Help:IPA/Navajo

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Navajo pronunciations in Wikipedia articles, based on the pronunciation guide at "Native Languages."

Consonants
IPA Orthography English approximation
ʔ the catch in uh-oh
p b spill[1]
tʃʰ ch child
tʃʼ ch' a glottalized version of ch
t d stay[2]
tɬ dl somewhat like atlas
ts dz cats
k g skate[3]
ɰ gh no English equivalent
h h he[4]
hw blowing out a candle, or as in which
j teacher
k king
k' somewhat like bike, with glottalization
ʼ kw' liquid with glottalization
l l lake
ɬ ł no English equivalent
m m man
n n nice
s s sad
ʃ sh shell
t "t" in tie
t' somewhat like right with glottalization
tɬʰ no English equivalent
tɬʼ tł' no English equivalent
tsʰ ts cats with aspiration
tsʼ ts' somewhat like cats with glottalization
w w was
j y yellow
z z wa's
ʒ zh garage, pleasure
Oral vowels
IPA Orthography English approximation
a˩ a somewhat like bra with low tone
a˥ á somewhat like bra with high tone
aː˩ aa long "a" in bra with low tone
aː˥ áá long "a" in bra with high tone
e˩ e met with low tone
e˥ é met with high tone
eː˩ ee long "e" in met with low tone
eː˥ éé long "e" in met with high tone
i˩ i[5] see with low tone
i˥ í see with high tone
iː˩ ii long "ee" in see with low tone
iː˥ íí long "ee" in seet with high tone
o˩ o somewhat like go[6] with low tone
o˥ ó somewhat like go with high tone
oː˩ oo long "o" with low tone
oː˥ óó long "o" with high tone
Nasal vowels
IPA Orthography English approximation
ã˩ ą nasal "a" for bra with low tone
ã˥ ą́ nasal "a" for bra with high tone
ãː˩ ąą long nasal "a" for bra with low tone
ãː˥ ą́ą́ long nasal "a" for bra with high tone
˩ ę nasal "e" for met with low tone
˥ ę́ nasal "e" for met with high tone
ː˩ ęę long nasal "e" for met with low tone
ː˥ ę́ę́ long nasal "e" for met with high tone
ĩ˩ į nasal "ee" for see with low tone
ĩ˥ į́ nasal "ee" for see with high tone
ĩː˩ įį long nasal "ee" for see with low tone
ĩː˥ į́į́ long nasal "ee" for see with high tone
õ˩ ǫ nasal "oa" for coat with low tone
õ˥ ǫ́ nasal "oa" for coat with high tone
õː˩ ǫǫ long nasal "oa" for coat with low tone
õː˥ ǫ́ǫ́ long nasal "oa" for coat with high tone

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Native Languages" website
  2. ^ "Native Languages" website
  3. ^ "Native Languages" website
  4. ^ "Native Languages" says it can be realized also as the raspy x, somewhat like the "h" in he.
  5. ^ "Native Languages" says it can be realized also as the "i" in sit (ɪ.
  6. ^ The Navajo /o/ is identical to no English vowel, but the nearest equivalents are the vowel of coat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of saw.

References[edit]