Standard German phonology
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language. It deals with current phonology and phonetics as well as with historical developments thereof as well as the geographical variants, duden 6 Das Aussprachewörterbuch by Max Mangold and the training materials of radio and television stations such as Westdeutscher Rundfunk, Deutschlandfunk, or Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen. This standardised pronunciation was invented, rather than coming from any particular German-speaking city, Standard German is sometimes referred to as Bühnendeutsch, but the latter has its own definition and is slightly different. Some scholars treat /ə/ as an allophone of /ɛ/. Likewise, some scholars treat /ɐ/ as an allophone of the unstressed sequence /ər/, the phonemic status of /ɛː/ is debated - see below. Close vowels /iː/ is close front unrounded, /ɪ/ has been variously described as near-close front unrounded and near-close near-front unrounded. /øː/ has been described as close-mid near-front rounded and mid near-front rounded.
Its rounding is compressed. In non-standard accents of the Low German speaking area and its rounding is protruded. In non-standard accents of the Low German speaking area, as well as in some Austrian accents it may be pronounced as a narrow closing diphthong. /ə/ has been described as mid central unrounded. and close-mid central unrounded. It occurs only in unstressed syllables, for instance in besetzen and it is often considered a complementary allophone together with, which cannot occur in unstressed syllables. If a sonorant follows in the coda, the schwa often disappears so that the sonorant becomes syllabic, for instance Kissen. /ɛ/ has been described as mid near-front unrounded and open-mid front unrounded. /ɛː/ has been described as mid front unrounded and open-mid front unrounded. /œ/ has been described as open-mid near-front rounded and somewhat lowered open-mid near-front rounded. /ɔ/ has been described as somewhat fronted open-mid back rounded. Open vowels /ɐ/ is near-open central unrounded and it is a common allophone of the sequence /ər/ common to all German-speaking areas but Switzerland. /a/ has been described as open front unrounded and open central unrounded.
Some scholars differentiate two short /a/, namely front /a/ and back /ɑ/, the latter occurs only in unstressed open syllables, exactly as /i, y, u, e, ø, o/. Standard Austrian pronunciation of this vowel is back
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʔ⟩, using IPA, this sound is known as a glottal plosive. In English, the glottal stop occurs as an open juncture, for most US English speakers, a glottal stop is used as an allophone of /t/ between a vowel and m or a syllabic n except in slow speech. In British English, the stop is most familiar in the Cockney pronunciation of butter as buer. The non-phonemic glottal stop always occurs before isolated or initial vowels, features of the glottal stop, Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is oral, with no outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely. Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibration of the cords, necessarily so, because the vocal cords are held tightly together.
It is a consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds. Although this segment is not a phoneme in English, it is present phonetically in nearly all dialects of English as an allophone of /t/ in the syllable coda. Speakers of Cockney, Scottish English and several other British dialects pronounce an intervocalic /t/ between vowels as in city. In Received Pronunciation, a stop is inserted before a tautosyllabic voiceless stop, e. g. sto’p, tha’t, kno’ck, wa’tch, lea’p, soa’k, hel’p. In many languages that do not allow a sequence of vowels, such as Persian, there are intricate interactions between falling tone and the glottal stop in the histories of such languages as Danish and Thai. In many languages, the intervocalic allophone of the glottal stop is a creaky-voiced glottal approximant.
These are only known to be contrastive in one language, Gimi, in the traditional Romanization of many languages, such as Arabic, the glottal stop is transcribed with an apostrophe, ⟨’⟩, and this is the source of the IPA character ⟨ʔ⟩. In Malay the glottal stop is represented by the letter ⟨k⟩, in Võro, other scripts have letters used for representing the glottal stop, such as the Hebrew letter aleph ⟨א⟩, and the Cyrillic letter palochka ⟨Ӏ⟩ used in several Caucasian languages. In Tundra Nenets it is represented by the letters apostrophe ⟨ʼ⟩, in Japanese, glottal stops occur at the end of interjections of surprise or anger, and are represented by the character ⟨っ⟩. In the graphic representation of most Philippine languages, the stop has no consistent symbolization
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland. The main, formal variety is called Scottish Standard English or Standard Scottish English, Scottish Standard English may be defined as the characteristic speech of the professional class and the accepted norm in schools. IETF language tag for Scottish Standard English is en-Scotland, Scottish Standard English is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with focused broad Scots at the other. Scottish English may be influenced to varying degrees by Scots, many Scots speakers separate Scots and Scottish English as different registers depending on social circumstances. Some speakers code switch clearly from one to the other while others style shift in a less predictable, generally there is a shift to Scottish English in formal situations or with individuals of a higher social status. Scottish English results from contact between Scots and the Standard English of England after the 17th century. Furthermore, the process was influenced by interdialectal forms, hypercorrections.
Convention traces the influence of the English of England upon Scots to the 16th-century Reformation, printing arrived in London in 1476, but the first printing press was not introduced to Scotland for another 30 years. Texts such as the Geneva Bible, printed in English, were distributed in Scotland in order to spread Protestant doctrine. King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England in 1603, since England was the larger and richer of the two Kingdoms, James moved his court to London in England. The poets of the court therefore moved south and began adapting the language, to this event McClure attributes he sudden and total eclipse of Scots as a literary language. The continuing absence of a Scots translation of the Bible meant that the translation of King James into English was used in worship in both countries, the Acts of Union 1707 amalgamated the Scottish and English Parliaments. However the church and legal structures remained separate and this leads to important professional distinctions in the definitions of some words and terms.
There are therefore words with precise definitions in Scottish English which have no place in English English or have a different definition. The speech of the classes in Scotland tends to conform to the grammatical norms of the written standard. Highland English is slightly different from the variety spoken in the Lowlands in that it is more phonologically, similarly, the English spoken in the North-East of Scotland tends to follow the phonology and grammar of Doric. Although other dialects have merged non-intervocalic /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /ʌ/ before /r/, many varieties contrast /o/ and /ɔ/ before /r/ so that hoarse and horse are pronounced differently. /or/ and /ur/ are contrasted so that shore and sure are pronounced differently, as are pour, an epenthetic vowel may occur between /r/ and /l/ so that girl and world are two-syllable words for some speakers
Voiceless palatal fricative
The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ç⟩, and it is the non-sibilant equivalent of the voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant. The symbol ç is the c with a cedilla, as used to spell French and Portuguese words such as façade. However, the represented by the letter ç in French and English orthography is not a voiceless palatal fricative but /s/. Palatal fricatives are rare phonemes, and only 5% of the worlds languages have /ç/ as a phoneme. The sound occurs, however, as an allophone of /x/ in German, or, in other languages, the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ⟨ç̠⟩, ⟨ç˗⟩ or ⟨x̟⟩. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are C_- and x_+, especially in broad transcription, the voiceless post-palatal fricative may be transcribed as a palatalized voiceless velar fricative. Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate, the otherwise identical post-palatal variant is articulated slightly behind the hard palate, making it sound slightly closer to the velar.
Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords, in some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless, in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds. It is a consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue. The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds
Open-mid front unrounded vowel
The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is a Latinized variant of the Greek lowercase epsilon, the IPA prefers terms close and open for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms high. Its vowel height is open-mid, known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a vowel and a mid vowel. Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant, note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front. It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Open-mid back rounded vowel
The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɔ⟩, the IPA symbol is a turned letter c and both the symbol and the sound are commonly called open-o. The name open-o represents the sound, in that it is like the sound represented by ⟨o⟩ and it represents the symbol, which can be remembered as an o which has been opened by removing part of the closed circular shape. The IPA prefers the terms close and open for vowels, however, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms high and low. Its vowel height is open-mid, known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a vowel and a mid vowel. Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant, note that unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, copyleft symbol index of phonetics articles
Voiced uvular fricative
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʁ⟩ and this consonant is one of several collectively called guttural R when found in European languages. Because the IPA symbol stands for both the uvular fricative and the approximant, the fricative nature of this sound may be specified by adding the uptack to the letter. The approximant can be specified by adding the downtack, ⟨ʁ̞⟩, though some use a superscript ⟨ʶ⟩. For a voiced fricative, see voiced velar fricative. In many languages it is closer to an approximant and its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue at the uvula. Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation and it is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue.
The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, not all of these remain a uvular trill today. Because such uvular rhotics often do not contrast with alveolar ones, for more information, see guttural R. Ladefoged & Maddieson note that There is a complication in the case of uvular fricatives in that the shape of the vocal tract may be such that the uvula vibrates. See voiced uvular raised non-sonorant trill for more information