Santa Susana Mountains
The Santa Susana Mountains are a transverse range of mountains in Southern California, north of the city of Los Angeles, in the United States. The range runs east-west, separating the San Fernando Valley and Simi Valley on its south from Santa Clara River Valley to the north and Santa Clarita Valley to the northeast; the Oxnard Plain is to the west of Santa Susana Mountains. The Newhall Pass separates the Santa Susana Mountains from the San Gabriel Mountains to the east. Newhall Pass is the major north-south connection between the San Fernando Valley and the Santa Clarita Valley, Interstate 5 and a railroad line share Newhall Pass; the Santa Susana Pass connects the Simi and San Fernando valleys, separates the Santa Susana Mountains from Simi Hills to the south. Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park, is located in the Simi Hills, just south of the Santa Susana Pass, at the northwestern edge of the San Fernando Valley; the Santa Susana Mountains are not as high as the San Gabriel Mountains. The western half of the range lies in Ventura County, the eastern half lies in Los Angeles County.
The southeastern slopes of the Santa Susana Mountains are part of the City of Los Angeles, housing subdivisions, including Porter Ranch, have been built on the lower slopes of the range. The city of Simi Valley lies to the southwest. North of the range is the fast-growing city of Santa Clarita, several large subdivisions in unincorporated Los Angeles County, including Lyons Ranch and Newhall Ranch, have been approved for development; the Sunshine Canyon Landfill is at the mountains' eastern end, several canyons in the northwest corner of the range have been proposed for more landfills. The mountains have a mild climate, with cool, wet winters. Snow melts quickly. Annual Precipitation totals vary between 18 and 25 inches, depending on exposure to the rain-bearing winds. Most of the rain falls between March; because of the summer drought, wildfires sometimes occur in summer and fall before the rains start during hot, dry "Santa Ana" wind events. The highest peaks in the range are Oat Mountain, Mission Point, Rocky Peak, Sand Rock Peak.
The summit of Rocky Peak lies directly atop the line separating Ventura and Los Angeles counties and is indicated by a battered marker imbedded into the sandstone boulder summit. The first discovery of oil in California was in Pico Canyon, on the north side of the mountains, The California Star Oil Works Chevron, succeeded with Pico Well No. 4. It became famous not only as the first well in California, but as the longest-producing well in the world, having been capped in September, 1990 after 114 years. Well No. 4 has the distinction of being the first site in Los Angeles County to be listed on the National Register of Historic Places, in 1966. The surrounding town, Mentryville, is maintained as the oil "ghost town" Mentryville Historical Park, within Pico Canyon Park. Many active oil and gas fields remain in the area, with some of the larger operators including Vintage Production, Freeport McMoRan, the Southern California Gas Company; the largest of SoCalGas's four underground storage natural gas facilities is within the Aliso Canyon Oil Field north of Porter Ranch.
The mountains are within the acquisition area for the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy, which operates several parks, including Santa Clarita Woodlands Park, Rocky Peak Park, Joughin Open Space Preserve, Happy Camp Canyon Park, other Santa Susana parks in the Santa Susana Mountains through the Mountains Recreation and Conservation Authority. The City of Los Angeles maintains O'Melveny Park at the eastern end of the mountains. Note: the Santa Susana Field Laboratory, once operated by and still owned by Rocketdyne until toxics are cleaned up, is in the Simi Hills, which are adjacent to the south of the Santa Susana Mountains; the south-facing slopes are covered in Chaparral shrubland and oak savanna. The north-facing slopes are home to magnificent oak woodlands and conifer woodlands, some of which have been protected in the Santa Clarita Woodlands Park and other large open space preserves; the mountains are part of the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion. The oaks, include the evergreen coast live oak, the deciduous valley oak, the coastal scrub oak all can be found in the area.
Spring wildflowers include the redbush monkey flower, Mariposa lily, canyon sunflower. Poison oak is an important member of the native plant habitat community. Various ferns are found in moister and tree-shaded areas. Many bird species thrive in the Santa Susana Mountains; the most common raptors observed soaring over the brushy, boulder-strewn landscape are turkey vultures, red-tailed hawks, American kestrels. In oak woodlands it is not uncommon to see red-shouldered hawks flying from limb to limb. Through the cover of dense, trailside chaparral you might glimpse the California towhee or the colorful spotted towhee, birds who make their presence known by rustling up leaf litter on the ground. California quail, greater roadrunner, common raven are residents of the range; the eerie and enchanting call of the common poorwill can be heard after dark while quick eyes might observe the silent flight of great horned owls and phantom-like barn owls. A handful of fascinating amphibians live in the area.
Streams and creeks support populations of Pacific tree frog, the small amphibian whose signature chorus adds an aura of mystery and inexplicable be
Asteroideae is a subfamily of the plant family Asteraceae. It contains about 70% of the species of the family, it is made of several tribes, including Astereae, Eupatorieae, Heliantheae and Tageteae. Asteroideae contains. There are 17,200 species within this subfamily. Asteroideae is said to have begun 46-36.5 million years ago. This subfamily is composed of 21 tribes that are broken into 3 supertribes: Senecionodae and Helianthodae. Senecioneae contains about 120 genera and more than 3200 species that are found in more temperate areas. Asterodae contains many economically important plants such as the chrysanthemums, common daisy, the asters; the third super tribe is the Helianthodae, the largest of the three, containing 16 of the 21 tribes. This family will have radiate style heads but some could have discoid or disciform, they contain ray florets that are three lobed and are considered perfect flower implying that it is bisexual. Many contain stigmatic surfaces that are separated by two marginal bands and terminal sterile appendages with sweeping hairs.
The subfamily Asteroideae has many genera within the tribes. The Helianthus tuberosus, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica are all used as oil seed crops. Artemisia dracunculus is used for culinary herb and Parthenium argentatum is a rubber source; some of the other genera are used as ornamentals. Callistephus, Cosmos and many others. Since 2004, the 21 tribes have been grouped into three supertribes: Senecionodae Senecioneae Asterodae Anthemideae Astereae Calenduleae Gnaphalieae Helianthodae Athroismeae Bahieae Chaenactideae Coreopsideae Eupatorieae Feddeeae Helenieae Heliantheae Inuleae Madieae Millerieae Neurolaeneae Perityleae Plucheeae Polymnieae Tageteae The dictionary definition of Asteroideae at Wiktionary Media related to Asteroideae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Asteroideae at Wikispecies
Madieae is a tribe of flowering plants in the sunflower family, Asteraceae. It is sometimes considered a subtribe of Heliantheae. Notable species include the tarweeds of the Western United States as well as the silverswords of Hawaii
Natural Resources Conservation Service
Natural Resources Conservation Service known as the Soil Conservation Service, is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that provides technical assistance to farmers and other private landowners and managers. Its name was changed in 1994 during the presidency of Bill Clinton to reflect its broader mission, it is a small agency comprising about 12,000 employees. Its mission is to improve and conserve natural resources on private lands through a cooperative partnership with state and local agencies. While its primary focus has been agricultural lands, it has made many technical contributions to soil surveying and water quality improvement. One example is the Conservation Effects Assessment Project, set up to quantify the benefits of agricultural conservation efforts promoted and supported by programs in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002. NRCS is the leading agency in this project; the agency was founded through the efforts of Hugh Hammond Bennett, a soil conservation pioneer who worked for the Department of Agriculture from 1903 to 1952.
Bennett's motivation was based on his knowledge of the detrimental effects of soil erosion and the impacts on U. S lands. On September 13, 1933, the Soil Erosion Service was formed in the Department of the Interior, with Bennett as chief; the service was transferred to the Department of Agriculture on March 23, 1935, was shortly thereafter combined with other USDA units to form the Soil Conservation Service by the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1935. The Soil Conservation Service was in charge of 500 Civilian Conservation Corps camps between 1933 and 1942; the primary purpose of these camps was erosion control. Hugh Bennett continued as chief, a position he held until his retirement in 1952. On October 20, 1994, the agency was renamed to the Natural Resources Conservation Service as part of the Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994. NRCS offers financial assistance to farmers and ranchers; the financial assistance is authorized by the Farm Bill, a law, renewed every five years.
The 2014 Farm Bill consolidated 23 programs into 15. NRCS offers these services to private land owners, conservation districts and other types of organizations. NRCS collects and shares information on the nation's soil, water and plants; the Conservation Title of the Farm Bill provides the funding to agricultural producers, a conservation plan must be included. All of these programs are voluntary; the main programs include: The purpose of EQIP is to provide assistance to landowners to help them improve their soil and related natural resources, including grazing lands and wildlife habitat. Conservation Stewardship Program CSP is targeted to a producers who maintain a higher level of environmental stewardship. Regional Conservation Partnership Program RCPP consolidated four programs from the prior 2008 Farm Bill, it aims at more watershed scale projects, rather than individual farms and ranches. Agricultural Conservation Easement Program ACEP was another consolidation effort of the 2014 Farm Bill, which includes the former Grasslands Reserve Program and Ranch Lands Protection Program, Wetlands Reserve Program.
ACEP includes technical and financial help to maintain or improve land for agriculture or environmental benefits. Landowners volunteer to protect forests in 30 or 10 year contracts; this program hands assisting funds to participants. The objectives of HFRP are to: Promote the recovery of endangered and threatened species under the Endangered Species Act Improve plant and animal biodiversity Enhance carbon sequestration Serves 10 states in the Midwest United States in helping to reduce Nitrate levels in soil due to runoff from fertilized farmland; the project began in 2010 and focused on the Mississippi Basin area. The main goal of the project is to implement better methods of managing water drainage from agricultural uses, in place of letting the water drain as it had done in the past. In October 2011, The National "Managing Water, Harvesting Results" Summit was held to promote the drainage techniques used in hopes of people adopting them nationwide. Includes water supply forecasts and the Surface Water Supply Index for Alaska and other Western states.
NRCS agents collect data from snowpack and mountain sites to predict spring runoff and summer streamflow amounts. These predictions are used in decision making for agriculture, wildlife management and development, several other areas; these predictions are available within the first 5 days of each month from January to June. Is a blanket program which involves conservation efforts on soil and water conservation, as well as management of agricultural wastes and general longterm sustainability. NRCS and related agencies work with landowners, communities, or developers to protect the environment. Serve to guide people to comply with acts such as the Highly Erodible Land and Conservation Compliance Provisions acts; the CTA can cover projects by state and federal governments. Is a program to assist gulf bordering states improve water quality and use sustainable methods of farming and other industry; the program will deliver up to 50 million dollars over 2011-2013 to apply these sustainable methods, as well as wildlife habitat management systems that do not hinder agricultural productivity, prevent future over use of water resources to protect native endangered spe
For the furniture piece, see Madia For a people of Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra, India see Madia Gond. Madia is a genus of annual or perennial aromatic herbs with yellow flowers, in the tarweed tribe within the sunflower family. Tropicos, Madia Molina They are sometimes known as tarweeds; the species in this genus are native to western North southwestern South America. The name Madia is derived from native Chilean name for one of the members of the genus. SpeciesMadia anomala Greene - plumpseeded madia - northern CA Madia chilensis Reiche - central Chile Madia citrigracilis D. D. Keck - Shasta tarweed - northern CA Madia citriodora Greene - lemon-scented madia - northern CA, NV, OR, WA, ID Madia elegans D. Don ex Lindl. - common madia - northern CA, NV, OR, WA Madia exigua A. Gray - small tarweed - CA OR WA NV ID MT BC, Baja California Madia glomerata Hook. - mountain tarweed - mountains of western United States. D. Keck - grassy tarweed - CA OR WA NV ID UT MT BC Madia radiata Kellogg - golden madia - CA Madia sativa Molina - coast tarweed - CA OR WA NV ID BC.
D. Keck - slender tarweed - CAformerly includedsee Anisocarpus Harmonia Jensia Kyhosia Madia bolanderi - Kyhosia bolanderi Madia doris-nilesiae - Harmonia doris-nilesiae Madia hallii - Harmonia hallii Madia madioides - Anisocarpus madioides Madia minima - Hemizonella minima Madia nutans - Harmonia nutans Madia stebbinsii - Harmonia stebbinsii Madia yosemitana - Jensia yosemitana USDA Plants Profile for Madia U. H. Botany: Asteraceae. "Madia". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Jepson Manual treatment: Madia Madia — U. C. Photos Gallery
The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America. It is in the southwestern United States within southeastern California and southern Nevada, it occupies 47,877 sq mi. Small areas extend into Utah and Arizona, its boundaries are noted by the presence of Joshua trees, which are native only to the Mojave Desert and are considered an indicator species, it is believed to support an additional 1,750 to 2,000 species of plants. The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, Lancaster, Victorville, St. George; the Mojave Desert is bordered by the Great Basin Desert to its north and the Sonoran Desert to its south and east. Topographical boundaries include the Tehachapi Mountains to the west, the San Gabriel Mountains and San Bernardino Mountains to the south; the mountain boundaries are distinct because they are outlined by the two largest faults in California – the San Andreas and Garlock faults.
The Mojave Desert displays typical range topography. Higher elevations above 2,000 ft in the Mojave are referred to as the High Desert; the Mojave Desert occupies less than 50,000 sq mi, making it the smallest of the North American deserts. The Mojave Desert is referred to as the "high desert", in contrast to the "low desert", the Sonoran Desert to the south; the Mojave Desert, however, is lower than the Great Basin Desert to the north. The spelling Mojave originates from the Spanish language while the spelling Mohave comes from modern English. Both are used today, although the Mojave Tribal Nation uses the spelling Mojave; the Mojave Desert receives less than 2 inches of rain a year and is between 2,000 and 5,000 feet in elevation. The Mojave Desert contains the Mojave National Preserve, as well as the lowest and hottest place in North America: Death Valley at 282 ft below sea level, where the temperature surpasses 120 °F from late June to early August. Zion National Park in Utah lies at the junction of the Mojave, the Great Basin Desert, the Colorado Plateau.
Despite its aridity, the Mojave has long been a center of alfalfa production, fed by irrigation coming from groundwater and from the California Aqueduct. The Mojave is a desert of two distinct seasons. Winter months bring comfortable daytime temperatures, which drop to around 25 °F on valley floors, below 0 °F at the highest elevations. Storms moving from the Pacific Northwest can bring rain and in some places snow. More the rain shadow created by the Sierra Nevada as well as mountain ranges within the desert such as the Spring Mountains, bring only clouds and wind. In longer periods between storm systems, winter temperatures in valleys can approach 80 °F. Spring weather continues to be influenced by Pacific storms, but rainfall is more widespread and occurs less after April. By early June, it is rare for another Pacific storm to have a significant impact on the region's weather. Summer weather is dominated by heat. Temperatures on valley floors can soar above 130 °F at the lowest elevations. Low humidity, high temperatures, low pressure, draw in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico creating thunderstorms across the desert southwest known as the North American monsoon.
While the Mojave does not get nearly the amount of rainfall the Sonoran desert to the south receives, monsoonal moisture will create thunderstorms as far west as California's Central Valley from mid-June through early September. Autumn is pleasant, with one to two Pacific storm systems creating regional rain events. October is one of the sunniest months in the Mojave. After temperature, wind is the most significant weather phenomenon in the Mojave. Across the region windy days are common. During the June Gloom, cooler air can be pushed into the desert from Southern California. In Santa Ana wind events, hot air from the desert blows into the Los Angeles basin and other coastal areas. Wind farms in these areas generate power from these winds; the other major weather factor in the region is elevation. The highest peak within the Mojave is Charleston Peak at 11,918 feet, while the Badwater Basin in Death Valley is 279 feet below sea level. Accordingly and precipitation ranges wildly in all seasons across the region.
The Mojave Desert has not supported a fire regime because of low fuel loads and connectivity. However, in the last few decades, invasive annual plants such as some within the genera Bromus and Brassica have facilitated fire; this has altered many areas of the desert. At higher elevations, fire regimes are infrequent; the Mojave Desert is defined by numerous mountain ranges creating its xeric conditions. These ranges create valleys, endorheic basins, salt pans, seasonal saline lakes when precipitation is high enough. These
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, in a ring species. Among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, each clone is a microspecies. All species are given a two-part name, a "binomial"; the first part of a binomial is the genus.
The second part is called the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the genus Boa. None of these is satisfactory definitions, but scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If species were fixed and distinct from one another, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, to grade into one another. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped. Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection; that understanding was extended in the 20th century through genetics and population ecology. Genetic variability arises from mutations and recombination, while organisms themselves are mobile, leading to geographical isolation and genetic drift with varying selection pressures.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer. Viruses are a special case, driven by a balance of mutation and selection, can be treated as quasispecies. Biologists and taxonomists have made many attempts to define species, beginning from morphology and moving towards genetics. Early taxonomists such as Linnaeus had no option but to describe what they saw: this was formalised as the typological or morphological species concept. Ernst Mayr emphasised reproductive isolation, but this, like other species concepts, is hard or impossible to test. Biologists have tried to refine Mayr's definition with the recognition and cohesion concepts, among others. Many of the concepts are quite similar or overlap, so they are not easy to count: the biologist R. L. Mayden recorded about 24 concepts, the philosopher of science John Wilkins counted 26. Wilkins further grouped the species concepts into seven basic kinds of concepts: agamospecies for asexual organisms biospecies for reproductively isolated sexual organisms ecospecies based on ecological niches evolutionary species based on lineage genetic species based on gene pool morphospecies based on form or phenotype and taxonomic species, a species as determined by a taxonomist.
A typological species is a group of organisms in which individuals conform to certain fixed properties, so that pre-literate people recognise the same taxon as do modern taxonomists. The clusters of variations or phenotypes within specimens would differentiate the species; this method was used as a "classical" method of determining species, such as with Linnaeus early in evolutionary theory. However, different phenotypes are not different species. Species named in this manner are called morphospecies. In the 1970s, Robert R. Sokal, Theodore J. Crovello and Peter Sneath proposed a variation on this, a phenetic species, defined as a set of organisms with a similar phenotype to each other, but a different phenotype from other sets of organisms, it differs from the morphological species concept in including a numerical measure of distance or similarity to cluster entities based on multivariate comparisons of a reasonably large number of phenotypic traits. A mate-recognition species is a group of sexually reproducing organisms that recognize one another as potential mates.
Expanding on this to allow for post-mating isolation, a cohesion species is the most inclusive population of individuals having the potential for phenotypic cohesion through intrinsic cohesion mechanisms. A further development of the recognition concept is provided by the biosemiotic concept of species. In microbiology, genes can move even between distantly related bacteria extending to the whole bacterial domain; as a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that kinds of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more similar than 97% to each other need to be checked by DNA-DNA hybridisation to decide if they belong to the same species or not. This concept was narrowed in 2006 to a similarity of 98.7%. DNA-DNA hybri