Help:IPA/Ukrainian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet represents Ukrainian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

Ukrainian contrasts palatalized "soft" and unpalatalized "hard" consonants. Palatalized consonants, denoted by a superscript ⟨j/ ʲ /, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, like in the /j/ sound in yes. The "hard" vs. "soft" distinction is phonemic for only nine pairs and may otherwise be ignored.

See Ukrainian phonology for more details on Ukrainian sounds.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximations
b бог boot
β віл[1] between baby and bevy
d дим do
дім, мідь dew
d͡z дзе́ркало pads
d͡zʲ ґедзь, дзьоб
d͡ʒ джміль jump; ridge
f фа́рба fool
ɡ ґа́нок goo
ɦ газéта behind
йти, гай, найшóв coin
j йóга[2] yes
k ключ cooper
l лось leg
лід, сіль least
m мир moot; mute
n не́бо noon
нíжний, дéнь new
p пил poo
r лíкар trilled r, like in Spanish
рíчка
s суп soup
сíно, вісь suit
ʃ шпари́на, ви́ще[3] shop
t тин tool
тінь, мить tune
t͡s цибу́ля cats
t͡sʲ ціна́, віне́ць
t͡ʃ очерéт, ви́ще[3] choose
w вчи́тель, став[1] wine
x ховрáх Bach; loch
z зуб zoo
зíлля, різьбá presume
ʒ жи́то measure; garage
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Stressed
ɑ мáма father
ɛ се́рпень met
ɪ ми́ша six
i кіт, і́кла key
ɔ по́ле, льон lot (RP)
u дух, лють boot
Unstressed
ɐ мáма nut
e се́рпень bed
o Болгáрія go
ʊ туди́, ору́дний hook
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ Stress

(placed before the stressed syllable)

ː Gemination[4](doubles the consonant)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The /w/ phoneme, spelled ⟨в⟩, has two allophones:
    • Before vowels: a bilabial approximant [β̞] (transcribed here [β] for simplicity), or in some transcriptions a labiodental approximant [ʋ] especially before /i/;
    • Everywhere else, including word-initially before a consonant: a labialized velar semivowel [u̯] (Жовтобрюх & Кулик (1965:121–122)).
  2. ^ The "soft" (palatalized) vowel letters ⟨є, ї, ю, я⟩ represent a /j/ and a vowel at the beginning of a word or after a vowel.
  3. ^ a b The consonant ⟨щ⟩ represents the two-phoneme cluster /ʃt͡ʃ/ in standard Ukrainian.
  4. ^ In Ukrainian, geminates are found between vowels: багаття /bɑˈɦɑtʲːɑ/ bonfire, подружжя /pɔˈdruʒːɑ/ married couple, обличчя face. Geminates also occur at the beginning of a few words: лляний /ˈlʲːɑnɪj/ flaxen, forms of the verb лити to pour (ллю /lʲːu/, ллєш /lʲːɛʃ/ etc.), ссати /ˈsːɑtɪ/ to suck and derivatives.[citation needed]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-929075-08-3 
  • Жовтобрюх, М.А.; Кулик, Б.М. (1965), Курс сучасної української літературної мови. Частина I., Kiev: Радянська школа