Help:IPA/Manchu

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The charts show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Manchu pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

Consonants
IPA Manchu Romanization English approximation
n n night
ŋ ng sing
ᡴ, ᠺ k; k' car
ᡴ᠌ k Multicultural London English kettle
k ᡤ, ᡬ g; g' scar
q g Multicultural London English scare
x ᡥ, ᡭ h; h' Scottish English loch
χ h South African English gogga
p b spill
p pace
s s sun
ʃ š shape
ɕ ᠰ, ᡧ s, š, x sheep
t tale
t d stamp
l l lamp
m m mail
t͡ʃʰ č, c charm with a puff of air
t͡ɕʰ č, c, q cheap with a puff of air
t͡ʃ j, ž, zh riches
t͡ɕ j, ž jeep
j y yours
r r roll (trill)
f f full
w w wish
tʂʰ ᡮ, ᡱ c'; c'y channel with a puff of air
ts dz, z cats
ʐ ž, r' real or vision
tʂɨ j', j'y chirp
Vowels
IPA Manchu Romanization English approximation
a a car
ə e fern
i i see
ɔ o raw
u u moon
ʊ ū, v foot
ɨ y circus (in some dialects)
y ᡳᠣᡳ ioi (none, German ü)
Diphthongs
ai ᠠᡳ ai eye
ᠠᠣ ao cow
əi ᡝᡳ ei hay
ɔu ᠣᠣ oo bow and arrow


Notes[edit]

  • ᡴ, ᡤ, ᡥ are used before /a/, /ɔ/ and /u/; ᡴ᠌, ᡤ, ᡥ are used before /ə/, /i/, and /ʊ/.
  • ᠰ and ᡧ are pronounced /ɕ/ before /i/.
  • ᠴ is pronounced /t͡ɕʰ/ before /i/.
  • ᠵ is pronounced /t͡ɕ/ before /i/.
  • ᡦ is rarely used in modern Manchu, and is often replaced by ᡶ in native words, except in onomatopoeia.
  • Syllable-initial and final ᠯ and ᡵ only exist in foreign words.
  • ᡟ, ᡳᠣᡳ, ᠺ, ᡬ, ᡭ, ᡮ, ᡱ, ᡯ, ᡰ, and ᡷ are used in foreign words.