Martin B-26 Marauder
The Martin B-26 Marauder is an American World War II twin-engined medium bomber built by the Glenn L. Martin Company in Middle River, Maryland from 1941 to 1945. First used in the Pacific Theater in early 1942, it was used in the Mediterranean Theater and in Western Europe. After entering service with the United States Army aviation units, the aircraft received the reputation of a "Widowmaker" due to the early models' high accident rate during takeoffs and landings; the Marauder had to be flown at exact airspeeds on final runway approach and when one engine was out. The 150 mph speed on short final runway approach was intimidating to pilots who were used to much slower speeds, whenever they slowed down to speeds below what the manual stated, the aircraft would stall and crash; the B-26 became a safer aircraft once crews were retrained, after aerodynamics modifications. The Marauder ended World War II with the lowest loss rate of any USAAF bomber. A total of 5,288 was produced between February 1941 and March 1945.
By the time the United States Air Force was created as an independent military service separate from the United States Army in 1947, all Martin B-26s had been retired from U. S. service. The Douglas A-26 Invader assumed the "B-26" designation — before returning to the earlier "A for Attack" designation in May 1966. In March 1939, the United States Army Air Corps issued Circular Proposal 39-640, a specification for a twin-engined medium bomber with a maximum speed of 350 mph, a range of 3,000 mi and a bomb load of 2,000 lb. On 5 July 1939, the Glenn L. Martin Company submitted its design, produced by a team led by Peyton M. Magruder, to meet the requirement, the Martin Model 179. Martin's design was evaluated as superior to the other proposals and was awarded a contract for 201 aircraft, to be designated B-26; the B-26 went from paper concept to an operational bomber in about 2 years. Additional orders for a further 930 B-26s followed in September 1940, still prior to the first flight of the type.
The B-26 was a shoulder-winged monoplane of all-metal construction, fitted with a tricycle landing gear. It had a streamlined, circular section fuselage housing the crew, consisting of a bombardier in the nose, armed with a.30 in machine gun, a pilot and co-pilot sitting side by side, with positions for the radio operator and navigator behind the pilots. A gunner manned a dorsal turret armed with two.50 in machine guns, an additional.30 in machine gun was fitted in the tail. Two bomb bays were fitted mid-fuselage, capable of carrying 5,800 lb of bombs, although in practice such a bomb load reduced range too much, the aft bomb bay was fitted with additional fuel tanks instead of bombs; the aircraft was powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp radial engines in nacelles slung under the wing, driving four-bladed propellers. The engines were manufactured at the Ford Dearborn Engine plant in Dearborn, Michigan, USA; the wings were of low aspect ratio and small in area for an aircraft of its weight, giving the required high performance, but resulting in a wing loading of 53 lb/sq ft for the initial versions, which at the time was the highest of any aircraft accepted for service by the Army Air Corps.
The first B-26, with Martin test pilot William K. "Ken" Ebel at the controls, flew on 25 November 1940 and was the prototype. Deliveries to the U. S. Army Air Corps began in February 1941 with the second aircraft, 40-1362. In March 1941, the Army Air Corps started Accelerated Service Testing of the B-26 at Patterson Field, near Dayton, Ohio; the B-26's small wing area and resulting high wing loading required a high landing speed of 120 to 135 mph indicated airspeed depending on load. At least two of the earliest B-26s suffered hard landings and damage to the main landing gear, engine mounts and fuselage; the type was grounded in April 1941 to investigate the landing difficulties. Two causes were found: insufficient landing speed and improper weight distribution; the latter was due to the lack of a dorsal turret. Some of the earliest B-26s suffered collapses of the nose landing gear, they were said to be caused by improper weight distribution, but, not to have been the only reason. The incidents occurred during low-speed taxiing and landings, the strut unlocked.
The Martin electric dorsal turret was retrofitted to some of the first B-26s. Martin began testing a taller vertical stabilizer and revised tail gunner's position in 1941; the Pratt & Whitney R-2800-5 engines were reliable, but the Curtiss electric pitch change mechanism in the propellers required impeccable maintenance, not always attainable in the field. Human error and some failures of the mechanism placed the propeller blades in flat pitch resulting in an overspeeding propeller, sometimes known as a "runaway prop". Due to its sound and the possibility that the propeller blades could disintegrate, this situation was frightening for aircrews. More challenging was a loss of power in one engine during takeoff; these and other malfunctions, as well as human error, claimed a number of aircraft and the commanding officer of the 22nd Bombardment Group, Colonel Mark Lewis. The Martin B-26 suffered only two fatal accidents during its first year of flight, from November 1940
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
The Panama Canal is an artificial 82 km waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. The canal is a conduit for maritime trade. Canal locks are at each end to lift ships up to Gatun Lake, an artificial lake created to reduce the amount of excavation work required for the canal, 26 m above sea level, lower the ships at the other end; the original locks are 34 m wide. A third, wider lane of locks was constructed between September 2007 and May 2016; the expanded canal began commercial operation on June 26, 2016. The new locks allow transit of larger, post-Panamax ships, capable of handling more cargo. France began work on the canal in 1881, but stopped due to engineering problems and a high worker mortality rate; the United States took over the project in 1904 and opened the canal on August 15, 1914. One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects undertaken, the Panama Canal shortcut reduced the time for ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, enabling them to avoid the lengthy, hazardous Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of South America via the Drake Passage or Strait of Magellan.
Colombia and the United States controlled the territory surrounding the canal during construction. The US continued to control the canal and surrounding Panama Canal Zone until the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties provided for handover to Panama. After a period of joint American–Panamanian control, in 1999, the canal was taken over by the Panamanian government, it is now operated by the government-owned Panama Canal Authority. Annual traffic has risen from about 1,000 ships in 1914, when the canal opened, to 14,702 vessels in 2008, for a total of 333.7 million Panama Canal/Universal Measurement System tons. By 2012, more than 815,000 vessels had passed through the canal, it takes 11.38 hours to pass through the Panama Canal. The American Society of Civil Engineers has ranked the Panama Canal one of the seven wonders of the modern world; the earliest mention of a canal across the Isthmus of Panama occurred in 1534, when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, ordered a survey for a route through the Americas that would ease the voyage for ships traveling between Spain and Peru.
Such a route would have given the Spanish a military advantage over the Portuguese. In 1668, the English physician and philosopher Sir Thomas Browne speculated in his encyclopaedic endeavour Pseudodoxia Epidemica - "some Isthmus have been eat through by the Sea, others cut by the spade: And if policy would permit, that of Panama in America were most worthy the attempt: it being but few miles over, would open a shorter cut unto the East Indies and China". In 1788, American Thomas Jefferson Minister to France, suggested that the Spanish should build the canal since it would be a less treacherous route for ships than going around the southern tip of South America, that tropical ocean currents would widen the canal thereafter. During an expedition from 1788 to 1793, Alessandro Malaspina outlined plans for its construction. Given the strategic location of Panama and the potential offered by its narrow isthmus separating two great oceans, other trade links in the area were attempted over the years.
The ill-fated Darien scheme was launched by the Kingdom of Scotland in 1698 to set up an overland trade route. Inhospitable conditions thwarted the effort and it was abandoned in April 1700. Numerous canals were built in other countries in the late early 19th centuries; the success of the Erie Canal in the United States in the 1820s and the collapse of the Spanish Empire in Latin America led to a surge of American interest in building an inter-oceanic canal. Beginning in 1826, US officials began negotiations with Gran Colombia, hoping to gain a concession for the building of a canal. Jealous of their newly obtained independence and fearing that they would be dominated by an American presence, the president Simón Bolívar and New Granada officials declined American offers; the new nation was politically unstable, Panama rebelled several times during the 19th century. Another effort was made in 1843. According to the New York Daily Tribune, August 24, 1843, a contract was entered into by Barings of London and the Republic of New Granada for the construction of a canal across the Isthmus of Darien.
They referred to it as the Atlantic and Pacific Canal, it was a wholly British endeavor. It was expected to be completed in five years. At nearly the same time, other ideas were floated, including a canal across Mexico's Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Nothing came of that plan, either. In 1846, the Mallarino–Bidlack Treaty, negotiated between the US and New Granada, granted the United States transit rights and the right to intervene militarily in the isthmus. In 1848, the discovery of gold in California, on the West Coast of the United States, created great interest in a crossing between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. William H. Aspinwall, the man who won the federal subsidy for the building and operating the Pacific mail steamships at around the same time, benefited from this discovery. Aspinwall's route included steamship legs from New York City to Panama and from Panama to California, with an overland portage through Panama; the route between California and Panama was soon traveled, as it provided one of the fastest links between San Francisco and the East Coast cities, about 40 days' transit in total.
Nearly all the gold, shipped out of California went by the fast Panama route. Several new and larger paddle steamers were soon plying
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, signed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It was the result of concerted action by Los Angeles-area businessmen and property owners who were concerned by the harm being done to the watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains by ranchers and miners. Abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing 190 million acres of land; these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the mountain ranges of the Western United States.
Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands. The U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two distinctly different types of forests within the National Forest system; those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were acquired by the federal government since 1891, may be second growth forests. The land had long been in the private domain and sometimes logged since colonial times, but was purchased by the United States government in order to create new National Forests; those west of the Great Plains in the Western United States, though established since 1891, are on lands with ownership maintained by the federal government since the U. S. acquisition and settling of the American West. These are lands that were kept in the public domain, with the exception of inholdings and donated or exchanged private forest lands. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection and recreation.
Unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, in many cases encouraged. However, the first-designated wilderness areas, some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands; these conflicts center on endangered species protection, logging of old-growth forests, intensive clear cut logging, undervalued stumpage fees, mining operations and mining claim laws, logging/mining access road-building within National Forests. Additional conflicts arise from concerns that the grasslands and forest understory are grazed by sheep, and, more rising numbers of elk and mule deer due to loss of predators. Many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests. List of U. S. National Forests United States National Grassland National Forests of the United States topics State forest National Forest Management Act of 1976 Protected areas of the United States USDA Forest Service USDA Forest Service - The First Century 100 Years of Federal Forestry
Camp Merritt, New Jersey
Camp Merritt was a military base in Dumont and Cresskill, in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States, activated for use in World War I. It had a capacity for 38,000 transient troops and was one of three camps directly under the control of the New York Port of Embarkation. From this camp troops marched to board ferryboats at Old Closter Dock, Alpine Landing that took them to the piers at Hoboken, New Jersey to board troop transports for Europe. Four million troops were sent to the Western Front during World War I, about one million of them passed through Camp Merritt. Camp Merritt was decommissioned in 1919. Camp Merritt was named Camp Tenafly; the camp was first named Camp Tenafly because all previous communication and negotiation concerning the building of the military post were completed in the town of Tenafly, New Jersey. The camp was named in honor of Major General Wesley Merritt. General Merritt from New York State dedicated most of his life to the armed services. General Merritt served the United States throughout the Civil War, Indian campaigns, the Spanish War.
He participated in several major battles including Battle of Gettysburg, Battle of Yellow Tavern, Battle of Hall’s Shop, Battle of Winchester, Five Fork’s. At the age of 27 he was made a full Major General of volunteers. After making his way through the ranks and receiving high positions including Superintendent of the Military Academy at West Point, Governor General of the Philippines, other prestigious positions. Wesley retired from his long reign in the military in 1900. Ten years General Merritt died and was buried at West Point with full military honors; the United States army needed a location to assemble and for the deployment of troops to the Western Front during World War I. In 1917, Brigadier-General William Wright, Commanding General of the New York Port of Embarkation, chose the location in Bergen County on Knickerbocker road and Grant Avenue. Camp Merritt was strategically situated ten miles from New York City; the camp was located between New Jersey. The camp was conveniently located between the Erie Railroad in Cresskill and the West Shore Railroad in Dumont.
Some of the resourceful aspects of the area include the easy method of the sewerage, water supply and railroad connections. The owners of the property on the site agreed to lease their property to the government on terms which the government deemed reasonable; the location of Camp Merritt was ideal because of the easy access to Hoboken from where the soldiers would be embarking on the transports. Troops were transported to Hoboken by ferryboat from Alpine Landing, over an hour's march from the camp, where contingents of 2,000-3,000 men would assemble to board the ferry to the embarkation piers from which they would board the transports for Europe. Construction of Camp Merritt began on August 20, 1917; the original plans called for seven regiments of infantry, six warehouses, miscellaneous buildings, a post hospital with a capacity of five hundred beds. The plans were authorized four months on December 20, 1917; the selected contractors for the job were MacArthur Brothers Company of engineers and contractors of New York.
There were many local carpenters and tradesmen who were hired to work on the camp as well. The camp cost about $11 million to build. Camp Merritt was 770 acres in size, had a capacity of 42,000 men. There were 1,300 buildings on the site. On the 770 acres camp there were a total of 1,302 buildings; the soldier's barracks totaled 611 two-story buildings. Camp Merritt had 165 mess halls, 40 military officer’ quarters, 27 administration buildings, 4 fire stations, 93 hospital buildings, many more. On the camp were four Young Men’s Christian Association buildings and American Red Cross buildings. In the spring of 1918 the Liberty Theatre opened on the camp for the entertainment of the soldiers while staying at Merritt. In addition, Merritt Hall the large soldier’s club on the camp opened on January 30, 1918. Major General David C. Shanks called Merritt Hall “the finest soldiers club in America.” On January 9, 1918 the post hospital was opened. The post hospital had a staff of about 300 nurses; the nurses and doctors treated various cases including anthrax, measles, scarlet fever and the influenza virus.
In the fall of 1918 the influenza epidemic caused devastation. The first person in New Jersey to be diagnosed with influenza was a soldier at Fort Dix. From Fort Dix, the disease spread across the state. By the end of the 1919 wave of influenza 675,000 Americans were dead due to the disease; the influenza pandemic at Camp Merritt began in September 1918. On September 19 fifty-eight soldiers were admitted to the post hospital due to influenza. Three weeks there were 1,000 cases of influenza at Camp Merritt. In addition, there were 265 deaths. Owing to the increasing number of cases some soldiers were sent to local hospitals. Many soldiers became sick during the time. Camp Merritt closed in January 1920; the last troops to arrive to Camp Merritt from overseas while it was still active were on January 26, 1920. Following, the decision to close the camp the U. S. military ordered the camp to be dismantled. The remainder of troops was sent to Fort Dix; the bidding process of Camp Merritt was opened at Washington, D.
C. on December 22, 1919. There were many bids from various corporations; the entire camp was sold to the Harris Brothers Company of Chicago for $552, 524. After Camp Merritt was dismantled for a year the camp underwe
Shawano is a city in Shawano County, United States. The population was 9,305 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Shawano County. The name is from the Chippewa language, meaning "southern". In the related Menominee language it is known as Sāwanoh which means "south". Shawano is located at 44°46′36″N 88°36′7″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.67 square miles, of which, 6.57 square miles is land and 0.10 square miles is water. The city and county jointly operate the Shawano Municipal Airport, located on Shawano Lake; as of the census of 2010, there were 9,305 people, 3,960 households, 2,299 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,416.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,309 housing units at an average density of 655.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.4% White, 0.7% African American, 12.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.1% of the population.
There were 3,960 households of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.9% were non-families. 35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 17% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the city was 39.8 years. 23% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.2% male and 52.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,298 people, 3,432 households, 2,076 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,389.9 per square mile. There were 3,587 housing units at an average density of 600.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.03% White, 0.33% African American, 7.88% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.55% from other races, 1.54% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.61% of the population. There were 3,432 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.8% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.5% were non-families. 34.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.91. 24.0% of the population was under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 20.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,546, the median income for a family was $41,241. Males had a median income of $30,709 versus $19,905 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,380. About 8.9% of families and 9.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over.
The Wisconsin Towns Association has its headquarters in Shawano. Shawano is a member of Shawano County Economic Progress, Inc. a countywide economic development organization. Shawano was ranked by NerdWallet as the 10th best place to start a business in Wisconsin. City of Shawano Sanborn fire insurance maps: 1894 1901 1907 1913