Help:IPA/Tagalog

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents pronunciation for Tagalog language and a number of related Philippine languages in Wikipedia articles.

See Tagalog phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Tagalog.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
ʔ buang [ˈbuʔaŋ], oo [oʔo] the catch in uh-oh
b bagay, Cavite best
d daw do[1]
diyan; udyók joy
ɡ gatas gold
h hawak; Ecija heat
j yupî you, boy
k Bulacan, keso scan
l talinò, tapal lamb
m madre mate
n nasipát, asín need
ŋ ngipin wing
ɲ anyô, niya canyon
p piso span[1]
ɾ'[2] marami, pader NAE, AuE water'[3]
s sugat skew
ʃ siya, kasya shine
t tamís stand[1]
ts kutsara cats, sometimes chew
tiyák; kutyà, kutsara chew
w lawak wait
Regional and marginal consonants
f Filipino four[4]
ɰ sige roughly like go
ʎ Llanes, silya million
r[2] Rajah, Salvador trilled r
ɹ[2] Walter, rider red
v[4] David vase
x yakap loch (Scottish English)
z husgado, isda zebra[5]
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a batok far[6]
ɐ tansô nut[7]
ɛ heto, Emong set[8]
e eh, mayroon, bakit roughly like bit, but longer[8][9]
ɪ iták, depende sit[10]
i sinat, ngipin see
ɔ[11] opo door
o yero, katotohanan soul[10]
ʊ ulól foot[10]
u putik; podér soon
Diphthongs
tatay ice[12]
sayaw AmE out
[13] limot sole
Other symbols used in transcription of Tagalog pronunciation
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable):
tayô [taˈjoʔ] 'to stand', táyo [ˈtajo] 'we'

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c /d/, /p/ and /t/ are never aspirated unlike in English.
  2. ^ a b c The /r/ phoneme is generally an alveolar rhotic that varies freely between [ɾ] [r] and [ɹ], and it exists as a distinct phoneme mostly in loanwords.
  3. ^ For native words, /ɾ/ is normally a flapped form of /d/. The two phonemes were separated with the introduction of the Latin script during the Spanish era.
  4. ^ a b /f/ and /v/ are usually pronounced by younger speakers who tend to have English-leaning pronunciations. Others would replace for these phonemes with /p/ and /b/, respectively in a fashion similar to fortition.
  5. ^ /z/ is sometimes an allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants like in Spanish.
  6. ^ /a/ is normally pronounced as a central vowel [ä]. However, the front variant [a] may also be used.
  7. ^ /a/ is relaxed to [ɐ] in unstressed positions and also occasionally in stressed positions in words such as (Inang Bayan [iˈnɐŋ ˈbɐjɐn]).
  8. ^ a b [ɛ] usually exists in slow or formal speech and may become a mid [ɛ̝] or close mid [e] in normal speech.
  9. ^ [e, o] are allophones of /i, u/ in final syllables, but they are distinct phonemes in some native words and English and Spanish loanwords.
  10. ^ a b c [ɪ, ʊ] are allophones of /i, u/ and sometimes /e, o/ (the latter for English and Spanish loanwords) in unstressed initial and medial syllables. See Tagalog phonology#Vowels and semivowels.
  11. ^ An allophone of [o] used in stressed syllables or interjections.
  12. ^ Sometimes replaced by [eː] in casual speech.
  13. ^ Occurs mostly in Batangas dialect.