The Amenthes quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Research Program. The Amenthes quadrangle is referred to as MC-14, the quadrangle covers the area from 225° to 270° west longitude and from 0° to 30° north latitude on Mars. Amenthes quadrangle contains parts of Utopia Planitia, Isidis Planitia, Terra Cimmeria, the name Amenthes is the Egyptian word for the place where the souls of the dead go. This quadrangle contains the Isidis basin, a location where magnesium carbonate was found by MRO and this mineral indicates that water was present and that it was not acidic. There are Dark slope streaks and river valleys in this quadrangle, the Beagle 2 lander was about to land in the quadrangle, particularly in the eastern part of Isidis Planitia, in December 2003, when contact with the craft was lost. In January 2015, NASA reported the Beagle 2 had been found on the surface in Isidis Planitia, high-resolution images captured by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter identified the lost probe, which appears to be intact.
Some craters in the Amenthes region show ejecta around them that have lobes and it is believed that the lobed shape is caused by an impact into water or ice logged ground. Calculations suggest that ice is stable beneath the Martian surface, at the equator the stable layer of ice might lie under as much as 1 kilometer of material, but at higher latitudes the ice may be just a few centimeters below the surface. This was proven when the landing rockets on the Phoenix lander blew away surface dust to reveal an ice surface, the larger an impact crater, the deeper its penetration, a large crater is more likely to have a lobate ejecta since it went down to the ice layer. When even small craters have lobes, the ice level is close to the surface and this idea would be very important for future colonists on Mars who would like to live near a source of water. Impact craters generally have a rim with ejecta around them, in contrast volcanic craters usually do not have a rim or ejecta deposits, since the collision that produces a crater is like a powerful explosion, rocks from deep underground are tossed unto the surface.
Hence, craters can show us what lies deep under the surface, the density of impact craters is used to determine the surface ages of Mars and other solar system bodies. The older the surface, the more craters present, crater shapes can reveal the presence of ground ice. The area around craters may be rich in minerals, on Mars, heat from the impact melts ice in the ground. Water from the melting ice dissolves minerals, and them in cracks or faults that were produced with the impact. This process, called hydrothermal alteration, is a way in which ore deposits are produced. The area around Martian craters may be rich in useful ores for the colonization of Mars. Studies on the earth have documented that cracks are produced and that secondary minerals veins are deposited in the cracks, images from satellites orbiting Mars have detected cracks near impact craters
The Arabia quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Research Program. The Arabia quadrangle is referred to as MC-12, the quadrangle contains part of the classic area of Mars known as Arabia. It contains a part of Terra Sabaea and a part of Meridiani Planum. It lies on the boundary between the northern plains and the old southern highlands. The quadrangle covers the area from 315° to 360° west longitude, the surface of the Arabia quadrangle appears to be very old because it has a high density of craters, but it is not near as high in elevation as typical old surfaces. On Mars the oldest areas contain the most craters, the oldest period is called Noachian after the quadrangle Noachis, the Arabia area contains many buttes and ridges. Some believe that during certain climate changes an ice-dust layer was deposited, some outflow channels are found in Arabia, namely Naktong Vallis, Locras Valles, Indus Vallis, Scamander Vallis, and Cusus Valles.
Many places in Arabia are shaped into layers, the layers can be a few meters thick or tens of meters thick. On Earth, similar changes of climate results in ice-age cycles, a recent study of layers in craters in western Arabia revealed much about the history of the layers. Although the craters in this study are just outside the boundary for the Arabia quadrangle the findings would probably apply to the Arabia quadrangle as well, the thickness of each layer may average less than 4 meters in one crater, but 20 meters in another. The pattern of layers measured in Becquerel crater, suggests that each layer was formed over a period of about 100,000 years, every 10 layers were bundled together into larger units. The 10-layer pattern is repeated at least 10 times, so every 10-layer pattern took one-million years to form. The tilt of the Earths axis changes by only a more than 2 degrees. In contrast Marss tilt varies by tens of degrees, when the tilt is low, the poles are the coldest places on the planet, while the equator is the warmest—as on Earth.
This causes gases in the atmosphere, like water and carbon dioxide, to migrate pole ward, when the obliquity is higher, the poles receive more sunlight, causing those materials to migrate away. When carbon dioxide moves from the poles, the pressure increases, maybe causing a difference in the ability of winds to transport. Also, with water in the atmosphere sand grains may stick. This study of the thickness of layers was done using stereo topographic maps obtained by processing data from the high-resolution camera onboard NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, recent research leads scientists to believe that some of the craters in Arabia may have held huge lakes
The Argyre quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Research Program. The Argyre quadrangle is referred to as MC-26 and it contains Argyre Planitia and part of Noachis Terra. The word Argyre is named after a silver at the mouth of the Ganges--[Arakan. The Argyre quadrangle covers the area from 0° to 60° west longitude and it contains Galle crater, which resembles a smiley face and the Argyre basin, a giant impact crater. Research published in the journal Icarus has found pits in Hale Crater that are caused by hot ejecta falling on ground containing ice, the pits are formed by heat forming steam that rushes out from groups of pits simultaneously, thereby blowing away from the pit ejecta. Many steep slopes in this quadrangle contain gullies, which are believed to have formed by recent flows of water. Gullies are common in some latitude bands on Mars, martian gullies are found on the walls of craters or troughs, but Charitum Montes, a group of mountains, has gullies in some areas.
Gullies occur on slopes, especially on the walls of craters. Gullies are believed to be relatively young because they have few, they lie on top of sand dunes which themselves are considered to be quite young. Usually, each gully has an alcove and apron, some studies have found that gullies occur on slopes that face all directions, others have found that the greater number of gullies are found on poleward facing slopes, especially from 30-44 S. Because of the possibility that liquid water was involved with their formation. Maybe the gullies are where we should go to find life, there is evidence for all three theories. Most of the gully alcove heads occur at the same level, various measurements and calculations show that liquid water could exist in aquifers at the usual depths where gullies begin. One variation of model is that rising hot magma could have melted ice in the ground. Aquifers are layer that allow water to flow and they may consist of porous sandstone. The aquifer layer would be perched on top of another layer that prevents water from going down, because water in an aquifer is prevented from going down, the only direction the trapped water can flow is horizontally.
Eventually, water could flow out onto the surface when the aquifer reaches a break—like a crater wall, the resulting flow of water could erode the wall to create gullies. Aquifers are quite common on Earth, a good example is Weeping Rock in Zion National Park Utah
Olympia Undae is a vast dune field in the north polar region of the planet Mars. It consists of a sand sea or erg that partly rings the north polar plateau from about 120° to 240°E longitude. Stretching about 1,100 km across and covering an area of 470,000 km2 and it is similar in size to the Rub Al Khali in the Arabian Peninsula, the largest active erg on Earth. Olympia Undae lies within the informally named Borealis basin, the largest of three topographic basins that occur in the lowlands of Mars. The average elevation in Olympia Undae is about 4,250 m below datum, unda is a Latin term meaning water, particularly water in motion as waves. The International Astronomical Union adopted the term to describe undulatory, dune-like features on other planets, Olympia Undae contains a variety of dune forms and wind-related depositional features, including sand sheets, transverse dunes, simple barchan dunes, mega-barchans, and complex barchanoid ridges. All of these dune types occur on Earth too, barchans are isolated, crescent-shaped dunes with horns that point downwind.
They occur is areas where sand supply is moderate to low, small simple barchan dunes and large mega-barchans are common at the margins of Olympia Undae and in areas where the sand cover is thin. Barchanoid ridges are broad linear to sinuous sand accumulations and they form through the lateral coalition of individual barchans and indicate increasing sand supply. Where sand is abundant, transverse dunes occur, they are defined as long barchaoid ridges with fairly straight segments that are perpendicular to the wind direction. The majority of dunes in Olympia Undae are transverse dunes and their spacing ranges from 200 to 800 m apart crest to crest, and comparison to terrestrial dunes with similar spacing indicates that they are 10 to 25 m high. On Earth, dunes are produced by saltating grains of sand, the requirement that dunes are produced by saltation allows scientists to determine the likely grain size for the particles making up the dunes in Olympia Undae and other martian dune fields. On Mars, the size most easily moved by wind is about 100 μm in diameter.
The sand in Olympia Undae is extremely dark in color and probably consists of rock fragments. The surface of Olympia Undae has a strong TES Type 2 spectral signature, in 2005, the OMEGA instrument on the Mars Express orbiter detected high concentrations of gypsum in the eastern portion of Olympia Undae. CRISM data from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter suggests that the gypsum is more concentrated along the crests of dunes than in the interdune hollows, the source of the gypsum is uncertain. Gypsum is a mineral that precipitates from saline water, thus. The mineral may have formed through the melting of snow, or the melting
Arabia Terra is a large upland region in the north of Mars in that lies mostly in the Arabia quadrangle, but a small part is in the Mare Acidalium quadrangle. It is densely cratered and heavily eroded and this battered topography indicates great age, and Arabia Terra is presumed to be one of the oldest terrains on the planet. It covers as much as 4,500 km at its longest extent, alongside its many craters, canyons wind through the Arabia Terra, many emptying into the large northern lowlands of the planet, which borders Arabia Terra to the north. There are some examples of pedestal craters in the area. A pedestal crater has its ejecta above the terrain, often forming a steep cliff. The ejecta forms a resistant layer that protects the material from erosion. Mounds and buttes on the floor of some craters display many layers, the layers may have formed by volcanic processes, by wind, or by underwater deposition. Dark slope streaks have been observed in Tikhonravov Basin, an eroded crater. The streaks appear on steep slopes and change over time, at first they are dark, turn a lighter color, probably by the deposition of fine, light colored dust from the atmosphere.
These streaks are thought to form by dust moving downslope in a way similar to snow avalanches on Earth, Arabia Terra was named in 1879 after a corresponding albedo feature on a map by Giovanni Schiaparelli, who named it in turn after the Arabian peninsula. Research on the region was undertaken in 1997 and the individuality of the better defined. An equatorial belt was noted with a crater age distinctly younger than the part of the province. This was interpreted as an incipient back-arc system provoked by the subduction of Mars lowlands under Arabia Terra during Noachian times, regional fracture patterns were explained in this manner, and the rotational instability of the planet as a cause was not supported. Termed plains-style caldera complexes, these very low relief volcanic features appear to be older than the large Hesperian-age shield volcanoes of Tharsis or Elysium. Eden Patera, for example, is an irregular,55 by 85 km depression up to 1.8 km deep and it contains three linked interior depressions, demarcated by arcuate scarps, that have terraces suggestive of lava lake drainage and faults suggestive of collapse.
The features indicative of impact origin that would be expected in a crater of comparable diameter. The authors regard crustal thinning due to extension to be a more likely explanation for the origin of the volcanic activity than putative subduction. The eruptions would have contributed to the deposits of Arabia Terra
Tempe Terra is a heavily cratered highland region in the northern hemisphere of the planet Mars. Located at the edge of the Tharsis volcanic province, Tempe Terra is notable for its high degree of crustal fracturing. The region contains a number of small shield volcanoes, lava flows. The region is named after the albedo feature Tempe, first used by astronomer E. M. Antoniadi in 1930 to describe a bright patch of terrain centered near 40°N, 70°W. The name comes from the Vale of Tempe, a valley located south of Mount Olympus, the International Astronomical Union formally designated the region Tempe Terra in 1979. Terra is a Latin descriptor term used in geology for continent-like highland regions on other planets. Tempe Terra is located in the half of the Arcadia quadrangle. It is centered at 39. 7°N 289°E /39.7,289, the region extends from about 30° to 54°N and from 265° to 310°E, covering approximately 2.1 million km2, or an area roughly equivalent to that of Saudi Arabia. Tempe Terra occupies a zone between the old, heavily cratered highlands of the Martian south and the geologically younger, lowland terrain of the north.
Tempe Terra contains the northernmost exposures of ancient highland crust on the planet, the region is transected by large numbers of linear to curvilinear normal faults and grabens with ages that span much of Mars geologic history. Research on extension, or rifts in the crust, has suggested Tempa Terra may be the most highly strained geologic region on Mars with a lot of low shield volcanoes, there is evidence of valleys in Tempe Terra, including stream meanders, as in the image below. Martian gullies are small, incised networks of channels and their associated downslope sediment deposits. They are named for their resemblance to terrestrial gullies, first discovered on images from Mars Global Surveyor, they occur on steep slopes, especially on the walls of craters. Usually, each gully has an alcove at its head, a fan-shaped apron at its base. They are believed to be relatively young because they have few, a subclass of gullies is found cut into the faces of sand dunes which themselves considered to be quite young.
However, this remains a topic of active research, the pictures below show a variety of gullies and gully features. Linear ridge networks are found in places on Mars in. These features have been called polygonal ridge networks, boxwork ridges, ridges often appear as mostly straight segments that intersect in a lattice-like manner
Mare Acidalium quadrangle
The Mare Acidalium quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Research Program. The quadrangle is located in the portion of Mars’ western hemisphere and covers 300° to 360° east longitude. The quadrangle uses a Lambert conformal conic projection at a scale of 1,5,000,000. The Mare Acidalium quadrangle is referred to as MC-4, the southern and northern borders of the quadrangle are approximately 3,065 km and 1,500 km wide, respectively. The north to south distance is about 2,050 km, the quadrangle covers an approximate area of 4.9 million square km, or a little over 3% of Mars’ surface area. Most of the region called Acidalia Planitia is found in Acidalium quadrangle, parts of Tempe Terra, Arabia Terra, and Chryse Planitia are in this quadrangle. This area contains many bright spots on a background that may be mud volcanoes. There are some gullies that are believed to have formed by recent flows of liquid water. Mare Acidalium is the name of a telescopic albedo feature located at 45° N, the feature was named for a well or fountain in Boeotia, Greece.
According to classical tradition, it is a location where Venus, the name was approved by the International Astronomical Union in 1958. The quadrangle contains many interesting features, including gullies and possible shorelines of an ancient northern ocean, the boundary between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands lies in Mare Acidalium. The Face on Mars, of great interest to the public, is located near 40.8 degrees north and 9.6 degrees west. When Mars Global Surveyor examined it with high resolution, the turned out to just be an eroded mesa. Mare Acidalium contains the Kasei Valles system of canyons and this huge system is 300 miles wide in some places—Earths Grand Canyon is only 18 miles wide. The HiRISE image below of Acidalia Colles shows gullies in the northern hemisphere, gullies occur on steep slopes, especially craters. Gullies are believed to be relatively young because they have few, if any craters, each gully has an alcove and apron. Although many ideas have been put forward to them, the most popular involve liquid water either coming from an aquifer or left over from old glaciers.
There is evidence for both theories, most of the gully alcove heads occur at the same level, just as one would expect of an aquifer
Terra Cimmeria is a large Martian region, centered at 34. 7°S 145°E / -34.7,145 and covering 5,400 km at its broadest extent. It covers latitudes 15 N to 75 S and longitudes 170 to 260 W and it lies in the Eridania quadrangle. Terra Cimmeria is one part of the heavily cratered, southern region of the planet. The Spirit rover landed near the area, the word Cimmerium comes from an ancient Thracian seafaring people. The land was covered in clouds and mist. A high altitude visual phenomena, probably a condensation cloud, was seen above this region in late March 2012, NASA tried to observe it with some of its Mars orbiters, including the THEMIS instrument on the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft and MARCI on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Terra Cimmeria is the location of gullies that may be due to recent flowing water, gullies occur on steep slopes, especially on the walls of craters. Gullies are believed to be relatively young because they have few, they lie on top of sand dunes which themselves are considered to be quite young.
Usually, each gully has an alcove and apron, some studies have found that gullies occur on slopes that face all directions, others have found that the greater number of gullies are found on poleward facing slopes, especially from 30-44 S. Because of the possibility that liquid water was involved with their formation. Maybe the gullies are where we should go to find life, there is evidence for all three theories. Most of the gully alcove heads occur at the same level, various measurements and calculations show that liquid water could exist in aquifers at the usual depths where gullies begin. One variation of model is that rising hot magma could have melted ice in the ground. Aquifers are layer that allow water to flow and they may consist of porous sandstone. The aquifer layer would be perched on top of another layer that prevents water from going down, because water in an aquifer is prevented from going down, the only direction the trapped water can flow is horizontally. Eventually, water could flow out onto the surface when the aquifer reaches a break—like a crater wall, the resulting flow of water could erode the wall to create gullies.
Aquifers are quite common on Earth, a good example is Weeping Rock in Zion National Park Utah. As for the theory, much of the surface of Mars is covered by a thick smooth mantle that is thought to be a mixture of ice
Argyre Planitia is a plain located within the impact basin Argyre in the southern highlands of Mars. Its name comes from a map produced by Giovanni Schiaparelli in 1877, it refers to Argyre, a mythical island of silver in Greek mythology. Argyre is centered at 49. 7°S316. 0°E / -49.7,316.0, the basin is approximately 1,800 km wide and drops 5.2 km below the surrounding plains, it is the second deepest impact basin on Mars after Hellas. The crater Galle, located on the east rim of Argyre at 51°S 31°W, Argyre is surrounded by rugged massifs which form concentric and radial patterns around the basin. Several mountain ranges are present, including Charitum and Nereidum Montes, four large Noachian epoch channels lie radial to the basin. Three of these channels flowed into Argyre from the south and east through the rim mountains, the fourth, Uzboi Vallis, appears to have flowed out from the basins north rim to the Chryse region and may have drained a lake of melting ice within the basin. A smaller outflow channel named Nia Valles is relatively fresh-looking, and probably formed during the early Amazonian after the major fluvial, the original basin floor is buried with friable, partially deflated layered material that may be lake sediment.
No inner rings are visible, isolated massifs within the basin may be remnants of an inner ring, the impact that formed the Argyre basin probably struck an ice cap or a thick permafrost layer. Energy from the impact melted the ice and formed a giant lake that eventually sent water to the North, the lakess volume was equal to that of Earths Mediterranean Sea. The basin would have supported a regional environment favorable for the origin and this region shows a great deal of evidence of glacial activity with flow features, crevasse-like fractues, eskers, aretes, horns, U-shaped valleys, and terraces. Because of the shapes of Argyre sinuous ridges, the authors agree with previous publications in that they are eskers.6 billion years ago and this stagnant body of ice might have resembled a Piedmont-style glacier comparable to todays Malaspina Glacier in Alaska. Argyre quadrangle Geography of Mars Lakes on Mars List of plains on Mars Uzboi-Landon-Morava Argyre Planitia map at Google Mars Lakes on Mars - Nathalie Cabrol
The Elysium quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Research Program. The Elysium quadrangle is referred to as MC-15, the name Elysium refers to a place of reward, according to Homer in the Odyssey. The Elysium quadrangle covers the area 180° to 225° west longitude, Elysium Planitia is in the Elysium quadrangle. The Elysium quadrangle includes a part of Lucus Planum, a small part of the Medusae Fossae Formation lies in this quadrangle. The largest craters in this quadrangle are Eddie, Elysium contains major volcanoes named Elysium Mons and Albor Tholus and river valleys—one of which, Athabasca Valles may be one of the youngest on Mars. On the east side is a depression called Orcus Patera. A large lake may once have existed in the south near Lethe Valles, the Elysium quadrangle contains the volcanoes Elysium Mons and Albor Tholus. Through crater counting, they found differences in age between the northwest and the southeast regions of Elysium -- about 850 million years of difference and we think levels of thorium and potassium here were depleted over time because of volcanic eruptions over billions of years.
The radioactive elements were the first to go in the early eruptions and we are seeing changes in the mantle chemistry over time. For decades, we saw Mars, as a lifeless rock and we had a very simple view of the red planet. Finding a variety of igneous rocks demonstrates that Mars has the potential for useful resource utilization and its much easier to survive on a complex planetary body bearing the mineral products of complex geology than on a simpler body like the moon or asteroids. Much of the area near the volcanoes is covered with lava flows, some can even be shown approaching, sometimes when lava flows the top cools quickly into a solid crust. However, the lava below often still flows, this breaks up the top layer making it very rough. Such rough flow is called aa, published in January 2010, described the discovery of a vast single lava flow, the size of the state of Oregon, that was put in place turbulently over the span of several weeks at most. This flow, near Athabasca Valles, is the youngest lava flow on Mars and it is thought to be of Late Amazonian Age.
Other researchers disagree with this idea, under Martian conditions lava should not stay fluid very long. Some areas in the Elysium quadrangle are geological young and have surfaces that are hard to explain, some have called them Platy-Ridged-Polygonized terrain. The surface has been suggested to be from pack ice, basalt lava, using HiRISE images the heights of the ridges of the surface were measured