Loneliness is a complex and unpleasant emotional response to isolation. Loneliness includes anxious feelings about a lack of connection or communication with other beings, both in the present and extending into the future; as such, loneliness can be felt when surrounded by other people. The causes of loneliness are varied and include social, mental and physical factors. Research has shown that loneliness is prevalent throughout society, including people in marriages, families and those with successful careers, it has been a long explored theme in the literature of human beings since classical antiquity. Loneliness has been described as social pain—a psychological mechanism meant to motivate an individual to seek social connections. Loneliness is defined in terms of one's connectedness to others, or more as "the unpleasant experience that occurs when a person's network of social relations is deficient in some important way". People can experience loneliness for many reasons, many life events may cause it, such as a lack of friendship relations during childhood and adolescence, or the physical absence of meaningful people around a person.
At the same time, loneliness may be a symptom of another social or psychological problem, such as chronic depression. Many people experience loneliness for the first time, it is a common, though temporary, consequence of a breakup, divorce, or loss of any important long-term relationship. In these cases, it may stem both from the loss of a specific person and from the withdrawal from social circles caused by the event or the associated sadness; the loss of a significant person in one's life will initiate a grief response. Loneliness may occur after the birth of a child, after marriage, or following any other disruptive event, such as moving from one's home town into an unfamiliar community, leading to homesickness. Loneliness can occur within unstable marriages or other close relationships of a similar nature, in which feelings present may include anger or resentment, or in which the feeling of love cannot be given or received. Loneliness may represent a disfunction of communication, can result from places with low population densities in which there are comparatively few people to interact with.
Loneliness can be seen as a social phenomenon, capable of spreading like a disease. When one person in a group begins to feel lonely, this feeling can spread to others, increasing everybody's risk for feelings of loneliness. People can feel lonely when they are surrounded by other people. A twin study found evidence that genetics account for half of the measurable differences in loneliness among adults, similar to the heritability estimates found in children; these genes operate in a similar manner in females. The study found no common environmental contributions to adult loneliness. There is a clear distinction between feeling lonely and being isolated. In particular, one way of thinking about loneliness is as a discrepancy between one's necessary and achieved levels of social interaction, while solitude is the lack of contact with people. Loneliness is therefore a subjective experience. People can be lonely while in the middle of a crowd. What makes a person lonely is the fact that they need more social interaction or a certain type of social interaction, not available.
A person can feel lonely due to not talking to enough people. Conversely, one can be alone and not feel lonely. There have been suggestions that each person has their own optimal level of social interaction. If a person gets too little or too much social interaction, this could lead to feelings of loneliness or over-stimulation. Solitude can have positive effects on individuals. One study found that, although time spent alone tended to depress a person's mood and increase feelings of loneliness, it helped to improve their cognitive state, such as improving concentration. Furthermore, once the alone time was over, people's moods tended to increase significantly. Solitude is associated with other positive growth experiences, religious experiences, identity building such as solitary quests used in rites of passages for adolescents. Loneliness can play an important role in the creative process. In some people, temporary or prolonged loneliness can lead to notable artistic and creative expression, for example, as was the case with poets Emily Dickinson and Isabella di Morra, numerous musicians.
This is not to imply that loneliness itself ensures this creativity, rather, it may have an influence on the subject matter of the artist and more be present in individuals engaged in creative activities. The other important typology of loneliness focuses on the time perspective. In this respect, loneliness can be viewed as either chronic, it has been referred to as state and trait loneliness. Transient loneliness is temporary in nature, caused by something in the environment, is relieved. Chronic loneliness is more permanent, caused by the person, is not relieved. For example, when a person is sick and cannot socialize with friends would be a case of transient loneliness. Once the person got better it would be easy. A person who feels lonely regardless of if they are
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Biomedical research encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research", – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a preclinical understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials. Within this spectrum is applied research, or translational research, conducted to expand knowledge in the field of medicine. Both clinical and preclinical research phases exist in the pharmaceutical industry's drug development pipelines, where the clinical phase is denoted by the term clinical trial. However, only part of the clinical or preclinical research is oriented towards a specific pharmaceutical purpose; the need for fundamental and mechanism-based understanding, medical devices, non-pharmaceutical therapies means that pharmaceutical research is only a small part of medical research. The increased longevity of humans over the past century can be attributed to advances resulting from medical research. Among the major benefits of medical research have been vaccines for measles and polio, insulin treatment for diabetes, classes of antibiotics for treating a host of maladies, medication for high blood pressure, improved treatments for AIDS, statins and other treatments for atherosclerosis, new surgical techniques such as microsurgery, successful treatments for cancer.
New, beneficial tests and treatments are expected as a result of the Human Genome Project. Many challenges remain, including the appearance of antibiotic resistance and the obesity epidemic. Most of the research in the field is pursued by biomedical scientists, but significant contributions are made by other type of biologists. Medical research on humans, has to follow the medical ethics sanctioned in the Declaration of Helsinki and hospital review board where the research is conducted. In all cases, research ethics are expected. Example areas in basic medical research include cellular and molecular biology, medical genetics, immunology and psychology. Researchers in universities or government-funded research institutes, aim to establish an understanding of the cellular and physiological mechanisms of human health and disease. Preclinical research covers understanding of mechanisms that may lead to clinical research with people; the work requires no ethical approval, is supervised by scientists rather than physicians, is carried out in a university or company, rather than a hospital.
Clinical research is carried out with people as the experimental subjects. It is supervised by physicians and conducted by nurses in a medical setting, such as a hospital or research clinic, requires ethical approval. Research funding in many countries derives from research bodies and private organizations which distribute money for equipment and research expenses. In the United Kingdom, funding bodies such as the Medical Research Council derive their assets from UK tax payers, distribute revenues to institutions by competitive research grants; the Wellcome Trust is the UK's largest non-governmental source of funds for biomedical research and provides over £600 million per year in grants to scientists and funds for research centres. In the United States, data from ongoing surveys by the National Science Foundation show that federal agencies provided only 44% of the $86 billion spent on basic research in 2015; the National Institutes of Health and pharmaceutical companies collectively contribute $26.4 billion and $27 billion, which constitute 28% and 29% of the total, respectively.
Other significant contributors include biotechnology companies, medical device companies, other federal sources, state and local governments. Foundations and charities, led by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, contributed about 3% of the funding; these funders are attempting to maximize their return on investment in public health. One method proposed to maximize the return on investment in medicine is to fund the development of open source hardware for medical research and treatment; the enactment of orphan drug legislation in some countries has increased funding available to develop drugs meant to treat rare conditions, resulting in breakthroughs that were uneconomical to pursue. Since the establishment of the National Institutes of Health in the mid-1940s, the main source of U. S. federal support of biomedical research, investment priorities and levels of funding have fluctuated. From 1995 to 2010, NIH support of biomedical research increased from 11 billion to 27 billion Despite the jump in federal spending, advancements measured by citations to publications and the number of drugs passed by the FDA remained stagnant over the same time span.
Financial projections indicate. The National Institutes of Health is the agency, responsible for management of the lion's share of federal funding of biomedical research, it funds over 280 areas directly related to health. Over the past century there were two notable periods of NIH support. From 1995 to 1996 funding increased from $8.877 billion to $9.366 billion, years which represented the start of what is considered the "doubling period" of rapid NIH support. The second notable period started in 1997 and ended in 2010, a period where the NIH moved to organize research spending for engagement with the scientific community. Since 1980 the share of biomedical research funding from industry sources has grown from 32% to 62%, which has resulted in the development of numerous life-saving medical advances; the relationship between industry and government-funded research in the US has
Cecil Jackson-Cole was an English entrepreneur and humanitarian. He was associated with a number of charities including Oxfam, Help the ActionAid. A devout Christian, Jackson-Cole set up charitable trusts including the Voluntary and Christian Service Trust that gave rise to the charities Help the Aged, the Anchor Housing Trust and Action Aid, he was a co-founder of the Oxford Committee for Famine Relief which became the largest charity of its kind in the British Commonwealth. He was the founder of the Andrews Charitable Trust the first modern Venture Philanthropy organisation. In 1946, Jackson-Cole founded Andrews and Partners Estate Agents as a business with an ulterior purpose: the development of charities. In 1965 he created Phyllis Trust, the Christian Initiative Trust; the Christian Book Promotion Trust was formed in 1967. Andrews & Partners is 100 % owned by the these three trusts. Jackson-Cole was born on 1 November 1901 at 27 Knox Road, Forest Gate, the elder child and only son of Albert Edward Cole, a dealer in new and secondhand furniture, his wife, Nellie Catherine Jackson.
He had a sister called Winifred Gertrude Cole. He had an unsettled childhood, as his father moved so that he spent an average of only nine months at each of the many schools he attended. In 1911 they lived at Whitehall Road, Grays and his father was a Credit Boot and Shoe Dealer and his mother a Retail China and Glass Merchant. In 1914, the family lived on Ashton Street, in Poplar and Cecil and Winifred attended Prospect Terrace School. Cecil's Father Albert, fought in World War One in the Birkenhead Bantam Battalion. Cecil decided to leave education to start working full-time and provide for his family at the age of 13, he got a job as an Office Boy at George and John Nicksons General Provision Merchants on Tooley Street and left in 1918. Cecil married Phyllis Cole in 1936; when she died in 1956, he set up a Charitable Trust in her name. In 1973, Cecil married Theo Handley, they had a blessing at Delhi Cathedral. At the age of 28 Cecil enrolled at Balliol College, Oxford, as an external student to study economics and improve his business skills.
He attended lectures by G. D. H Cole. Cecil Jackson-Cole was a successful business man as the owner and manager of Andrews Furnishers with branches in London and Oxford. According to an advertisement in the shop window in 1976, the last day of trading for the furniture franchise was on 14 May 1976; the advertisement reads. For years past the dividends have been for the benefit of charity and now the shop is to be used for charity work.' In 1946, Leslie Swain and Raymond Andrews joined Jackson-Cole in business, both answering an advertisement from'a Company which gives a third of its profits to the staff, a third to charity and the remaining third for the organisation'. The company was Partners. Raymond Andrews was engaged to manage it, Leslie Swain to set up its mortgage and insurance broking department. Jackson-Cole believed that, to be successful, a charity had to be run as a business. To transform Oxfam into a national body, Leslie Swain was seconded to Oxfam for a year from Andrews & Partners, where he had been since the business was set up in 1946.
In 1962, Raymond Andrews set up the National Association of Estate Agents as a way of upholding good practice and high professional standards in UK Estate Agency. Raymond resigned as Chairman of Andrews in May 1986, Alec Reed succeeded him, he put in financial controls and took out the unnecessary costs to transform Andrews from making a loss of £297,000 in 1985 to making a profit of just over £1 million in 1986. Alec Reed said. Jackson-Cole created a Trust funded through Andrews and Partners called the Voluntary Christian Service. Andrews is owned by three charitable trusts which derive most of their income from annual dividends, has helped to found a number of large charities including Oxfam and Action Aid. Jackson-Cole first became involved in charitable work through the Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, Watford; the work carried out by Andrews' staff in the organisation of charities was done through an informal committee set up in 1953 and known as the Help for Vital Causes Group. The title was changed to Voluntary and Christian Service.
Through the VCS, Jackson-Cole created and developed Help the Aged, several Housing Associations and the children's charity, Action Aid, to a point where they could be spun-off as self-governing charities. CJC set up trusts not only to support charitable work but to underpin his involvement in charity, he had an all consuming vocation to relieve suffering in the world and he constructed an elaborate alliance of businesses and charities to achieve his aims. The Help the Aged Refugees Appeal was set up in 1961 by businessman Cecil Jackson-Cole in response to the needs of older refugees in response to the needs of older people following natural disasters and conflict in the former Yugoslavia, former East Pakistan and Rwanda; the appeal raised £105,302 in its first year. Cecil Jackson-Cole founded Helpage India. In March 1974, when Jackson Cole, founder of HelpAge International visited India, Samson Daniel, a philanthropist, approached him for financial
A charitable organization or charity is a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being. The legal definition of a charitable organization varies between countries and in some instances regions of the country; the regulation, the tax treatment, the way in which charity law affects charitable organizations vary. Charitable organizations may not use any of its funds to profit individual entities. Financial figures are indicators to assess the financial sustainability of a charity to charity evaluators; this information can impact a charity's reputation with donors and societies, thus the charity's financial gains. Charitable organizations depend on donations from businesses; such donations to charitable organizations represent a major form of corporate philanthropy. The Organizational Test: If the organization doesn't follow the exemption organizational test, it will be under mentoring, in order to meet the organizational test it has to be organized and operated.
Serving the public interest: In order to receive and pass the exemption test, charitable organization must follow the public interest and all exempt income should be for the public interest. Until the mid-18th century, charity was distributed through religious structures and bequests from the rich. Both Christianity and Islam incorporated significant charitable elements from their beginnings and dāna has a long tradition in Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism. Charities provided education, health and prisons. Almshouses were established throughout Europe in the Early Middle Ages to provide a place of residence for poor and distressed people. In the Enlightenment era charitable and philanthropic activity among voluntary associations and rich benefactors became a widespread cultural practice. Societies, gentleman's clubs, mutual associations began to flourish in England, the upper-classes adopted a philanthropic attitude toward the disadvantaged. In England this new social activism was channeled into the establishment of charitable organizations.
This emerging upper-class fashion for benevolence resulted in the incorporation of the first charitable organizations. Captain Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, set up the Foundling Hospital in 1741 to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This, the first such charity in the world, served as the precedent for incorporated associational charities in general. Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the Enlightenment era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763 the Society had recruited over 10,000 men. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard - some charities received state recognition in the form of the royal charter.
Charities began to adopt campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded at the turn of the 19th century in ending the slave trade throughout the British Empire and within its considerable sphere of influence; the Enlightenment saw growing philosophical debate between those who championed state intervention and those who believed that private charities should provide welfare. The Reverend Thomas Malthus, the political economist, criticized poor relief for paupers on economic and moral grounds and proposed leaving charity to the private sector, his views became influential and informed the Victorian laissez-faire attitude toward state intervention for the poor. During the 19th century a profusion of charitable organizations emerged to alleviate the awful conditions of the working class in the slums; the Labourer's Friend Society, chaired by Lord Shaftesbury in the United Kingdom in 1830, aimed to improve working-class conditions.
It promoted, for example, the allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement. In 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company - one of a group of organizations that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment; this was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavour that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust and the Guinness Trust; the principle of philanthropic intention with capitalist return was given the label "five per cent philanthropy". There was strong growth in municipal charities; the Brougham Commission led on to the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, which reorganized
Harriet Ruth Harman is a British solicitor and Labour Party politician who has served as a Member of Parliament since 1982, first for Peckham, for its successor constituency of Camberwell and Peckham since 1997. She has served in various Cabinet and Shadow Cabinet positions and, in her role as Deputy Leader of the Labour Party, she has served as the Acting Leader of the Labour Party twice and Leader of the Opposition: from May to September 2010 and from May to September 2015. Born in London, she attended St Paul's Girls' School and obtained a BA in Politics from Goodricke College, University of York, she qualified as a solicitor and worked for Brent Law Centre from 1978 to 1982, when she was elected MP for Peckham in a by-election following the death of sitting Labour MP Harry Lamborn. She served as Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury and as Shadow Employment Secretary, Shadow Health Secretary and Shadow Social Security Secretary. Tony Blair appointed her as Secretary of State for Social Security and the first Minister for Women, serving until 1998.
In 2001, she was appointed Solicitor General for England and Wales, serving until 2005 when she became Minister of State for Constitutional Affairs. Harman ran in the deputy leadership election and defeated five other candidates winning over Secretary of State for Health Alan Johnson by 50.43% to 49.56%. Gordon Brown, elected as party leader, appointed Harman Leader of the House of Commons, Lord Privy Seal, Minister for Women and Equality and Chairman of the Labour Party; however she was not appointed Deputy Prime Minister. She held all of these government positions. Upon defeat, Brown resigned as party leader and Harman became Acting Leader and Leader of the Opposition until Ed Miliband was elected leader, she subsequently served as Shadow Deputy Prime Minister, combining the position with that of Shadow Secretary of State for International Development and Shadow Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. After Labour's defeat at the 2015 general election, Miliband resigned as Leader of the Labour Party and Harman once again became Acting Leader and Leader of the Opposition.
She announced that she would resign as Deputy Leader, prompting a concurrent deputy leadership election. Harman holds the record as the longest-ever continuously-serving female MP in the House of Commons. On 13 June 2017, she was dubbed "Mother of the House" by Prime Minister Theresa May, she is married to former trade union leader Jack Dromey, who became Treasurer of the Labour Party in 2004 and MP for Birmingham Erdington in 2010. They have a daughter, she was born Harriet Ruth Harman at 108 Harley Street in London, a daughter of John Bishop Harman, a Harley Street physician and his wife Anna née Spicer, a solicitor. Anna Harman was the Liberal Party candidate for Hertford in the 1964 General Election, her parents each had non-conformist backgrounds – her paternal grandfather Nathaniel Bishop Harman, an ophthalmic surgeon, was a prominent Unitarian and the Spicer family were well known Congregationalists. Her paternal aunt was Elizabeth Pakenham, Countess of Longford, her cousins include the writers Lady Antonia Fraser, Rachel Billington, Thomas Pakenham.
Harman is a great-great niece of the Liberal statesman Joseph Chamberlain and is related to Richard Chamberlain, MP. Harman attended St Paul's Girls' School and gained a 2:1 BA in Politics from the University of York. During her time at York, she was a member of Goodricke College and was involved with student politics. After York, Harman went on to qualify as a solicitor. Harman worked for Brent Law Centre in London. Between 1978 and 1982, Harman was employed as a legal officer for the National Council for Civil Liberties. In this capacity, just before becoming MP for Peckham in a by-election in 1982, she was found in contempt of court. Harman subsequently took the case to the European Court of Human Rights arguing that the prosecution had breached her right to freedom of expression. Harman v United Kingdom is still considered a significant case in British public law. Harman was involved in a European Court of Human Rights case against MI5. During a 1984 television interview by Cathy Massiter, it was revealed personal files were held by MI5 on Harman and on the General Secretary of the NCCL, Patricia Hewitt.
They argued that there had been an infringement of their rights because MI5 was not a constituted and democratically accountable organisation, this being the minimum standard in democracy. The success of the case led to enactment of the Security Service Act 1989. Harry Lamborn, the Labour MP for Peckham, died on 21 August 1982. In the subsequent by-election held on 28 October 1982, Harman was elected to succeed Lamborn with 11,349 votes, a majority of 3,931 over Social Democratic candidate Dick Taverne, a former Labour MP for Lincoln; the Conservative Party candidate was John Redwood, who came third, went on to be elected MP for Wokingham in 1987. In 1984, Harman became a Shadow Social Services minister and served as a Shadow Health minister in 1987. After the 1992 general election she entered the Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury and served as Shadow Employment Secretary, Shadow Health Secretary and Shadow Social Security Secretary. After Labour's victory in the 1997 general election, she became Secretary of State for Social Security and the first Minister for Women.
She was given the task of reforming the Welfare State. During this time, her more notable policies in
Age UK is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, formed on 25 February 2009, launched on 1 April 2009, which combines the operations of the separate charities Age Concern and Help the Aged to form the UK's largest charity for older people. The charity operated as "Age Concern and Help the Aged" until the new brand launch on 19 April 2010; the brand includes separate but interdependent charities for the UK regions: Age Scotland, Age Cymru and Age NI, as well as its commercial services arm, Age UK Enterprises and new international charity, Age International. The merger was the largest among charities in the UK since that of the Cancer Research Campaign and Imperial Cancer Research in 2002 to form Cancer Research UK. Age UK was formed from the merger of Help the Aged and Age Concern, creating an organisation with a combined income of around £160 million, including £47 million a year raised through fundraising, over 520 charity shops, income raised through its commercial services arm, Age UK Enterprises.
The merger was first confirmed in September, when Dianne Jeffrey was confirmed as the new chair of trustees. Tom Wright CBE chief executive of VisitBritain, Trustee of the Imperial War Museum was appointed Chief Executive of the new charity in November 2008. Tom Wright resigned in June 2017 to become the new Chief Executive of Guide Dogs; the new CEO is Steph Harland. Age UK has a new Chair of Trustees, Sir Brian Pomeroy. Age Concern's origins are British and can be traced back to a realisation in that country of the effects on aged people of the Second World War. In 1940, the Old People’s Welfare Committee, chaired by Eleanor Rathbone, was formed as a forum for discussion between government and voluntary organisations. OPWC was a sub-committee of Liverpool Personal Service Society. In 1944, the committee changed its name to the National Old People’s Welfare Committee, took on responsibility for coordinating the activities of numerous local OPWCs. From the 1950s onwards, NOPWC accessed government and local funds associated with the post-war development of the welfare state, to provide services to local committees, training to wardens of old people's homes.
In 1971, under the direction of David Hobman, the NOPWC changed its public name to Age Concern, separated itself from government and the National Council for Social Service. It did so while launching a'manifesto for old age' and establishing itself nationally as a lobbying body as well as an organisation that engaged in service provision and enhancement and research; the directors of Age Concern England have included David Hobman, Sally Greengross, Gordon Lishman. In 1986 Age Concern established an Institute of Gerontology at King's College London into which it folded its own Age Concern Research Unit. Help the Aged was founded in 1961 by Cecil Jackson-Cole, with the aim to free disadvantaged older people from poverty and neglect; the two brand logos from the merged charities will disappear now that the new Age UK brand has been launched and new brand-awareness develops during 2010. Hollywood stars Eleanor Bron, Brian Cox and Ian McKellen appeared in a series of TV advertisements to support the new charity.
All three actors gave their time free of charge. Age UK helps to fund, is aided with funds raised by, the national will-making scheme Will aid, in which participating solicitors waive their usual fee to write a basic will and in exchange invite the client to donate to charity. In January 2016, it was announced that Age UK's would be one of the chosen charities for Santander's The Discovery Project alongside Barnardo's; as well giving as financial donations to the charity project, Santander will allow staff to volunteer on the phonelines. In April 2012, Age UK launched The Wireless radio station. An Internet-only station, broadcasting 24 hours a day. Featuring Graham Dene and David Hamilton as the lead presenters, The Wireless provides "a mix of music and information to improve life in the UK", it features a weekly news and current affairs show, hosted by broadcaster and former BBC newsreader Martyn Lewis. Official website Age UK companies grouped at OpenCorporates Background to the Age Concern/Help the Aged merger a CommunityCare website article, Head to head: Help the Aged vs Age Concern Intelligent Giving website article.
Charity Commission. Age UK, registered charity no. 1128267