Helmet of Iron Gates

The Helmet of Iron Gates is a Geto-Dacian silver helmet dating from the 4th century BC, housed in the Detroit Institute of Arts, United States. It comes from Iron Gates area, in the Mehedinţi County, Romania, it was in the collection of Franz Tau, Vienna. The helmet is similar to the Helmet of Coţofeneşti, Helmet of Peretu, Helmet of Agighiol and Helmet of Cucuteni-Băiceni, all being ancient Getian gold or silver helmets discovered so far on the territory of Romania, it is referred to as “Iron Gates” as it was dredged out of the Danube in the Iron Gate gorge in 1913 or 1914. But, there is no documentary record of the Iron Gate material before 1931, the year in which the Agighiol burial was discovered containing the helmet nowadays named Agighiol helmet, it is that the so-called Iron Gates material was looted from the Agighiol grave shortly after its opening by local villagers. However, no other grave has been suggested for the "Iron Gate" helmet. And, In fact, it seems that both Agighiol and Iron Gates helmets had been made by the same workshop, or by the same silversmith.

It appears that punchmarks on the helmets had been made by the same tool. The design is sufficiently unusual in ancient art to offer the opportunity to trace it to its origin, thereby, provide some insight into the elements that went into the formation of early Dacian art and the means by which ancient Oriental motifs survived and were transmitted into Europe. Identical in decoration and details of craftsmanship are the two silver beakers, now in Bucharest and New York, that reputedly came from the region of the Iron Gates; the other designs chased on the helmet are within the Scythian sphere. The helmet type is related to and a little earlier in date than the gold helmet in Bucharest which shows some Sarmatian aspects. Lacking evidence of comparable helmets in the Scythian homeland, we may assign this helmet to a local development of a helmet type found in Kuban dating in the early years of the fifth century B. C, with the addition of some Greek features; the most striking feature of the helmet, found in all five Getian helmets is their so-called “apotropaic” eyes, which could have looked out as a second set from above the real eyes of the wearer.

Such eyes were considered to be a borrowing from the Greek world where greaves and shields have eyes that have been considered apotropaic, serving to divert evil. However, it is argued. Besides the eyes, there is the stag depicted with eight legs, interpreted as “I run twice as fast”. Therefore, the “apotropaic eyes” could say: I see twice as well; the motif in question is that of a predatory bird with a great round eye and folded wing, grasping in its enormous claw a hare while a fish dangles from its beak. The beakers that reputedly came from the region of the Iron Gates carry the same eagle-hare motif. Getae Dacia History of Romania Goldman, Bernard. "DACIAN ART AND THE EAGLE-HARE MOTIF". Bericht, International Union of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences. Oxford University Press. Taylor, Timothy. "Flying stags: icons and power in Thracian art pp.117-132". The Archaeology of contextual meanings edited by Ian Hodder. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521329248. DIA helmet Silver Armour of the Getian-Dacian Elite.

Military Equipment and Organization. Article on the helmet

Gary Howard (American football)

Gary Howard is a former American football coach. He served as the head football coach at the University of Central Oklahoma—from 1977 to 2002, compiling a career college football record of 161–106–6, four NAIA playoff appearances, three NCAA Division II playoff appearances, two conference championships, a national championship, he is winningest coach the history of the Central Oklahoma program. Howard was born in Arkansas, he attended Tulsa Central High School in Tulsa, where he played football, basketball under Eddie Sutton. He attended the University of Arkansas and played offensive line and linebacker under Frank Broyles from 1960 to 1963. Howard began his coaching career in 1964 as the offensive line coach at Arkansas. During that season the team won a share of the National Championship. In 1965 and 1966 Howard was an assistant at Del City High School in Oklahoma, he was an assistant coach at Northeastern Oklahoma A&M College in Oklahoma. While at NEO the Norsemen won the 1967 NJCAA National Football Championship.

Prior to the 1968 season, Howard accepted a position at Central State College in Oklahoma. Howard became the defensive coordinator at Central State College in 1968 under Phil Ball. In 1977 Howard succeeded Ball as the head coach, he oversaw the program's transition from a brief period in NCAA Division II back to NAIA competition, as an independent. During the first two seasons Howard's Bronchos went 12–8–1. In 1979, he led the Bronchos to an 11 -- 2 record; the Bronchos lost the NAIA National Championship Game to Texas A&I 20–14. Three years he returned to the playoffs this time winning the NAIA National Championship over Mesa State 14–11. Howard won the NAIA Coach of the Year award; the next season the Bronchos returned to the playoffs but lost to Saginaw Valley State in the first round. In 1985 the Bronchos lost in the first round to Henderson State in the institution's final NAIA playoff appearance. In 1988 the Bronchos re-joined the NCAA; the Bronchos struggled for several seasons including a 0–10–1 record in 1989.

In 1996 the renamed Central Oklahoma Bronchos posted a 9–3 record, finished second in the Lone Star Conference, made the program's first appearance in the NCAA Division II playoffs. The first game against Chadron State ended in a Broncho victory; the Bronchos lost in the second round against UC Davis. The next season the Lone Star Conference underwent conference expansion, adding schools from Arkansas and Oklahoma, split into two divisions; the first year of the new format the Bronchos captured the North Division title, Howard won the North Division coach of the year award. In 1998 the Bronchos finished the regular season undefeated, won their first Lone Star Conference Championship. However, in the NCAA playoffs the UCO lost in the second round to conference foe Texas A&M–Kingsville. In 2000 TAMU–K forfeited their entire 1998 season following NCAA infractions. In 1999 the Bronchos won the Conference title; the final three years experienced a decline of a 5–5, 3–8, 5–6 records. Howard was fired after the 2002 season.

He finished with an overall record of 161–106–6. Howard is married. Central Oklahoma profile

Ian D. Clark (civil servant)

Ian D. Clark, is an Adjunct Professor at the University of Victoria, a senior fellow in the Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy at the University of Toronto, a Canadian former civil servant, former president of the Council of Ontario Universities. Clark completed a Bachelor of Science from the University of British Columbia in 1966, a DPhil from the University of Oxford in 1969, a Master of Public Policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University in 1972, his career in the Canadian Public Service has included positions at the Privy Council Office, Department of Consumer and Corporate Affairs, concluded as Secretary of the Treasury Board of Canada in 1994. Clark is past chair of Statistics Canada’s National Advisory Committee on Post-secondary Education Statistics and the Departmental Audit Committee for Indigenous Affairs and Northern Development Canada, he is a member of the editorial board of the Canadian Public Administration Journal. Clark served as an Executive Director at the International Monetary Fund and as President of the Council of Ontario Universities from 1998 to 2007.

From 2007-2019, he was a professor at the University of Toronto School of Public Policy and Governance where he is a senior fellow. In 2018, Clark became an Adjunct Professor in the School of Public Administration at University of Victoria. In May 2009, he was made a Member of the Order of Canada for his contributions to "further Canadian public policy and education". Clark is co-author of Academic Reform: Policy Options for Improving the Quality and Cost-Effectiveness of Undergraduate Education in Ontario and Academic Transformation: The Forces Reshaping Higher Education in Ontario, both published by McGill-Queen’s University Press. Along with Leslie A. Pal, Ian Clark is the co-creator of the Atlas of Public Management, an online encyclopedia of public policy concepts and resources that began in 2008 as a multi-year research project funded by the Government of Canada. Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy Profile Atlas of Public Management Academic Reform Academic Transformation Ian Clark's Website