Helmet of Coțofenești

The Golden Helmet of Coțofenești is a Geto-Dacian helmet dating from the first half of the 4th century BC. In 1929, a child named Traian Simion uncovered the helmet by chance on the territory of the village of Poiana Coțofenești, Prahova County, Romania, in the location called "Vârful Fundăturii". Thereupon, Ioan Andrieșescu, professor of Prehistory at the Bucharest University, conducted a thorough investigation at the site; the team of archaeologists noticed that helmet was not part of a gold treasure or grave but it was part of a local Geto-Dacian La Tène settlement. Archaeologists concluded that the helmet was a stray find, as only a few late Hallstatt pottery fragments were found, some of them wheeled; the helmet is kept at the National History Museum of Romania. A kilogram heavy, the gold helmet is well preserved, missing only the part of its skull cap; the form of the helmet and its decorations reveal the autochthonous character of this Geto-Dacian artwork. The helmet is decorated with large studs on the top of the skull and two large apotropaic eyes, meant to ward off the evil eye and magic spells.

It was established that it belonged to an unknown local Geto-Dacian king or to a local aristocratic noble, from around year 400 BC. One theory — without any poof, however — is that this item was the sacred helmet of Zalmoxis, the living god-prophet of the Dacians. Helmet decorations depict a range of mythical creatures, an illustration, on either cheek-piece, of a ritual enactment; the cheek-pieces of the Poiana-Coțofenești helmet show a ram being sacrificed by a man who kneels on its body and is about to cut its throat with a short knife. The iconography on the right side of the helmet is of a great interest, has been interpreted in light of the tauroctony scene from the Mithraic Mysteries. Environment and affluence might well account for a change to a larger beast in the species offered and a similar interpretation of a bull-slaying episode; this sacrifice of the ram might have been performed by the "king-priest-god". The pair of Voracious Beasts on the Coţofeneşti neck-guard occupy a lower register along with a similar creature deprived of a victim’s leg.

This motif of the "Voracious Beast" is found earlier in Assyrian art, was popular among the Etruscans. Phoenicia was the intermediary for its transferral to Italy and around the Adriatic, but Voracious Beast must have traveled through Asia Minor to appear in a North Thracian idiom not only on the Coţofeneşti neck-guard but in high relief on the base of the Aghighiol beakers; the upper register displays a row of three seated or squatting winged creatures, rather monkey-like with human faces, long forearms, long tails. These, are direct, if run-down, descendants of the sphinxes on a gold beaker from Amlash; the eyes on a Greek battle-shield may be designated to ward off evil blows, but once translated onto a helmet, above the eyes of a North Thracian noble who wore it, could mean "I see twice as well, I have eyes like my hawk". The Thracian gold and silversmiths who manufactured the objects were aware of other contemporary art styles — those of Scythia, northeast Italy and now modern Slovenia were known through trade and meetings — and they adapted conventions of representation suitable for their own purposes.

The meaning of these motifs was no doubt context-specific. The decorations such as rosette, triangles and others are specific Geto-Dacian art motifs; the scene of sacrifice the ram is an oriental Iranian theme that entered in the Greek art and from there in the ‘barbarian’ art. Therefore, the helmet seems to have been realized in a Greek workshop. But, in the same time the awkward technique of execution that contrasts with the perfect technique of a Greek craftsman points out to an autochthonous one. A replica of the helmet appeared in the 1967 historical movie Dacii by Sergiu Nicolaescu, though it took place at least 500 years after the period to which the helmet has been dated. Worn by the Dacian king Decebalus, the movie helmet had a flat top, an inaccuracy that entered the vernacular of popular culture; the comic strips "Din zori de istorie", published in late 1970s in "Cutezătorii" magazine, written by Vasile Mănuceanu and drawn by Albin Stănescu depicts the helmet with a flat top. It is worn by the Getian king Odrix during the conflict with the Persian king Darius I who in 513 BC was campaigning against the Scythians.

The action takes place within the period that produced the original helmet. A similar comic strip written by Vasile Mănuceanu and drawn by Sandu Florea depicts the king Burebista wearing the helmet as well. Getae Archaeology at Coţofeneşti - cIMeC' Digital Archives of Archaeology Synthesis of the monography of Dumbrăveşti commune - Includes a detailed account of the discovery Article on the helmet Helmet in the comic strips "Din zori de istorie", published in "Cutezătorii" magazine The helmet in 3D by 88millimeters Gold and Silver Armour of the Getian-Dacian Elite. Military Equipment and Organization. Thracian beaker with birds and animals at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Metal Box

Metal Box is the second album by Public Image Ltd, released by Virgin Records on 23 November 1979. The album takes its name from the round metal canister which contained the initial pressings of the record, it was reissued in standard vinyl packaging as Second Edition in February 1980 by Virgin Records in the United Kingdom, by Warner Bros. Records and Island Records in the United States; the album was a departure from PiL's 1978 debut First Issue, with the band moving into a more avant-garde sound characterised by John Lydon's cryptic lyrics, propulsive dub-inspired rhythms led by bassist Jah Wobble, an abrasive, "metallic" guitar sound developed by guitarist Keith Levene. Metal Box is regarded as a landmark of post-punk. In 2012, the album was ranked number 461 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Metal Box was recorded in several sessions with several different drummers, none of whom were credited on the original release. "Albatross" and "Swan Lake"/"Death Disco" were recorded with new drummer David Humphrey at The Manor Studio in Shipton-on-Cherwell.

"Poptones" was recorded with Levene on drums. During this time, additional tracks were recorded at Townhouse Studios in London, namely "Beat the Drum for Me", a new version of "Fodderstompf". Humphrey left the band around mid-May 1979. "Memories", "No Birds", "Socialist" and "Chant" were recorded with new drummer Richard Dudanski at Townhouse Studios in London. The instrumental "Graveyard" was recorded at Rollerball Rehearsal Studios in Bermondsey, PiL's rehearsal studio, with Dudanski. For the B-side of PIL's "Memories" single vocals were added at The Manor and the track re-titled to "Another". Dudanski left the band around mid-September 1979. "The Suit" was recorded as a solo track by Jah Wobble at Gooseberry Sound Studios in London. Vocals and some overdubs were added at The Manor. "Careering" was recorded at Townhouse Studios with Wobble on drums. "Bad Baby" was recorded with new drummer Martin Atkins at Townhouse Studios. Except for a brief period during 1980, Atkins remained with the band until 1985.

"Radio 4" was recorded as a solo piece by Keith Levene at Advision Studios and an unknown second studio. According to Levene, this was the last recorded track. Levene utilized aluminium Veleno guitars throughout the recording sessions to achieve a distinctively sharp and metallic guitar sound. According to John Lydon, opener "Albatross'" was recorded live at The Manor Studio in Oxfordshire, with the singer free-forming his lyrics. Guitarist Keith Levene, bassist Jah Wobble, session drummer David Humphrey made the song up as they went along, recorded the song in one take. PiL recorded at Townhouse Studios in West London with session drummer Richard Dudanski and produced the songs "Memories", "No Birds", "Socialist", "Chant". I was fond of that I just had the guitar going through an Electric Mistress.""Death Disco" – released as a single in late June 1979 – was rerecorded and retitled "Swan Lake" for Metal Box. "I realised," said Levene, "that this tune that I was bastardising by mistake was'Swan Lake', so I started playing it on purpose but I was doing it from memory.

You can hear that I'm not playing it right. It just worked. There's a few versions of that; the one on Metal Box is version two, different from the simpler, original 12-inch version." The lyrics are based on Lydon's mother dying of cancer: "When I had to deal with my mother's death, which upset the fuck out of me, I did it through music. I had to watch her die of cancer for a whole year. I wrote'Death Disco' about that. I played it to her just before she died and she was happy. That's the Irish in her, nothing drearily sympathetic or weak." PiL recorded the song at an empty hall in Brixton to test a three-bass sound system and worked with drummer Jim Walker but didn't record with him."Poptones" was one of the first songs recorded for the album, according to Levene, who stated that he inadvertently played "Starship Trooper" during the song. According to Lydon, "Poptones" was based on a story "straight out of the Daily Mirror" about a girl, kidnapped and "bundled, into the back of a car by a couple of bad men and driven off into a forest, where they dumped her.

The men had a cassette machine with an unusual tune on the cassette, which they kept playing over and over. The girl remembered the song, that, along with her recollection of the car and the men's voices, is how the police identified them; the police stopped the car and found the cassette was still in the machine, with the same distinctive song on the tape." In his 2009 autobiography Memoirs of a Geezer, Jah Wobble highlighted the song as "the jewel in the PiL crown. That line is as symmetrical as a snowflake. To give him his due Levene went mental for it. We were at The Manor. We had a drummer with us, pretty good but the bloke just couldn't get the right feel for'Poptones'. In the end Levene put the drums down on that track, his drums are a bit loose, but, a good thing."Wobble cited "Careering" as his "second-favourite track from Metal Box, my favourite John Lydon vocal performance." Lyrically, the song is "basically about a gunman, careering as a professional businessman in London." The song was recorded at the Townhouse during a quick nighttime session helmed by Wobble.

North Monaghan (UK Parliament constituency)

North Monaghan was a parliamentary constituency in Ireland, returning one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, from 1885 to 1922. Prior to the 1885 United Kingdom general election the area was part of the Monaghan constituency. From 1922 it was not represented in the UK Parliament; this constituency comprised the northern part of County Monaghan. 1885–1922: The baronies of Dartree and Trough. Healy is elected MP for South Londonderry and opts to sit there, causing a by-election. MacAleese dies. O'Hare resigns. Parliamentary Election Results in Ireland, 1801-1922, edited by B. M. Walker Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "M"