Schaffhausen is a town with historic roots, a municipality in northern Switzerland, the capital of the canton of the same name. It is located right next to the shore of the High Rhine. Rhf. the historic Neunkirch and Stein a. Rh; the old portion of the town has many fine Renaissance era buildings decorated with exterior frescos and sculpture, as well as the old canton fortress, the Munot. Schaffhausen is a railway junction of Swiss and German rail networks. One of the lines connects the town with the nearby Rhine Falls in Neuhausen am Rheinfall, Europe's largest waterfall, a tourist attraction; the official language of Schaffhausen is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. The town is first mentioned in 1045 as Villa Scafhusun. There are at least two theories on the origin of this name: One relates to a mention of a "ford" across the Rhine that first occurs in 1050; this "ford" may refer to a scapha or skiff, used to disembark goods coming from Constance to move them around the Rhine Falls.
The name Scafhusun arose from the scapha used at that point. Another theory is that Scafhusun comes from Schaf, as a ram formed the ancient arms of the town, derived from those of its founders, the counts of Nellenburg. Schaffhausen was a city state in the Middle Ages, documented to have struck its own coins from 1045. About 1050 the counts of Nellenburg founded the Benedictine monastery of All Saints, which became the centre of the town; as early as 1190 in 1208, it was an imperial free city, while the first seal dates from 1253. The powers of the abbot were limited and in 1277 the Emperor Rudolf I gave the town a charter of liberties. In 1330 the emperor Louis of Bavaria pledged it to the Habsburgs. In the early 15th century, Habsburg power over the city waned. By 1411 the guilds ruled the city. In 1415 the Habsburg Duke Frederick IV of Austria sided with the Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, was banned by the Emperor Sigismund; as a result of the ban and Frederick's need of money, Schaffhausen was able to buy its independence from the Habsburgs in 1418.
The city allied with six of the Swiss confederates in 1454 and allied with a further two in 1479. Schaffhausen became a full member of the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1501; the Reformation was adopted in 1524 and in 1529. The town was damaged during the Thirty Years' War by the passage of Swedish and Bavarian troops and the important bridge was burnt down, it was not until the early 19th century that the arrested industrial development of the town made a fresh start. In 1857 the first railroad, the Rheinfallbahn running from Winterthur, reached Schaffhausen. Schaffhausen is located in a finger of Swiss territory surrounded on three sides by Germany. On 1 April 1944 Schaffhausen suffered a bombing raid by United States Army Air Forces aircraft which strayed from German airspace into neutral Switzerland due to navigation errors. Air raid sirens had sounded in the past, without an actual attack, so many residents ignored the sirens that day. A total of 40 civilians were killed in the raid. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt sent a personal letter of apology to the mayor of Schaffhausen and the United States offered four million US dollars in reparations.
The town of Schaffhausen stands on the right bank of the river Rhine. It has an area, of 41.85 km2. Of this area, about 20.2 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 24.8% is settled and 1.6% is unproductive land. Over the past two decades the amount of land, settled has increased by 95 ha and the agricultural land has decreased by 117 ha. In 1947 it merged with the former municipality of Buchthalen, its area expanded again in 1964 when Herblingen was absorbed and for a third time in 2009 when Hemmental joined the municipality. Schaffhausen shares an international border with the German village of Büsingen am Hochrhein, an exclave surrounded by Switzerland. Schaffhausen has an average of 122.5 days of rain or snow per year and on average receives 907 mm of precipitation. The wettest month is July. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 11.3 days. The driest month of the year is February with an average of 59 mm of precipitation over 8.4 days. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Or on a Base Vert issuant from sinister a Semi Castle Argent with tower with entrance from, issuing a Semi Ram Sable.
The canting coat of arms refers to the second interpretation of the name, sheep-house. The City Council constitutes the executive government of the town of Schaffhausen and operates as a collegiate authority, it is composed of five councilors, each presiding over a department, which each consists of several administrative districts. The president of the executive department acts as mayor. In the mandate period January 2017 – December 2020 the City Council is presided by Stadtpräsident Peter Neukomm. Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the Grand City Council are carried b
Büsingen am Hochrhein
Büsingen am Hochrhein known as Büsingen, is a German municipality in the south of Baden-Württemberg and an exclave surrounded by Switzerland. It has a population of about 1,450 inhabitants. Since the early 19th century, the village has been separated from the rest of Germany by a narrow strip of land containing the Swiss village of Dörflingen. Politically Büsingen is part of Germany, forming part of the district of Konstanz, but economically it forms part of the Swiss customs area, as do the independent principality of Liechtenstein and though unofficially, the Italian village of Campione d'Italia; as such there have been no border controls between Switzerland and Büsingen since 4 October 1967. Büsingen is a holiday destination for much of the year and attracts a significant number of visitors from around the region as well as from further afield, for its recreational areas along the Rhine and proximity to the Rheinfall waterfalls in nearby Neuhausen am Rheinfall. Many dwellings in Büsingen are holiday flats which are accompanied by a number of small guest houses.
Long under Austrian control, the village became part of the German kingdom of Württemberg under the 1805 Peace of Pressburg agreement during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1918, after the First World War, a referendum was held in Büsingen in which 96% of voters voted to become part of Switzerland; however no land transfer took place. Attempts to transfer the village to Swiss sovereignty were unsuccessful and Büsingen has remained an exclave of Germany since. During the Second World War, Switzerland shut down the border, leaving Büsingen cut off from the rest of the Third Reich. German soldiers on home leave were required to deposit their weapons at the border guards' posts in Gailingen am Hochrhein; the Swiss customs officers would supply them with greatcoats to cover up their German uniforms for the duration of their short journey through Dörflingen to their homes in Büsingen. On 9 September 1957, a conference between Switzerland and what was West Germany was held in Locarno, with the aim of regulating the jurisdictions of both countries in Büsingen.
Büsingen's official name was altered from Büsingen to Büsingen am Hochrhein on 6 December 1961. A treaty signed much came into effect on 4 October 1967; the exclave of Büsingen was formally defined in this treaty. At the same time, the West German exclave of Verenahof, consisting of just three houses and eleven West German citizens, became part of Switzerland, whilst Büsingen entered into a customs union only with Switzerland. In reality, Büsingen had been in a de facto customs union with Switzerland from 1947. Büsingen am Hochrhein has an area of 7.62 square kilometres. Its border with Switzerland is marked by 123 stones. One named stone, the Hattinger Stone, marks the Büsingen-Dörflingen boundary. Along with several other border points, it is situated in the river Rhine. Büsingen is situated close to the city of Schaffhausen. In the outlying hamlet of Stemmer the border between German and Swiss territory runs down the middle of a road. Houses on one side of the road are in Switzerland, houses on the other side are in Germany.
Büsingen is not part of the customs territory of the European Union. Although Büsingen is otherwise a German village, because it belongs to the Swiss customs territory, EU economic regulations do not apply there. Within the territory of Büsingen am Hochrhein are the sites of two abandoned villages Eggingen and Gluringen. Büsingen is the only German village in which people pay with Swiss francs, although technically the euro is legal tender as throughout Germany; until the late 1980s, the Deutsche Mark was not accepted in Büsingen. Büsingen post office only accepted Swiss francs for payment of German stamps. Despite the Deutsche Mark and the Euro being accepted, today Swiss francs are still more popular, since most residents in employment are cross border commuters working in Switzerland and as such are paid in Swiss francs. Electricity is provided by Switzerland and as such is billed in Swiss francs with there being no choice of supplier. Wall sockets are standard European Schuko sockets as in the rest of Germany, though some owners may have opted to install Swiss sockets in their properties.
Residents of Büsingen am Hochrhein can opt to take out a health insurance policy either in Switzerland or in Germany. The treaty between the two countries defines which areas of law are governed by Swiss legislation and which ones come under German legislation. Since there are no border checks between Büsingen and Switzerland, the cantonal police of Schaffhausen are permitted to arrest people in Büsingen and bring them into Switzerland; the number of Swiss police officers is limited to ten at any one time and the number of German police officers to three per 100 inhabitants meaning forty given the current population of around 1,350. German police officers travelling to Büsingen however must use designated routes and refrain from all official acts whilst crossing Swiss territory. There is a German post office in Büsingen which provides Swiss postal services at Swiss inland rates. Büsingen has two postal codes, one Swiss, CH-8238 and one German, D-78266. Letters from Büsingen may be franked with a German stamp.
A standard letter from Büsingen to Switzerland needs either an 85 Rappen Swiss stamp or a 70 euro cent German one. Deutsche Post is responsible for deli
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The Historical Dictionary of Switzerland is an encyclopedia on the history of Switzerland that aims to take into account the results of modern historical research in a manner accessible to a broader audience. The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the central offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors, 2500 historians and 100 translators; the encyclopedia is being edited in three national languages of Switzerland: German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002; the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in: Biographies Articles on families and genealogy Articles on places Subject articles The on-line edition has been available since 1998, it makes accessible, for free, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered. Lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh.
It includes articles not available in the other languages. The first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available. Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz, Schwabe AG, Basel, ISBN 3-7965-1900-8 Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse, Editions Gilles Attinger, Hauterive, ISBN 2-88256-133-4 Dizionario storico della Svizzera, Armando Dadò editore, Locarno, ISBN 88-8281-100-X Lexicon Istoric Retic, Kommissionsverlag Desertina, Chur, ISBN 978-3-85637-390-0, ISBN 978-3-85637-391-7 Media related to Historical Dictionary of Switzerland at Wikimedia Commons DHS/HLS/DSS online edition in German and Italian Lexicon Istoric Retic online edition in Romansh
Swiss People's Party
The Swiss People's Party known as the Democratic Union of the Centre, is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Switzerland. Chaired by Albert Rösti, the party is the largest party in the Federal Assembly, with 65 members of the National Council and 5 of the Council of States; the SVP originated in 1971 as a merger of the Party of Farmers and Independents and the Democratic Party, while the BGB in turn had been founded in the context of the emerging local farmers' parties in the late 1910s. The SVP didn't witness any increased support beyond that of the BGB, retaining around 11% of the vote through the 1970s and 1980s; this changed however during the 1990s, when the party underwent deep structural and ideological changes under the influence of Christoph Blocher. In line with the changes fostered by Blocher, the party started to focus on issues such as euroscepticism and opposition to mass immigration; as of 2015 the SVP has 54 seats in the Federal Assembly, its vote share of 28.9% in the 2007 Federal Council election was the highest vote recorded for a single party in Switzerland until 2015, when it surpassed its own record with 29.4%.
When Blocher failed to win re-election as a Federal Councillor in 2007, moderates within the party split off, forming the Conservative Democratic Party. The early origins of the SVP go back to the late 1910s, when numerous cantonal farmers' parties were founded in agrarian, German-speaking parts of Switzerland. While the Free Democratic Party had earlier been a popular party for farmers, this changed during World War I when the party had defended the interests of industrialists and consumer circles; when proportional representation was introduced in 1919, the new farmers' parties won significant electoral support in Zürich and Bern, also gained representation in parliament and government. By 1929, the coalition of farmers' parties had gained enough influence to get one of their leaders, Rudolf Minger, elected to the Federal Council. In 1936, a representative party was founded on the national level, called the Party of Farmers and Independents. During the 1930s, the BGB entered the mainstream of Swiss politics as a right-wing conservative party in the bourgeois bloc.
While the party opposed any kind of socialist ideas such as internationalism and anti-militarism, it sought to represent local Swiss traders and farmers against big business and international capital. The BGB contributed to the establishment of the Swiss national ideology known as the Geistige Landesverteidigung, responsible for the growing Swiss sociocultural and political cohesion from the 1930s. In the party's fight against left-wing ideologies, sections of party officials and farmers voiced understanding, or failed to distance themselves from the emerging fascist movements. After World War II, the BGB contributed to the establishment of the characteristic Swiss post-war consensual politics, social agreements and economic growth policies; the party continued to be a reliable political partner with the Swiss Conservative People's Party and the Free Democratic Party. In 1971, the BGB changed its name to the Swiss People's Party after it merged with the Democratic Party from Glarus and Graubünden.
The Democratic Party had been supported by workers, the SVP sought to expand its electoral base towards these, as the traditional BGB base in the rural population had started to lose its importance in the post-war era. As the Democratic Party had represented centrist, social-liberal positions, the course of the SVP shifted towards the political centre following internal debates; the new party however continued to see its level of support at around 11%, the same as the former BGB throughout the post-war era. Internal debates continued, the 1980s saw growing conflicts between the Bern and Zürich cantonal branches, where the former branch represented the centrist faction, the latter looked to put new issues on the political agenda; when the young entrepreneur Christoph Blocher was elected president of the Zürich SVP in 1977, he declared his intent to oversee significant change in the political line of the Zürich SVP, bringing an end to debates that aimed to open the party up to a wide array of opinions.
Blocher soon consolidated his power in Zürich, began to renew the organisational structures, campaigning style and political agenda of the local branch. The young members of the party was boosted with the establishment of a cantonal Young SVP in 1977, as well as political training courses; the ideology of the Zürich branch was reinforced, the rhetoric hardened, which resulted in the best election result for the Zürich branch in fifty years in the 1979 federal election, with an increase from 11.3% to 14.5%. This was contrasted with the stable level in the other cantons, although the support stagnated in Zürich through the 1980s; the struggle between the SVP's largest branches of Bern and Zürich continued into the early 1990s. While the Bern-oriented faction represented the old moderate style, the Zürich-oriented wing led by Christoph Blocher represented a new radical right-wing populist agenda; the Zürich wing began to politicise asylum issues, the question of European integration started to dominate Swiss political debates.
They adopted more confrontational methods. The Zürich-wing followingly started to gain ground in the party at the expense of the Bern-wing, the party became increasing
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
2007 Swiss federal election
Elections to the Swiss Federal Assembly, the federal parliament of Switzerland, were held on Sunday, 21 October 2007. In a few cantons, a second round of the elections to the Council of States was held on 11 November, 18 November, 25 November 2007. For the 48th legislative term of the federal parliament, voters in 26 cantons elected all 200 members of the National Council as well as 43 out of 46 members of the Council of States; the other three members of the Council of States for that term of service were elected at an earlier date. On 12 December 2007, the newly elected legislature elected the Swiss federal government, the Swiss Federal Council, for a four-year-term; the results reflected yet another rise in support for the strongest party, the right-wing populist Swiss People's Party, at 29% of the popular vote, the growth of the Green and Green Liberal parties at the expense of the Social Democrats. The Swiss People's Party came out of the election as the strongest party, rising another 2.3% to 29.0% of the popular vote.
Among the left-wing parties, support of the Social Democrats eroded to the benefit of the Green and Green Liberal parties. The right-wing parties won 64 seats made up of the SVP with 62 seats and a single seat of the Christian right Federal Democratic Union and the regional Ticino League respectively; the left-wing parties won 65 seats, with 43 of the Social Democrats, 20 of the Green party, the Christian-left Christian Social Party and the far-left Labour Party with a single seat each. The centrist parties won 71 seats, with the CVP and the centre-right FDP each having won 31 seats, the remaining 9 seats won by minor parties: Liberals, 4 seats. 59 of 200 seats were won by women, as compared to 50 in 2003. Ricardo Lumengo is notable as the first black Swiss national councillor. 23 incumbents did not get re-elected and lost their mandate, among them Zürich right wing politician Ulrich Schlüer. The turnout of the election was 48,9% a rise of 3,7% from the previous elections in 2003. Contrary to the developments in the National Council, the Council of States remains dominated by the traditional centrist parties FDP and CVP.
Robert Cramer is the first member of the Green Party to be elected to the Council of States, joined in the second round by Luc Recordon of Vaud. Verena Diener of the Green Party, wins a Council of States seat for the newly founded Green Liberal Party. Christine Egerszegi of Aargau is the first woman councillor elected in that canton. "Political Map of Switzerland" "Hermann, M. und Leuthold, H.: Die politische Landkarte des Nationalrats 1999-2003. In: Tages-Anzeiger, 11. Oktober, 2003, Zürich." Swiss Federal Statistical Office. "Nationalratswahlen 2007. Der Wandel der Parteienlandschaft seit 1971". NSD: European Election Database - Switzerland publishes regional level election data.