Alexander Henderson (American politician)
Alexander Henderson was a merchant and politician in the British colony and American state of Virginia. Henderson was born in Scotland, he moved to Colchester, Virginia in 1756. Henderson served in the Virginia militia during the American Revolution, he represented Fairfax County in the Virginia House of Delegates 1783–1784 and Prince William County 1789–1790. He was a Virginia delegate to the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785 which led to the Constitutional Convention of 1787, he served as a vestryman at Pohick Church and a magistrate of Fairfax and Prince William Counties. Henderson moved to Virginia in 1787, where his home still stands. There he opened a store with additional outlets opening in Colchester and Alexandria and leading him to be considered the "father of the American chain store."Henderson was the father of Archibald Henderson, the longest-serving Commandant of the United States Marine Corps, who served from 1820 to 1859. Alexander Henderson at the Historical Marker Database
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Archibald Henderson was the longest-serving Commandant of the Marine Corps, serving from 1820 to 1859. His name is learned by all recruits at Marine recruit training as the "Grand old man of the Marine Corps," serving in the United States Marine Corps for 53 years. Born in Colchester, Fairfax County, Henderson was one of six sons of successful merchant Alexander Henderson and Sarah Moore, he was raised at the Henderson House in Dumfries, Virginia until he joined the Marine Corps at the age of 18. Archibald Henderson was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps on 4 June 1806 and served aboard USS Constitution during her famous victories in the War of 1812, he was decorated for bravery. He was brevetted a major in 1814. From 16 September 1818 to 2 March 1819, Henderson was the acting Commandant. On 17 October 1820, at age 37, Lt. Colonel Henderson was appointed the Commandant of the Marine Corps, he served for a little over the longest of any officer to hold that position. Henderson is credited with thwarting attempts by President Andrew Jackson to combine the Marine Corps with the Army in 1829.
Instead, Congress passed the Act for the Better Organization of the Marine Corps in 1834, ensuring the Marines would remain part of the United States Department of the Navy. He was promoted to colonel the same year, he went into the field as Commandant during the Indian campaigns in Florida and Georgia during 1836 and 1837, was promoted brevet brigadier general in 1843 for his actions in these campaigns. Tradition says. Will be back when the war is over."Marines served in the Mexican–American War during Henderson's tenure as Commandant. The sword presented to him at the war's end was inscribed, "From the Halls of Montezuma, to the Shores of Tripoli", giving the opening words to the Marines' hymn. Archibald Henderson died on 6 January 1859, he was buried in the Congressional Cemetery. According to Marine lore, the Colonel Commandant had attempted to will his home — government-provided quarters in which he had lived for 38 years — to his heirs, having forgotten that they were government owned. USS Henderson, Henderson Hall Barracks were named for him.
Second Lieutenant – 4 June 1806 First Lieutenant – 6 March 1807 Captain – 1 April 1811 Brevet Major – 1814 Lieutenant Colonel Commandant – 17 October 1820 Colonel Commandant – 1 July 1834 Brevet Brigadier General – 27 January 1837 Commandant of the Marine Corps List of Historically Important U. S. Marines This article incorporates public domain image from the official USMC biography; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. "Colonel and Brevet Brigadier General Archibald Henderson, USMC". Who's Who in Marine Corps History. History Division, United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 2010-12-29. Dawson, Joseph G.. "With Fidelity and Effectiveness: Archibald Henderson's Lasting Legacy to the U. S. Marine Corps". Journal of Military History. Society for Military History. 62: 727–753. Doi:10.2307/120176. JSTOR 120176. Allan Reed Millett. Allan Reed Millett and Jack Shulimson, eds. Commandants of the Marine Corps. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute.
Pp. 54–73. ISBN 978-0-87021-012-9. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter
Commandant of the Marine Corps
The Commandant of the Marine Corps is the highest-ranking officer in the United States Marine Corps and is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The CMC reports directly to the United States Secretary of the Navy and is responsible for ensuring the organization, policy and programs for the Marine Corps as well as advising the President, the Secretary of Defense, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, the Secretary of the Navy on matters involving the Marine Corps. Under the authority of the Secretary of the Navy, the CMC designates Marine personnel and resources to the commanders of Unified Combatant Commands; the Commandant performs all other functions prescribed in Section 5043 in Title 10 of the United States Code or delegates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in his administration in his name. As with the other joint chiefs, the Commandant is an administrative position and has no operational command authority over United States Marine Corps forces.
The Commandant is nominated by the President for a four-year term of office and must be confirmed by the Senate. By statute, the Commandant is appointed as a four-star general while serving in office. "The Commandant is directly responsible to the Secretary of the Navy for the total performance of the Marine Corps. This includes the administration, internal organization, requirements and readiness of the service; the Commandant is responsible for the operation of the Marine Corps material support system." Since 1801, the official residence of the Commandant has been located in the Marine Barracks in Washington, D. C. and his main offices are in Virginia. The responsibilities of the Commandant are outlined in Title 10, Section 5043, the United States Code and the position is "subject to the authority and control of the Secretary of the Navy"; as stated in the U. S. Code, the Commandant "shall preside over the Headquarters, Marine Corps, transmit the plans and recommendations of the Headquarters, Marine Corps, to the Secretary and advise the Secretary with regard to such plans and recommendations, after approval of the plans or recommendations of the Headquarters, Marine Corps, by the Secretary, act as the agent of the Secretary in carrying them into effect, exercise supervision, consistent with the authority assigned to commanders of unified or specified combatant commands under chapter 6 of this title, over such of the members and organizations of the Marine Corps and the Navy as the Secretary determines, perform the duties prescribed for him by section 171 of this title and other provisions of law and perform such other military duties, not otherwise assigned by law, as are assigned to him by the President, the Secretary of Defense, or the Secretary of the Navy".
Thirty-seven men have served as the Commandant of the Marine Corps. The first Commandant was Samuel Nicholas, who took office as a captain, though there was no office titled "Commandant" at the time, the Second Continental Congress had authorized that the senior-most Marine could take a rank up to Colonel; the longest-serving was Archibald Henderson, sometimes referred to as the "Grand old man of the Marine Corps" due to his thirty-nine-year tenure. In the history of the United States Marine Corps, only one Commandant has been fired from the job: Anthony Gale, as a result of a court-martial in 1820. Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps Military Secretary to the Commandant of the Marine Corps Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps. Allan Reed Millett and Jack Shulimson, eds.. Commandants of the Marine Corps. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-012-9. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter Ulbrich, David J..
Preparing for Victory: Thomas Holcomb and the Making of the Modern Marine Corps, 1936-183. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9781591149033. Official website
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union known as the North, referred to the United States of America and to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America known as "the Confederacy" or "the South". All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the United States Army, though the border areas sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy; the Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them Maryland, which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D. C.. The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war; the Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, training camps.
Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican Party governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion in 1863–64; the Democratic Party supported the war at the beginning in 1861 but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the "Copperheads". The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New York, they lost ground in 1863 in Ohio. In 1864, the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against opposition candidate George B. McClellan, former General-in-Chief of the Union Army and its eastern Army of the Potomac; the war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an new national banking system.
The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers' wives and orphans, for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered in order to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states and localities. Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of July 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, "the South"; the Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained a part of the United States of America. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which recognized the Confederate government; the term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
The subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union...". Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV, Section 3. Before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. Using the term "Union" to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the pre-existing political entity. Confederates saw the Union states as being opposed to slavery referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U. S. Navy as the "Abolition fleet" and the U. S. Army as the "Abolition forces". Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, more advanced commercial and financial systems than the rural South. Additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war.
Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, to protect railroads and other vital points; the Union's great advantages in population and industry would prove to be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union a long while to mobilize these resources. The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian, Allan Nevins, says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment... Anger swept the land. From every side came news of mass meetings, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures. McClintock states: At the time, Northerners were right to wonder at the near unanimity that so followed long months of bitterness and discord.
It would not last throughout the protracted war to come – or through the year – but in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism hidden by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena." Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war grou
Dumfries the Town of Dumfries, is a town in Prince William County, Virginia. The population was 4,961 at the 2010 United States Census. Dumfries is located at 38°34′4″N 77°19′29″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.6 square miles, all of it land. The town is situated 78 miles north of Richmond, it is 25 miles/40 km south of central Washington, D. C; the history of Dumfries began as early as 1690 when Richard Gibson erected a gristmill on Quantico Creek. A customhouse and warehouse followed in 1731, many others cropped up along the estuary by 1732; the Town of Dumfries was formally established on 60 acres of land at the head of the harbor of Quantico Creek, provided by John Graham. He named the town after his birthplace, Scotland. After much political maneuvering, the General Assembly established Dumfries as the first of seven townships in the county. Dumfries received its charter on May 11, 1749, making it the oldest continuously chartered town in Virginia.
The Ceremonial Seal of the Town of Dumfries embodies elements of its heritage, from the period of 1651, when the first patents were issued to colonists, who following the Potomac recognized the value of a snug harbor in Quantico Creek. Thus the foundations for the establishment of a town, which in 1749 received its charter from the Colonial government in Williamsburg, Virginia; the elements of the seal are contained within the pattern formed by the outer frame of a hawser rope or cable, the inner frame of an anchor chain, of a type employed in ships of the Colonial era. Within these frames are found items which are consistent with a town of maritime background, they are overlaid on a chart of the Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac River, with Dumfries indicated at the head of Quantico Creek. The navigational aids of the sextant and compass rose complete the maritime motif; the two water fowl relate to the wetlands of Quantico Creek. The dock with fishnet, ships block and line further the theme of a mercantile port of call.
The thistle indicates the Scottish founders of the town, with the name of Dumfries, taken by John Graham, the founder, in honor of his home in Scotland. The supporters of the shield are, on the left, a Piscataway brave, of the Powhatan Confederacy, the predominant tribe along the Potomac, in this area. On the right, a Colonial militiaman of 1775, when Colonel Henry Lee was company Commander; the shield in its upper quadrant, displays a sailing vessel of the period, below the tobacco leaf, the first commodity, overlaid with shafts of wheat, the commodity that supported the town. When Dumfries became the second leading port in Colonial America receiving tobacco from the upland, it rivaled New York and Boston. Dumfries peaked in size and importance in 1763. For about 15 years Dumfries was a thriving port when several factors brought about its demise: the Revolutionary War and siltation, the shift in the main shipping commodity; the Dumfries Cemetery contains burials of some of the Dumfries pioneers.
Alexander Henderson built a house known as the Henderson House which still stands on a hill in Dumfries, as well as owning various land in Prince William Forest Park. Alexander was a merchant. Alexander is famous for United States Marine Corps commandant Archibald Henderson; the Leesylvania Archeological Site, Old Hotel, Weems-Botts Museum are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Dumfries was combined with the community of Triangle, Virginia to form Dumfries-Triangle in the 1950 United States Census. However, the two communities were separated again by the time of the 1960 census; as of the census of 2000, there were 4,937 people, 1,573 households, 1,198 families residing in the town. The population density was 3,085.6 people per square mile. There were 1,699 housing units at an average density of 1,061.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 48.91% White, 35.26% Black, 0.63% Native American, 1.07% Asian, 3.73% from other races, 8.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.06% of the population.
There were 1,573 households out of which 46.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.8% were non-families. Of all households 16.5% were made up of individuals and 3.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.13 and the average family size was 3.51. In the town, the population was spread out with 35.0% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 33.6% from 25 to 44, 17.1% from 45 to 64, 4.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $43,672, the median income for a family was $46,927. Males had a median income of $35,247 versus $24,451 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,652. About 10.4% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.0% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.
Dumfries is part of Virginia's 31st House of Delegates district. Primary road transportation to Dumfries is provided by U. S. Route 1. Virginia State Route 234 and Interstate 95 are directly adjacent to Dumfries. George Graham, acting U. S. Secretary of War was born in Dumfries. Alexander Henderson, merchant Kendall Marshall, professional basketball player Ali Krieger, professional soccer player M