1947–48 Kentucky Wildcats men's basketball team
The 1947–48 Kentucky Wildcats men's basketball team represented University of Kentucky. The head coach was Adolph Rupp; the team played their home games at Alumni Gymnasium. East Kentucky 76, Columbia 53 Final Four Kentucky 60, Holy Cross 52 Championship Kentucky 58, Baylor 42 The 1948-49 Kentucky Wildcats won the National Championship, it was UK's first Title
1908–09 Chicago Maroons men's basketball team
The 1908–09 Chicago Maroons men's basketball team represented the University of Chicago in intercollegiate basketball during the 1908–09 season. The team finished the season with a 12–0 record and was retroactively named the national champion by the Helms Athletic Foundation and the Premo-Porretta Power Poll; this was the third consecutive season for which Chicago was named the Helms national champion. The team played their home games on campus at Frank Dickinson Bartlett Gymnasium. Both Pat Page and John Schommer were named All-Americans, while Schommer was named the Helms Foundation National Player of the Year. For Schommer, it was his fourth consecutive All-American honor. Head Coach: Joseph Raycroft Source John Schommer Helms Foundation National Player of the Year All-American Pat Page All-American
NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament
The NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament known and branded as NCAA March Madness, is a single-elimination tournament played each spring in the United States featuring 68 college basketball teams from the Division I level of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, to determine the national championship. The tournament was created in 1939 by the National Association of Basketball Coaches, was the idea of Ohio State coach Harold Olsen. Played during March, it has become one of the most famous annual sporting events in the United States; the tournament teams include champions from 32 Division I conferences, 36 teams which are awarded at-large berths. These "at-large" teams are chosen by an NCAA selection committee announced in a nationally televised event on the Sunday preceding the "First Four" play-in games held in Dayton and dubbed Selection Sunday; the 68 teams are divided into four regions and organized into a single-elimination "bracket", which pre-determines, when a team wins a game, which team it will face next.
Each team is "seeded", or ranked, within its region from 1 to 16. After the First Four, the tournament occurs during the course of three weekends, at pre-selected neutral sites across the United States. Teams, seeded by rank, proceed through a single-game elimination bracket beginning with a "first four" consisting of 8 low-seeded teams playing in 4 games for a position in the first round the Tuesday and Wednesday before the first round begins, a first round consisting of 64 teams playing in 32 games over the course of a week, the "Sweet Sixteen" and "Elite Eight" rounds the next week and weekend and – for the last weekend of the tournament – the "Final Four" round; the Final Four is played during the first weekend of April. These four teams, one from each region, compete in a preselected location for the national championship; the tournament has been at least televised since 1969. The games are broadcast by CBS, TBS, TNT, truTV under the trade-name NCAA March Madness. Since 2011, all games are available for viewing nationwide and internationally.
As television coverage has grown, so too has the tournament's popularity. Millions of Americans fill out a bracket, attempting to predict the outcome of 63 games of the tournament. With 11 national titles, UCLA has the record for the most NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championships; the University of Kentucky is second, with eight national titles. The University of North Carolina is third, with six national titles, Duke University and Indiana University are tied for fourth with five national titles; the University of Connecticut is sixth with four national titles. The University of Kansas & Villanova are tied for 7th with three national titles. Since 1985, when the tournament expanded to 64 teams, Duke has won five championships; the NCAA has changed the tournament format several times since its inception, most being an increase of the number of teams. This section describes the tournament as it has operated since 2011. A total of 68 teams qualify for the tournament played during April. Thirty-two teams earn automatic bids as their respective conference champions.
Of the 32 Division I "all-sports" conferences, all 32 hold championship tournaments to determine which team receives the automatic qualification. The Ivy League was the last Division I conference. If two or more Ivies shared a regular-season championship, a one-game playoff was used to decide the tournament participant. Since 2017, the league conducts their own postseason tournament; the remaining 36 tournament slots are granted to at-large bids, which are determined by the Selection Committee in a nationally televised event on the Sunday preceding the First Four play-in tournament and dubbed Selection Sunday by the media and fans, by a group of conference commissioners and school athletic directors who are appointed into service by the NCAA. The committee determines where all sixty-eight teams are seeded and placed in the bracket; the tournament is divided into four regions and each region has at least sixteen teams, but four additional teams are added per the decision of the Selection Committee.
The committee is charged with making each of the four regions as close as possible in overall quality of teams from wherever they come from. The names of the regions vary from year to year, are broadly geographic. From 1957 to 1984, the "Mideast" corresponding to the Southeastern region of the United States, designation was used. From 1985 to 1997, the Mideast region was known as "Southeast" and again changed to "South" starting from 1998; the selected names correspond to the location of the four cities hosting the regional finals. From 2004 to 2006, the regions were named after their host cities, e.g. the Phoenix Regional in 2004, the Chicago Regional in 2005, the Minneapolis Regional in 2006, but reverted to the traditional geographic designations beginning in 2007. For example, during 2012, the regions were named South, Midwest (St. Louis, Mis
1932 Summer Olympics
The 1932 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, held from July 30 to August 14, 1932, in Los Angeles, United States. The Games were held during the worldwide Great Depression and some nations were unable to pay for the trip to Los Angeles. U. S. President Herbert Hoover failed to put in an appearance at the Games; the organizing committee did not record the finances of the Games in their report, although contemporary newspapers claimed that the Games had made a profit of US$1,000,000. The selection of the host city for the 1932 Summer Olympics was made at the 23rd IOC Session in Rome, Italy, in 1923. Remarkably, the selection process consisted of a single bid, from Los Angeles, as there were no bids from any other city, Los Angeles was selected by default to host the 1932 Games. An Olympic Village was built in Baldwin Hills, occupied by the male athletes. Female athletes were housed at the Chapman Park Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard; the victory podium was used for the first time.
The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum was known in 1932 as Olympic Stadium. Tenth Street, a major thoroughfare in Los Angeles, was renamed Olympic Boulevard in honor of the Games of the Tenth Olympiad. Babe Didrikson won two gold medals in the hurdles event, she competed in a jump-off for a silver in the high jump. Her technique in the jump-off was ruled leaving Didrikson with second place. Paavo Nurmi was suspended from competition by the IAAF for alleged violation of amateur rules. Finns charged that the Swedish officials had used devious tricks in their campaign against Nurmi's amateur status, ceased all athletic relations with Sweden. A year earlier, controversies on the track and in the press had led Finland to withdraw from the Finland-Sweden athletics international. After Nurmi's suspension, Finland did not agree to return to the event until 1939. In field hockey, only three nations took part; the host nation still won a bronze medal. Poland's Stanisława Walasiewicz won the gold medal in the women's 100 m.
After her death in 1980, it was discovered that she was intersex and would have been ineligible to participate. Eddie Tolan won both the 100 m and 200 m sprint events. Romeo Neri won three gold medals in gymnastics. Helene Madison won three gold medals in swimming, while the Japanese upset the men's events and took all but one title. Takeichi Nishi was the gold medalist with his horse Uranus in the equestrian show jumping individual event. Nishi's gold medal is Japan's only gold medal in the equestrian event to this day. Nishi would die in 1945 as an officer stationed in the defense of the island of Iwo Jima, as such is an important character in Clint Eastwood's film, Letters from Iwo Jima. Kusuo Kitamura won the gold medal in the men's 1500 meter freestyle swimming race, he was and continues to be the youngest male swimmer to win a gold medal at the Olympic Games. Dunc Gray won Australia's first cycling gold medal; the Dunc Gray Velodrome, built for the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games, was named after him.
Due to an official's error, the 3,000 m steeplechase went for one extra lap. 117 events in 20 disciplines, comprising 14 sports, were part of the Olympic program in 1932. In one of two Equestrian jumping events no medals were awarded; the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses. American football Lacrosse The Art competitions at the 1932 Summer Olympics awarded medals for works inspired by sport-related themes in five categories: architecture, music and sculpture. Fifteen sports venues were used for there 1932 Summer Olympics. In order to control cost in the wake of the Great Depression, existing venues were used, they included two golf courses, two city parks, three public highways, a city road. The Swimming Stadium was the only new venue constructed for these games; the Rose Bowl, constructed in 1921, was made into a temporary velodrome for track cycling events under the auspices of the Union Cycliste Internationale. The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, constructed in 1923, was used as the Olympic Stadium.
The Olympic Auditorium was constructed in 1924 in preparation for Los Angeles being awarded the Games. Long Beach Marine Stadium was created in 1925 when Alamitos Bay was dredged further dredged seven years in time for the 1932 Games. Elysian Park, the oldest city park in Los Angeles, was founded in 1886, has been part of the Los Angeles Police Department training academy since 1925; the Riviera Country Club opened in 1926 as the Los Angeles Athletic Club Golf Course and was renamed Riviera by the time of the 1932 Games. The swimming stadium, constructed adjacent to the Coliseum in 1932, was intended to be a temporary structure. Riverside Drive, Los Angeles Avenue, Vineyard Avenue, the Pacific Coast Highway were common driving routes in California at the time of the 1932 Games; the Coliseum was the first home for the Dodgers Major League Baseball team when it moved from Brooklyn, New York in the 1958 season. The following year, it hosted the World Series. Once Dodger Stadium was completed in 1962, the Dodgers moved there.
The Los Angeles Rams National Football League team used the Coliseum as its host stadium from 1946 to 1980 when it moved to Anaheim, located southeast of Los Angeles. It hosted wha
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Pacific Coast League
The Pacific Coast League is a Minor League Baseball league operating in the Western and Southeastern United States. Along with the International League and the Mexican League, it is one of three leagues playing at the Triple-A level, one grade below Major League Baseball, it is named the Pacific Coast League of Professional Baseball Clubs, Inc. Its headquarters are in Texas. Upon its founding in 1903, the Pacific Coast League fielded six teams from the Pacific States of California and Washington. Today, the league is composed of 16 teams across 12 states stretching from Sacramento, California, to Nashville and from Tacoma, Washington, to New Orleans, Louisiana; the PCL was one of the premier regional baseball leagues in the first half of the 20th century. Although it was never recognized as a true major league, to which it aspired, its quality of play was considered high. A number of top stars of the era, including Joe DiMaggio and Ted Williams, were products of the league. In 1958, with the arrival of major league teams on the west coast and the availability of televised major league games, the PCL's modern era began with each team signing Player Development Contracts to become farm teams of major league clubs.
A league champion is determined at the end of every season. The San Francisco Seals won 14 Pacific Coast League titles, the most in the league's history, followed by the Los Angeles Angels and the Albuquerque Dukes and Portland Beavers. After the season, the PCL champion plays in the Triple-A National Championship Game against the International League champion to determine an overall champion of Triple-A baseball; the Omaha Storm Chasers and Sacramento River Cats have each won two national championships, more than any other PCL teams. The Pacific Coast League was formed on December 29, 1902, when officials from the California State League met in San Francisco for the purpose of expanding the league beyond California. Six franchises were granted; these were the Los Angeles Angels, Oakland Oaks, Portland Beavers, Sacramento Senators, San Francisco Seals, Seattle Indians. A dispute over territories owned by the Pacific Northwest League, in which the PCL had placed franchises, the PCL's allowing blacklisted players to compete led to the National Association labeling the PCL as an outlaw league.
The mild climate of the West Coast California, allowed the league to play longer seasons, sometimes starting in late February and ending as late as the beginning of December. During the 1905 season the San Francisco Seals set the all-time PCL record by playing 230 games. Teams played between 170 and 200 games in a season until the late 1950s; this allowed players, who were career minor leaguers, to hone their skills, earn an extra month or two of pay, reduce the need to find off-season work. These longer seasons gave owners the opportunity to generate more revenue. Another outcome was that a number of the all-time minor league records for season statistical totals are held by players from the PCL; the inaugural 1903 season, which consisted of over 200 scheduled games for each team, began on March 26. The Los Angeles Angels finished the season in first place with a 133–78 record, making them the first league champions. In 1904, National Association President Patrick T. Powers brokered terms with the PCL, clearing it of its outlaw status and designating it as a Class A league.
In 1909, the league classification was raised to Double-A. In 1919, with the earlier addition of the Salt Lake Bees and Vernon Tigers, league membership reached eight teams for the first time. While the league had experienced little commercial success up to this point, the 1920s were a turning point which saw increased attendance and teams fielding star players; the Great Depression of the 1930s resulted in a lower quality of play due to the league's salary reduction. Still, a number of top stars, including Joe DiMaggio, Ted Williams, Bobby Doerr, Ox Eckhardt, competed on PCL teams that decade. Helping attendance was the introduction of night games. At Sacramento's Moreing Field, the Sacramento Solons and the Oakland Oaks played the first night baseball game, five years before any major league night game, on June 10, 1930; the Hollywood Stars and San Diego Padres were added to the league in the 1930s as well. During the first half of the 20th century, the Pacific Coast League developed into one of the premier regional baseball leagues.
The cities enfranchised by the other two high-minor leagues, the International League and the American Association, were coordinated geographically with the major leagues, but such was not the case with the PCL. With no major league baseball team existing west of St. Louis, the PCL was unrivaled for American west coast baseball. Although it was never recognized as a true major league, its quality of play was considered high. Drawing from a strong pool of talent in the area, the PCL produced many outstanding players, including such future major-league Hall of Famers as Joe DiMaggio, Ted Williams, Tony Lazzeri, Paul Waner, Earl Averill, Bobby Doerr, Joe Gordon, Ernie Lombardi. Amid success experienced after World War II, league President Pants Rowland began to envision the PCL as a third major league. During 1945 the league voted to become a major league. However, the American League and National League were uninterested in allowing it to join their ranks. While many PCL players went on to play in the major leagues, teams in the league were successful enough that they could offer competitive salaries to avoid being outbid for their players' services.
Some players made a career out of the minor leagues. One of the better known was Frank Shellenback, whose major league pitching career was brief, but
Citizens Financial Group
Several banks are known as Citizens Bank. Citizens Financial Group, Inc. is an American bank headquartered in Providence, Rhode Island, which operates in the states of Connecticut, Maine, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont. Between 1988 and its 2014 initial public offering, Citizens was a wholly owned subsidiary of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group. RBS sold its last 20.9% stake in the company in October 2015. Citizens operates more than 1,200 branches and 3,200 ATMs across 11 states under the Citizens Bank brand. Citizens ranks 23rd on the List of largest banks in the United States. Citizens was established in 1828 as the High Street Bank in Rhode Island. In 1871, the Rhode Island legislature gave a second charter to establish the Citizens Savings Bank which acquired its parent group to form Citizens Trust Company; the bank expanded through Rhode Island, opening a total of 29 branches in that state. It established Citizens Financial Group as a holding company when the bank acquired The Greenville Trust Company in 1954.
In 1985, Citizens changed status from a mutual savings bank to a federal stock savings bank. Expansion into other states began with Massachusetts in 1986. In 1988, Royal Bank of Scotland acquired Citizens. Under RBS ownership, Citizens acquired several smaller banks in New England to become the second largest bank in the region. In 1996, in conjunction with the acquisition of First NH Bank, the Bank of Ireland gained a 23.5% stake in Citizens, which RBS acquired two years to resume 100% ownership. In 1999, Citizens acquired the retail banking business of State Street Corporation increasing its footprint in Boston. Expansion outside New England began in 2001, when RBS purchased the retail banking division of Mellon Financial Corporation in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware for $2 billion. At one stroke, Citizens Bank became the second-largest bank in Pennsylvania, a major bank in both Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. In July 2003, the bank purchased the naming rights to the new home field of the Philadelphia Phillies, named Citizens Bank Park.
On January 17, 2003, Citizens Financial Group purchased Commonwealth Bancorp, the holding company for Commonwealth Bank, based in Norristown, Pennsylvania. In 2004, RBS purchased the credit card division of Connecticut-based People's Bank; this purchase allowed Citizens to market its own credit cards. In August 2004, Citizens Financial acquired Cleveland-based Charter One Financial, parent company of Charter One Bank, with branches in Illinois, Indiana, upstate New York, Vermont for $10.5 billion. Because Citizens Republic Bancorp of Flint, Michigan operated under the Citizens Bank name in most of Charter One's territory, Citizens Financial elected to keep the Charter One name in Charter One's Midwestern footprint. However, it re-branded the New Vermont branches as Citizens Bank; this purchase made Citizens Financial the 12th largest bank in the United States with over $131 billion in assets and 1,530 branches across 13 states. In early 2005, the Charter One name replaced the Citizens Bank banner on seven branches in Butler County, Pennsylvania.
This rebranding resolved a 3½-year-old name dispute with Butler-based Citizens National Bank. By mid 2005, Citizens National and Citizens Financial agreed to a compromise. Citizens National Bank changed its name to NexTier Bank, while the Citizens Financial Group branches reverted to the "Citizens Bank" name. A new corporate logo designed to show Citizens Bank's connection to the Royal Bank of Scotland debuted on April 26, 2005. In July 2006, Citizens Bank eliminated the mortgage department in Michigan and terminated over 100 employees. On September 1, 2007, the individual banks under Citizens Financial Group, excluding Citizens Bank of Pennsylvania, merged into RBS Citizens, N. A. In November 2008, Charter One sold its network of 65 branches in Indiana to Old National Bank which rebranded them under the Old National Bank banner; the transaction closed in June 2010. In 2014, Citizens sold 94 branches in metropolitan Chicago to U. S. Bancorp. Citizens Republic Bancorp was founded in Flint, Michigan in 1871 and merged with Republic Bank in 2006.
In 2007, Citizens Republic prevailed in a case to prevent Citizens Financial from using the similar name in Michigan and Ohio. FirstMerit Bank acquired Citizens Republic in 2013 and rebranded all branches as FirstMerit until 2016 when Huntington Bancshares acquired FirstMerit. With conflicting names no longer an issue, Citizens Bank announced June 30, 2014, that Charter One branches in Michigan and Ohio would be rebranded as Citizens Bank; the name change took place on April 27, 2015, bringing to an end the name Charter One in Cleveland. In May 2008, Citizens Financial Group failed to publicly announce that it was under investigation by the Securities and Exchange Commission for its involvement in the sub-prime mortgage crisis that devastated the U. S. housing market and bond investors around the world. The SEC only investigated banks if suspected of involvement in the purchase and sale of subprime securities. In 2008, the company anticipated writing off $2 billion in bad loans. Royal Bank of Scotland posted the biggest loss in British corporate history and announced cost cutting measures at Citizens.
A Philadelphia developer sued Citizens Bank January 27, 2010, for $8 billion, under a claim that the bank used sham accusations of default to recall loans in an effort to prop up its failing parent companies, Citizens Financial Group and "its ultimate parent, The Royal Bank of Scotland Group." Following the effective nationalization of RBS in 2008, speculation arose as to wheth