἐμπόριov – emporion. The first type of colony was a city-state on its own; the Greek city-states began establishing colonies around 900 – 800 BC, at first at Al Mina on the coast of Syria and the Greek emporium Pithekoussai at Ischia in the Bay of Naples, both established about 800 BC by Euboeans. Two waves of new colonists set out from Greece at the transition between the "Dark Ages" and the start of the Archaic Period – the first in the early 8th century BC and a second burst of the colonizing spirit in the 6th century. Population growth and cramped spaces at home seem an insufficient explanation, while the economical and political dynamics produced by the competitive spirit between the kingless Greek city-states – newly introduced as a concept and striving to expand their spheres of economical influence – better fits as their true incentive.
Through this Greek expansion the use of coins flourished throughout the Mediterranean Basin. Influential Greek colonies in the western Mediterranean – many of them in today's Italy — included Cyme, Rhegium by Chalcis and Zankle, Syracuse by Corinth/Tenea, Naxos by Chalcis and Agathe by Phokaia and Emporion by Phokaia/Massalia, Antipolis by Achaea, Alalia by Phokaia/Massalia and Cyrene by Thera; the Greeks colonised modern-day Crimea in the Black Sea. The settlements they established there included the city of Chersonesos, at the site of modern-day Sevastopol. Another area with significant Greek colonies was the coast of ancient Illyria on the Adriatic Sea. Cicero remarks on the extensive Greek c
Hellas Planitia is a plain located within the huge circular impact basin Hellas located in the southern hemisphere of the planet Mars. Hellas is the third or fourth largest impact crater and the largest visible impact crater known in the Solar System; the basin floor is about 7,152 m deep, 3,000 m deeper than the Moon's South Pole-Aitken basin, extends about 2,300 km east to west. It is centered at 42.4°S 70.5°E / -42.4. Hellas Planitia is in the Noachis quadrangle. With a diameter of about 2,300 km, it is the largest unambiguous impact structure on the planet. Hellas Planitia is thought to have been formed during the Late Heavy Bombardment period of the Solar System 4.1 to 3.8 billion years ago, when a large asteroid hit the surface. The altitude difference between the rim and the bottom is 9,000 m; the depth of the crater explains the atmospheric pressure at the bottom: 12.4 mbar during the northern summer. This is 103% higher than the pressure at the topographical datum and above the triple point of water, suggesting that the liquid phase could be present under certain conditions of temperature and dissolved salt content.
It has been theorized that a combination of glacial action and explosive boiling may be responsible for gully features in the crater. Some of the low elevation outflow channels extend into Hellas from the volcanic Hadriacus Mons complex to the northeast, two of which Mars Orbiter Camera images show contain gullies: Dao Vallis and Reull Vallis; these gullies are low enough for liquid water to be transient around Martian noon, if the temperature were to rise above 0 Celsius. Hellas Planitia is antipodal to Alba Patera, it and the somewhat smaller Isidis Planitia together are antipodal to the Tharsis Bulge, with its enormous shield volcanoes, while Argyre Planitia is antipodal to Elysium, the other major uplifted region of shield volcanoes on Mars. Whether the shield volcanoes were caused by antipodal impacts like that which produced Hellas, or if it is mere coincidence, is unknown. Due to its size and its light coloring, which contrasts with the rest of the planet, Hellas Planitia was one of the first Martian features discovered from Earth by telescope.
Before Giovanni Schiaparelli gave it the name Hellas, it was known as'Lockyer Land', having been named by Richard Anthony Proctor in 1867 in honor of Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, an English astronomer who, using a 16 cm refractor, produced "the first truthful representation of the planet". Radar images by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft's SHARAD radar sounder suggest that features called lobate debris aprons in three craters in the eastern region of Hellas Planitia are glaciers of water ice lying buried beneath layers of dirt and rock; the buried ice in these craters as measured by SHARAD is about 250 m thick on the upper crater and about 300 m and 450 m on the middle and lower levels respectively. Scientists believe that snow and ice accumulated on higher topography, flowed downhill, is now protected from sublimation by a layer of rock debris and dust. Furrows and ridges on the surface were caused by deforming ice; the shapes of many features in Hellas Planitia and other parts of Mars are suggestive of glaciers, as the surface looks as if movement has taken place.
These flat-lying "cells" appear to have concentric layers or bands, similar to a honeycomb. This "honeycomb" terrain was first discovered in the northwestern part of Hellas; the geologic process responsible for creating these features remains unresolved. Some calculations indicate that this formation may have been caused by ice moving up through the ground in this region; the ice layer would have been between 1 km thick. When one substance moves up through another denser substance, it is called a diapir. So, it seems. After erosion removed the top of the layered domes, circular features remained. Hellas Basin is a primary location in the 2017 video game Destiny 2; the location is part of the game's Warmind downloadable content. It is featured as a main location in the 2016 Bethesda video game reboot Doom; the name is used as one of the signs of emotional disturbance in the protagonist in the short story "The Seat of Learning" in the anthology The Mountain of Long Eyes. Antoniadi, E. M; the Hourglass Sea on Mars, July 1, 1897, pp. 169–172.
Grotzinger, J. and R. Milliken. 2012. Sedimentary Geology of Mars. SEPM. Lockyer, J. N. Observations on the Planet Mars, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 23, p. 246 The Hellas Of Catastroph, Peter Ravenscroft, 2000-08-16, Space Daily Google Mars scrollable map - centered on Hellas Martian Ice - Jim Secosky - 16th Annual International Mars Society Convention Lakes on Mars - Nathalie Cabrol
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin; this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea; the Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire. Classical Greek culture philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean Basin and Europe.
For this reason, Classical Greece is considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Greek culture gave great importance to knowledge. Science and religion were not separate and getting closer to the truth meant getting closer to the gods. In this context, they understood the importance of mathematics as an instrument for obtaining more reliable knowledge. Greek culture, in a few centuries and with a limited population, managed to explore and make progress in many fields of science, mathematics and knowledge in general. Classical antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC and ended in the 6th century AD. Classical antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. Following the Dark Ages was the Archaic Period, beginning around the 8th century BC.
The Archaic Period saw early developments in Greek culture and society which formed the basis for the Classical Period. After the Archaic Period, the Classical Period in Greece is conventionally considered to have lasted from the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 until the death of Alexander the Great in 323; the period is characterized by a style, considered by observers to be exemplary, i.e. "classical", as shown in the Parthenon, for instance. Politically, the Classical Period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century, but displaced by Spartan hegemony during the early 4th century BC, before power shifted to Thebes and the Boeotian League and to the League of Corinth led by Macedon; this period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon. Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East; this period ends with the Roman conquest. Roman Greece is considered to be the period between Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330.
Late Antiquity refers to the period of Christianization during the 4th to early 6th centuries AD, sometimes taken to be complete with the closure of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I in 529. The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography, while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals or king lists, pragmatic epigraphy. Herodotus is known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Written between the 450s and 420s BC, Herodotus' work reaches about a century into the past, discussing 6th century historical figures such as Darius I of Persia, Cambyses II and Psamtik III, alluding to some 8th century ones such as Candaules. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes and Aristotle. Most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities.
Their scope is further limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic and social history. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Objects with Phoenician writing on them may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern dictated by Greek geography: every island and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges; the Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period. It was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, though Chalcis was the nominal victor.
A mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC. This
Continental Greece, colloquially known as Roúmeli, is a traditional geographic region of Greece. In English the area is called Central Greece, but the equivalent Greek term is more used, it includes the southern part of the Greek mainland, as well as the offshore island of Euboea. Since 1987, its territory has been divided among the administrative regions of Central Greece and Attica, the regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania in the administrative region of Western Greece; the region has traditionally been known as Roúmeli, a name deriving from the Turkish word Rūm-eli, meaning "the land of the Rūm " and encompassing all of the Ottoman Empire's European possessions. The official name Stereá Elláda, derives from the juxtaposition with the Peloponnese peninsula across the Corinthian Gulf, the fact that these two territories formed the independent First Hellenic Republic after the Greek War of Independence. Central Greece is the most populous geographical region of Greece, with a population of 4,591,568 people, covers an area of 24,818.3 km², making it the second largest of the country.
It is located to the north of the Peloponnese and to the south of Thessaly and Epirus, bordering the Aegean Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the west and the Corinthian Gulf to the south. Its climate is temperate along its coastlines, dry in the interior; the region is one of the most mountainous in Greece, having some of the highest elevations in the country. Central Greece has some of the largest lakes in Greece; some important and well-known rivers of Central Greece are the Acheloos in Aetolia-Acarnania, the second longest of the country, the Spercheios in Phthiotis, the Evenus in Aetolia-Acarnania, the Mornos in Phocis. The principal cities of the region of Central Greece according to the census of 2001 are: Athens 3,130,841 3,761,810 Lamia58,601Agrinio57,147Chalkida53,584Thebes21,211Livadeia20,061 Roumelian dances tend to be slow and controlled; the clarinet is the main instrument in this region. The main dances of this region are tsamikos and kleftiko, both influenced by the Arvanites of the region.
Achaea Phthiotis or Phthiotis was a historical region of ancient Thessaly in ancient Greece. It lay between Mount Othrys and the northern shore of the Pagasetic Gulf. Inhabited by perioikoi, it was formally not a part of Thessaly proper but a Thessalian dependency, had a seat of its own in the Delphic Amphictyony. From 363 BC it split away during the Lamian War. In the 3rd century BC it became a member of the Aetolian League, until declared free and autonomous by the Roman Republic in 196 BC, following the Second Macedonian War, re-incorporated into Thessaly. Phthiotis was inhabited by the Achaean Phthiotae, under which name they are mentioned as members of the Amphictyonic League; this district, according to Strabo, included the southern part of Thessaly, extending from the Maliac Gulf on the east, to Dolopia and Mount Pindus on the west, stretching as far north as Pharsalus and the Thessalian plains. Phthiotis derived its name from the Homeric Phthia, which appears to have included in the heroic times not only Hellas and Dolopia, expressly called the furthest part of Phthia, but the southern portion of the Thessalian plain, since it is probable that Phthia was the ancient name of Pharsalus.
The cities of Phthiotis were: Amphanaeum or Amphanae, on the promontory Pyrrha and on the Pagasaean Gulf. It has given its name to the modern prefecture of Phthiotis; the Phthiotis Prefecture however does not include it. Historical Phthiotis is today part of Magnesia Prefecture