Help:IPA/Luxembourgish

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Luxembourgish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Luxembourgish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Luxembourgish.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
Native
b Been [beːn][1] ball
d Iddi [ˈidi][1] done
dz spadséieren [ʃpɑˈdzɜɪ̯əʀən][1][2] heads
f Fësch [fəʃ][1] fuss
ɡ Gitt [ɡit][1] guest
h hei [hɑɪ̯] hut
j Jong [joŋ] yard
k Kiischt [kiːʃt][1] cold
l liesen [ˈliə̯zən] last
m Maul [mæːʊ̯l] must
n Nues [nuə̯s] not
ŋ eng [eŋ] long
p Paart [paːt][1] puck
ʀ Rou [ʀəʊ̯], Comptoir [ˈkõːtwaːʀ][3] No English equivalent
ʁ Kugel [ˈkuːʁəl],[1][4] Parmesan [ˈpɑʁməzaːn][5] Scottish loch (voiced)
s Taass [taːs][1] fast
ɕ liicht [liːɕt], Bieg [biə̯ɕ][1][4] Somewhat like she
ʃ Schnéi [ʃnɜɪ̯][1][4] shall
t Taart [taːt], Jugend [ˈjuːʁənt][1] tall
ts Zuch [tsuχ][1] cats
Brëtsch [bʀətʃ][1] match
v wëschen [ˈvəʃən][1] vanish
w zwee [tsweː][6] we
χ Sprooch [ʃpʀoːχ],[1][4] Force [foχs][5] Scottish loch
z Summer [ˈzumɐ][1] hose
ʑ héijen [ˈhɜɪ̯ʑən][1][4] Somewhat like gilet
ʒ Juli [ˈʒuːliː][1][4] pleasure
Non-native
bv Kampf opginn [ˈkɑmbv‿ˈopɡin][7] obvious
Jeans [dʒiːns][1] jeans
pf Pflicht [pfliɕt] cupful
w Comptoir [ˈkõːtwaːʀ][6] we
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Monophthongs
ɑ Kapp [kɑp] art
Kap [kaːp] Australian bad
æ Käpp [kæp] back
ə Fësch [fəʃ][8] balance
e drécken [ˈdʀekən][8] let
Been [beːn] Scottish pays
ɛː Stär [ʃtɛːə̯][9] bed
i Gitt [ɡit] teach
siwen [ˈziːvən], Kiischt [kiːʃt] tea
o So [zo], Sonn [zon] off
Sprooch [ʃpʀoːχ] law (RP and Australian)
u Hutt [hut] truth
Tut [tuːt], Luucht [luːχt] true
Diphthongs
ɑɪ̯ Gebai [ɡəˈbɑɪ̯], deier [ˈdɑɪ̯ɐ] Australian price
ɑʊ̯ Mauer [ˈmɑʊ̯ɐ] RP mouth
æːɪ̯ räich [ʀæːɪ̯ɕ] Australian day
æːʊ̯ Maul [mæːʊ̯l] Australian now
ɜɪ̯ Schnéi [ʃnɜɪ̯] Somewhat like Scottish price
əʊ̯ Schoul [ʃəʊ̯l] RP goat
iə̯ liesen [ˈliə̯zən] RP pierce
uə̯ Buedem [ˈbuə̯dəm] Traditional RP Kurt
Non-native vowels
ɑ̃ː Chance [ʃɑ̃ːs] No English equivalent, long nasalized [ɑ]
ɛ̃ː Dinde [dɛ̃ːt] No English equivalent, long nasalized [ɛ]
õː Comptoir [ˈkõːtwaːʀ] No English equivalent, long nasalized [o]
oɪ̯ Euro [ˈoɪ̯ʀoː] boy
œ ëffentlech [ˈœfəntləɕ] roughly like hurt
œː Interieur [ˈɛ̃ːtəʀiœːʀ] roughly like herd
øː Blöd [bløːt]
y Hüll [hyl] roughly like shoe, but shorter
Süden [ˈzyːdən] roughly like shoe
R-vocalization[5]
waarm [vaːm] Australian bad
ɐ Mauer [ˈmɑʊ̯ɐ] nut or sofa
ɛːə̯ Stär [ʃtɛːə̯] Traditional RP square
iːə̯ wier [viːə̯] RP pier
oːə̯ Joer [joːə̯] Traditional RP sure
uːə̯ kuerz [kuːə̯ts]
øːə̯ Föhr [føːə̯] roughly like herd
yːə̯ Bad Dürkheim [ˌbaːt ˈdyːə̯khɑɪ̯m] (no English equivalent)
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ Kugel [ˈkuːʁəl] Primary stress, as in deer /ˈdɪər/
ˌ Méckebaatsch [ˈmekəˌbaːtʃ] Secondary stress, as in as in commandeer
/ˌkɒmənˈdɪər/
sech eens [zəʑ‿ˈeːns] Resyllabification and voicing of the
final voiceless obstruent[7]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Word-finally, the voiceless-voiced distinction in the obstruent pairs [p–b, t–d, k–ɡ, ts–dz, tʃ–dʒ, f–v, s–z, ɕ–ʑ, ʃ–ʒ, χ–ʁ] is neutralized, mostly in favor of the voiceless obstruents, but see the table titled Suprasegmentals (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68)).
  2. ^ Phonemic /dz/ occurs only in a few words (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:72))
  3. ^ The /ʀ/ phoneme is realized as a trill [ʀ] when it is prevocalic within the same word and often when it is non-prevocalic in French loanwords (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 71))
  4. ^ a b c d e f Both [ɕ, ʑ] and [χ, ʁ] are allophones of /χ, ʁ/. [χ, ʁ] occur after back vowels, and [ɕ, ʑ] occur in all other environments, but the voiced [ʑ] occurs only in a few words. Speakers increasingly merge [ɕ, ʑ] and [ʃ, ʒ] (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68–69)).
  5. ^ a b c When it is non-prevocalic within the same word, the /ʀ/ phoneme has many allophones:
    • After short vowels, the non-prevocalic /ʀ/ is realized as a fricative, either voiced [ʁ] or voiceless [χ], depending on whether the following consonant is voiced or voiceless.
    • /ʀ/ is fully absorbed into the preceding /aː/ in the non-prevocalic sequence /aːʀ/ and so Paart, Taart and waarm are pronounced [paːt], [taːt] and [vaːm], as if they were spelled Paat, Taat and waam.
    • After long vowels (excluding /aː/), non-prevocalic /ʀ/ is vocalized to [ə̯], creating the centering diphthongs [ɛːə̯, iːə̯, oːə̯, uːə̯] and, in loanwords from Standard German, also [øːə̯, yːə̯].
    • The unstressed, non-prevocalic orthographic sequence ⟨er⟩ corresponds to the marginal phoneme /ɐ/, although this can also be analysed as simple a sequence of /e/ and /ʀ/ (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 70–71)).
  6. ^ a b [w] is an allophone of /v/ occurring after /k, ʃ, ts/ (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:69)). It also occurs in loanwords as a marginal phoneme.
  7. ^ a b Apart from being the main realisation of phonemes /b, d, dz, ɡ, v, z, ʒ, dʒ/, [b, d, dz, ɡ, v, z, ʒ, ] occur as word-final allophones of both /p, t, ts, k, f, s, ʃ, tʃ/ and /b, d, dz, ɡ, v, z, ʒ, dʒ/ (in this position, some scholars may analyse both of the sets as /p, t, ts, k, f, s, ʃ, tʃ/) if the next word begins with a vowel and is pronounced without a pause. [ʁ, ʑ, bv] also occur as allophones of /χ, χ, pf/ in the same environment, but [bv] does not occur in other circumstances. In this context, the final voiceless obstruents are not only voiced but also resyllabified, or moved to the onset of the first syllable of the following word. Therefore, a somewhat more phonetically-accurate transcription of sech eens would be [zəˈʑeːns] (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 72)), but it is transcribed [zəʑ‿ˈeːns] instead so that it corresponds more closely to the spelling.
  8. ^ a b [ə] and [e] are allophones of a single phoneme /e/. [e] appears before velar consonants and [ə] elsewhere. Unlike in Standard German, [ə] appears in both stressed and unstressed syllables, and unstressed sequences of [ə] and a sonorant do not form syllabic sonorants (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68 and 70)).
  9. ^ [ɛː] is an allophone of /eː/ before /ʀ/ (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)).

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013). "Luxembourgish" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 43 (1): 67–74. doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278.