Help:IPA/Luxembourgish

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Luxembourgish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Luxembourgish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Luxembourgish.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
Native
b Been [beːn][1] ball
d Iddi [ˈidi][1] done
dz spadséieren [ʃpɑˈdzɜɪ̯əʀən][1][2] heads
f Fësch [fəʃ][1] fuss
ɡ Gitt [ɡit][1] guest
h hei [hɑɪ̯] hut
k Kiischt [kiːʃt][1] cold
l liesen [ˈliə̯zən] last
m Maul [ˈmæːʊ̯l] must
n Nues [nuə̯s] not
ŋ eng [eŋ] long
p Paart [paːt][1] puck
ʀ Rou [ʀəʊ̯], Comptoir [ˈkõːtwaːʀ][3] No English equivalent
ʁ Kugel [ˈkuːʁəl],[1][4] Parmesan [ˈpɑʁməzaːn][5] Scottish loch (voiced)
s Taass [taːs][1] fast
ɕ liicht [liːɕt], Bieg [biə̯ɕ][1][4] Somewhat like she
ʃ Schnéi [ʃnɜɪ̯][1][4] shall
t Taart [taːt], Jugend [ˈjuːʁənt][1] tall
ts Zuch [tsuχ][1] cats
Brëtsch [bʀətʃ][1] match
v wëschen [ˈvəʃən][1] vanish
χ Sprooch [ʃpʀoːχ],[1][4] Force [foχs][5] Scottish loch
z Summer [ˈzumɐ][1] hose
ʑ héijen [ˈhɜɪ̯ʑən][1][4] Somewhat like gilet
ʒ Juli [ˈʒuːliː][1][4] pleasure
Non-native[6]
bv Kampf opginn [ˈkɑmbv‿ˈopɡin][7] obvious
Jeans [dʒiːns][1] jeans
pf Pflicht [pfliɕt][8] cupful
Semivowels
IPA Examples English approximation
ə̯ Stär [ʃtɛːə̯], Joer [joːə̯], wier [viːə̯], kuerz [kuːə̯ts][5] roughly like ear
j Jong [joŋ] yard
w zwee [tsweː], Comptoir [ˈkõːtwaːʀ][9] we
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Monophthongs (native)
ɑ Kapp [kɑp] art
Kap [kaːp], waarm [vaːm][5] Australian bad
æ Käpp [kæp] back
ə Fësch [fəʃ][10] balance
e drécken [ˈdʀekən][10] let
Been [beːn] Scottish pays
ɛː Stär [ʃtɛːə̯][11] bed
i Gitt [ɡit] teach
siwen [ˈziːvən], Kiischt [kiːʃt] tea
o So [zo], Sonn [zon] off
Sprooch [ʃpʀoːχ] law (RP and Australian)
u Hutt [hut] truth
Tut [tuːt], Luucht [luːχt] true
Monophthongs (non-native)[6]
ɑ̃ː Chance [ʃɑ̃ːs] No English equivalent, long nasalised [ɑ]
ɛ̃ː Dinde [dɛ̃ːt] No English equivalent, long nasalised [ɛ]
õː Comptoir [ˈkõːtwaːʀ] No English equivalent, long nasalised [o]
œ ëffentlech [ˈœfəntleɕ] roughly like hurt
œː Interieur [ˈɛ̃ːtəʀiœːʀ] roughly like herd
øː Blöd [bløːt]
y Hüll [hyl] roughly like shoe, but shorter
Süden [ˈzyːdən] roughly like shoe
Diphthongs (native)
ɑɪ̯ Gebai [ɡəˈbɑɪ̯], deier [ˈdɑɪ̯ɐ] Australian price
ɑʊ̯ Mauer [ˈmɑʊ̯ɐ] RP mouth
æːɪ̯ räich [ʀæːɪ̯ɕ] Australian day
æːʊ̯ Maul [ˈmæːʊ̯l] Australian now
əʊ̯ Schoul [ʃəʊ̯l] RP goat
ɜɪ̯ Schnéi [ʃnɜɪ̯] Somewhat like Scottish price
iə̯ liesen [ˈliə̯zən] RP near
uə̯ Buedem [ˈbuə̯dəm] Traditional RP cure
Diphthongs (non-native)[6]
oɪ̯ Euro [ˈoɪ̯ʀoː] boy
Unstressed-only
ɐ Mauer [ˈmɑʊ̯ɐ][5] nut or sofa
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ Kugel [ˈkuːʁəl] Primary stress, as in deer /ˈdɪər/
ˌ Méckebaatsch [ˈmekəˌbaːtʃ] Secondary stress, as in as in commandeer
/ˌkɒmənˈdɪər/
sech eens [zəʑ‿ˈeːns] Resyllabification and voicing of the
final voiceless obstruent[7]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Word-finally, the voiceless-voiced distinction in the obstruent pairs [p–b, t–d, k–ɡ, ts–dz, tʃ–dʒ, f–v, s–z, ɕ–ʑ, ʃ–ʒ, χ–ʁ] is neutralised, mostly in favour of the voiceless obstruents, but see the table titled Suprasegmentals.(Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68)).
  2. ^ Phonemic /dz/ occurs only in a few words.(Gilles & Trouvain (2013:72))
  3. ^ The /ʀ/ phoneme is realised as a trill [ʀ] when it is prevocalic within the same word and often when it is non-prevocalic in French loanwords.(Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 71))
  4. ^ a b c d e f Both [ɕ, ʑ] and [χ, ʁ] are allophones of /χ, ʁ/. [χ, ʁ] occur after back vowels, and [ɕ, ʑ] occur in all other environments, but the voiced [ʑ] occurs only in a few words. Speakers increasingly merge [ɕ, ʑ] and [ʃ, ʒ] (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68–69)).
  5. ^ a b c d e When it is non-prevocalic within the same word, the /ʀ/ phoneme has many of allophones:
    • After short vowels, the non-prevocalic /ʀ/ is realised as a fricative, either voiced [ʁ] or voiceless [χ], depending on whether the following consonant is voiced or voiceless;
    • The unstressed, non-prevocalic sequence /eʀ/ is realised as an open vowel [ɐ] (the transcription is somewhat misleading, as the quality of that vowel is very similar to the main allophone of /ɑ/).
    • /ʀ/ is fully absorbed into the preceding /aː/ in the non-prevocalic sequence /aːʀ/ and so Paart, Taart and waarm are pronounced [paːt], [taːt] and [vaːm], as if they were spelled Paat, Taat and waam.
    • After long vowels (excluding /aː/), non-prevocalic /ʀ/ is vocalised to [ə̯] (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 70)).
  6. ^ a b c Although these sounds do not occur in native Luxembourgish vocabulary, almost all speakers pronounce them correctly.
  7. ^ a b Apart from being the main realisation of phonemes /b, d, dz, ɡ, v, z, ʒ, dʒ/, [b, d, dz, ɡ, v, z, ʒ, ] occur as word-final allophones of both /p, t, ts, k, f, s, ʃ, tʃ/ and /b, d, dz, ɡ, v, z, ʒ, dʒ/ (in this position, some scholars may analyse both of the sets as /p, t, ts, k, f, s, ʃ, tʃ/) if the next word begins with a vowel and is pronounced without a pause. [ʁ, ʑ, bv] also occur as allophones of /χ, χ, pf/ in the same environment, but [bv] does not occur in other circumstances, and /h/ is always voiceless [h], as it cannot appear in the syllable coda and so is not subjected to the resyllabification and voicing. In this context, the final voiceless obstruents are not only voiced but also resyllabified, or moved to the onset of the first syllable of the following word. Therefore, a more phonetically-accurate transcription of sech eens would be [zə‿ˈʑeːns] or simply [zəˈʑeːns] (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 72)), but it is transcribed [zəʑ‿ˈeːns] so that it corresponds more closely to the spelling.
  8. ^ Word-initial /pf/ tends to merge with /f/, but that is not how it is transcribed here. In other positions, /pf/ is retained as a true affricate.
  9. ^ [w] is an allophone of /v/ occurring after /k, ʃ, ts/ (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:69)). It also occurs in loanwords.
  10. ^ a b [ə] and [e] are allophones of a single phoneme /e/. [e] appears before velar consonants and [ə] elsewhere. Unlike in Standard German, [ə] appears in both stressed and unstressed syllables, and unstressed sequences of [ə] and a sonorant (excluding the unstressed, non-prevocalic sequence /eʀ/, which is realised as [ɐ]) do not form syllabic sonorants (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68 and 70)).
  11. ^ [ɛː] is an allophone of /eː/ before /ʀ/ (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)).

Bibliography[edit]