International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of language, phonemes, intonation. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a letter, or with a letter plus diacritics. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription, thus, /t/ is less specific than, occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed, or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters,52 diacritics and these are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA.
In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, for example, the sound was originally represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, the idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the International Phonetic Association Kiel Convention in 1989, a minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives. The alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap, apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted largely in renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces.
Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990, the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do hard, the IPA does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as selectiveness. These are organized into a chart, the chart displayed here is the chart as posted at the website of the IPA. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet, for this reason, most letters are either Latin or Greek, or modifications thereof. Some letters are neither, for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a question mark
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland. The main, formal variety is called Scottish Standard English or Standard Scottish English, Scottish Standard English may be defined as the characteristic speech of the professional class and the accepted norm in schools. IETF language tag for Scottish Standard English is en-Scotland, Scottish Standard English is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with focused broad Scots at the other. Scottish English may be influenced to varying degrees by Scots, many Scots speakers separate Scots and Scottish English as different registers depending on social circumstances. Some speakers code switch clearly from one to the other while others style shift in a less predictable, generally there is a shift to Scottish English in formal situations or with individuals of a higher social status. Scottish English results from contact between Scots and the Standard English of England after the 17th century. Furthermore, the process was influenced by interdialectal forms, hypercorrections.
Convention traces the influence of the English of England upon Scots to the 16th-century Reformation, printing arrived in London in 1476, but the first printing press was not introduced to Scotland for another 30 years. Texts such as the Geneva Bible, printed in English, were distributed in Scotland in order to spread Protestant doctrine. King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England in 1603, since England was the larger and richer of the two Kingdoms, James moved his court to London in England. The poets of the court therefore moved south and began adapting the language, to this event McClure attributes he sudden and total eclipse of Scots as a literary language. The continuing absence of a Scots translation of the Bible meant that the translation of King James into English was used in worship in both countries, the Acts of Union 1707 amalgamated the Scottish and English Parliaments. However the church and legal structures remained separate and this leads to important professional distinctions in the definitions of some words and terms.
There are therefore words with precise definitions in Scottish English which have no place in English English or have a different definition. The speech of the classes in Scotland tends to conform to the grammatical norms of the written standard. Highland English is slightly different from the variety spoken in the Lowlands in that it is more phonologically, similarly, the English spoken in the North-East of Scotland tends to follow the phonology and grammar of Doric. Although other dialects have merged non-intervocalic /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /ʌ/ before /r/, many varieties contrast /o/ and /ɔ/ before /r/ so that hoarse and horse are pronounced differently. /or/ and /ur/ are contrasted so that shore and sure are pronounced differently, as are pour, an epenthetic vowel may occur between /r/ and /l/ so that girl and world are two-syllable words for some speakers