This article does not cite any sources. (January 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|This United Kingdom road or road transport-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
This article does not cite any sources. (January 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|This United Kingdom road or road transport-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
Finchley Road is a 7 km Inner London main road. Its southern half, in which it gives its name to the centre-west part of Hampstead — having two current railway stations including the name Finchley Road — is designated arterial and is of double standard road width or greater; the road is one Central London's main radial roads — connecting it to parts of, two larger radial roads of, North London. A broader spur as a modern successor, Hendon Way, from the middle diverges to Brent Cross, once considered the south of Hendon, in North London where the M1 motorway starts. Named Finchley New Road, it was built as a turnpike to provide a by-pass to the hillier route north from London through the village of Hampstead; that route had two steep hills either side of Hampstead Village and was difficult for horses with carriages to negotiate when muddy. The Finchley Road Act was passed in 1826 and the new turnpike road was completed in 1835; this coincided with the Outer Circle to Regent's Park to the south.
It started from what was called the'New Road' and ran north. When the road 7 kilometres crosses the boundary of Finchley, as today, its name thus becomes Regents Park Road. In the heart of what became Finchley Central it became Ballards Lane and joined the Great North Road in an inverted-V shaped junction south of Whetstone; the road exacted tolls at a tollgate mid-way. After construction, many grand houses were built along its length near to Fortune Green, Childs Hill and Golders Green, south to north. Today the route follows the A41, it goes north through Swiss Cottage turns north west, forming the border between Hampstead and West Hampstead and turns north again at Child's Hill. The A41 diverges westward and Finchley Road becomes the A598, it continues past Golders Green Underground station, through Temple Fortune to the North Circular Road, crossing it at Henlys Corner. The A598 continues north of the North Circular Road into Finchley, but changes its name to Regents Park Road, it remains a used route in and out of London.
The most commercial part of the road is between the O2 Centre. Stagecoaches, first omnibuses and shelved tramway proposalIn 1856 as many as ten stagecoaches a day ran along Finchley Road, serving Swiss Cottage, where the Atlas Line, a business of these was begun about six years before. Omnibuses reached the area north of Swiss Cottage by way of Finchley Road as far as Finchley Road station before 1880. Omnibuses were extended along Finchley Road to meet others from Edgware Road along West End Lane, continuing north to Childs Hill in Hendon. Motorbuses had replaced horse omnibuses by 1911. Plans for an extensive network of tramways, along Adelaide and Finchley roads, were dropped after opposition from the council, ground landlords, residents. On 2 October 1993 five people were injured and damage caused when three bombs planted by the Provisional IRA exploded. TodayThe Hampstead part of the road is served by Finchley Road Underground station and Finchley Road & Frognal railway station, 435 metres apart on the North London Line.
The road has as such become the colloquial name for the part of Hampstead between West Hampstead and Hampstead-on-the-Hill, centred on Hampstead Underground station. HistoricallyThe St John's Wood part of the road was served by Finchley Road railway station on the Midland Main Line
Cricklewood is an area of north-west London, England, 5 miles northwest of Charing Cross, between Willesden Green and Dollis Hill to the west and Kilburn to the south, West Hampstead and Childs Hill to the south-east and east, Brent Cross to the north. The area is split between three London boroughs: Barnet to the north-east, Brent to the west and Camden to the south-east. Cricklewood was a small rural hamlet around Edgware Road the Roman road, called Watling Street, until the impetus for its urbanisation came with the surface and underground railways in nearby Willesden Green in the 1870s; the shops on Cricklewood Broadway, as Edgware Road is known here, contrast with quieter surrounding streets of late-Victorian, 1930s housing. The area has strong links with Ireland due to a sizeable Irish population and The Crown pub, now the Clayton Crown Hotel, is a local landmark; the 35-hectare Gladstone Park marks its north-western edge. Cricklewood has two conservation areas, the Mapesbury Estate and the Cricklewood Railway Terraces, in 2012 was awarded £1.65 million from the Mayor of London's office to improve the area.
The small settlement at the junction of Cricklewood Lane and the Edgware Road was established by 1294, which by 1321 was called Cricklewood. By the 1750s the Crown was providing for coach travellers, by the 1800s it had a handful of cottages and Cricklewood House as neighbours, was known for its "pleasure gardens". By the 1860s there were a number of substantial villas along the Edgware Road starting with Rockhall Lodge. Childs Hill and Cricklewood station renamed Cricklewood, opened in 1868. In the summer of 1881 the Midland Railway Company moved its locomotive works from Kentish Town to the new "Brent Sidings", in October of the same year it was announced that new accommodation for its workers would be built the now-listed Railway Cottages. Mr H. Finch laid out a handful of streets directly behind the Crown Inn, in 1880; the station had become the terminus for the Midland Railway suburban services by 1884. The census of 1881 showed that the population had grown enough for a new church, St. Peter's replaced a tin chapel in 1891.
A daughter church called Little St. Peter's was opened in 1958 on Claremont Way but closed in 1983; the parish church on Cricklewood Lane was rebuilt in the 1970s. This church building was closed in 2004. Services for Anglicans were held in the Carey Hall on Claremont Road but were discontinued there in December 2015; the London General Omnibus Company commenced services to Regent Street from the Crown in 1883, in 1899 opened a bus garage, still in use and was rebuilt in 2010. By the 1890s, houses and shops had been built along part of Cricklewood Lane. Cricklewood Broadway had become a retail area by 1900 replacing the Victorian villas; the Queens Hall Cinema the Gaumont, replaced Rock Hall House, was itself demolished in 1960. Thorverton and Dersingham Roads were laid out in 1907, the year of the opening of Golders Green Underground station. Cowhouse Farm, latterly Dicker's Farm and Avenue Farm, was closed in 1932. From 1908 to 1935, Westcroft Farm was owned by the Home of Rest for Horses; the Metropolitan Borough of Hampstead opened the Westcroft Estate in 1935.
Much of the land to the west of Edgware Road was part of the estate of All Souls Oxford. Much of the land was wooded and in 1662 there were 79 oaks in Cricklewood; the transformation of the area came with the opening of the underground station in Willesden Green in 1879, known as Willesden Green and Cricklewood station from 1894 to 1938. A number of developers built houses in the 1890s and 1900s. George Furness laid out what he called Cricklewood Park between 1900 on Clock Farm. Roads in the area are named after trees; the name Cricklewood Park is no longer used. To the south of this, Henry Corsellis built Rockhall and Howard Roads from 1894. All Souls' College built a group of roads named after fellows of the college. Further expansion westward was blocked by the Dollis Hill estate, which became a public park, Gladstone Park, in 1901. To the north of Furness's Cricklewood Park Estate, Earl Temple built Temple Road by 1906 and surrounding roads. To the south, the Mapesbury Estate was built between 1895 and 1905 and is a Conservation Area of semi-detached and detached houses.
With the introduction of the tram system in 1904, the motorisation of bus services by 1911, numerous important industries were established. The first of these was the Phoenix Telephone Company in 1911; the Handley Page Aircraft Company soon followed, from 1912 until 1917, at 110 Cricklewood Lane and subsequently occupying a large part of Claremont Road. The Cricklewood Aerodrome was adjacent to their factory; the former aircraft factory was converted into Cricklewood Studios in 1920, the largest film studio in the country at the time. It became the production base for Stoll Pictures during the silent era. After turning out a number of quota quickies, it closed down in 1938; some years the property was redeveloped and hosts a Wickes DIY store. A number of plans were drawn up around the turn of the 20th century to extend the developing London Underground network to Cricklewood. Several proposals were put forward to construct an und
The A1 in London is the southern part of the A1 road. It starts at Aldersgate in the City of London, passing through the capital to Borehamwood on the northern fringe of Greater London, before continuing to Edinburgh; the road travels through the City and three London boroughs: Islington and Barnet, which include the districts of Islington, Highgate and Mill Hill, travels along Upper Street and Holloway Road, crossing the North Circular Road in Hendon, a district in the London Borough of Barnet. The A1 is the most recent in a series of routes north out of London to York and beyond, it was designated in 1921 by the Ministry of Transport under the Great Britain road numbering scheme, comprising existing roads and streets historic, using stretches of purpose-built new roads in what is now the outer London borough of Barnet. The Archway Road section was built by Thomas Telford using Roman cement and gravel, an innovative technique, used there for the first time, is the basis for modern road building.
The route follows the historic route of the Great North Road, though from 1954 it has diverted round the congested suburbs of Finchley and High Barnet along modern roads constructed in the 1920s and 1930s. The A1 is one of London's main roads, providing a link to the M1 and the A1 motorways, on to the Midlands, Northern England and Scotland. Despite this, its main use is to connect a number of neighbourhoods within north London; the roads along which the A1 route travels are the shared responsibility of the local boroughs, the Greater London Authority, the British Government via the Department for Transport. The A1 is the latest in a series of routes north from London to York and beyond, was formed in 1921 by the Ministry of Transport as part of the Great Britain road numbering scheme; the earliest documented northern routes out of London are the roads created by the Romans during the period 43 to 410 AD, which consisted of a variety of "Iters" on the Antonine Itinerary, a combination of which were used by the Anglo-Saxons as the route from London to York, which became known as Ermine Street.
Ermine Street became known as the Old North Road, is used within London by the current A10. By the 12th century, because of flooding and damage by traffic on Ermine Street, an alternative route out of London was found through Islington and Muswell Hill, this was the origin of the Great North Road that would become the A1; until the 14th century the route went up what is now Hornsey Road – the A103 road, but when that became impassable a new route along Holloway Road via Highgate was created in the 14th century. The section through Highgate was bypassed in the early 19th century by the creation of a new road, Archway Road, around the same time a turnpike road, New North Road and Canonbury Road, was constructed linking the start of the Old North Road around Shoreditch with the Great North Road at Highbury Corner; the route of the A1 in London started at Aldersgate Bars, which marked the boundary of the City of London, followed the Great North Road mail coach route through Barnet. During the early 1970s plans to widen the A1 along the Archway Road section were abandoned after considerable opposition and four public inquiries during which road protesters disrupted proceedings.
The scheme was dropped in 1990. Responsibility for the roads along which the A1 route travels are shared by the individual local boroughs, the Greater London Authority, the British Government; the first organised London-wide authority dealing with roads in London was the Metropolitan Board of Works, set up in 1856. The MBW replaced the disparate turnpike trusts, amalgamated in 1826 into the single control of Government Commissioners, was itself replaced by the London County Council in 1889; the LCC became the Greater London Council in 1965, during the 1960s when traffic management in London was being modernised, the London Ringways was proposed, the GLC, not in favour of increasing traffic into central London, had control of the inner London roads, while the government, through the Ministry of Transport, in favour of widening roads, had control of outer London. These different approaches resulted in the Ministry of Transport widening a stretch of the A1 until it reached the control of the GLC, when the widening abruptly stopped.
Due to the problems associated with two different and opposing bodies having responsibility for London's roads, the government were keen to take control of the major routes, made plans in 1983 for the Department of Transport to take over 70 miles of road, including significant parts of the A1. In 2000 control of roads in London passed to Transport for London, a department of GLA created in 2000 as part of the Greater London Authority Act 1999, the major roads, including the A1, were declassified as trunk roads; the route of the A1 in London runs from the northern end of St. Martin's Le Grand in the City to Borehamwood in Hertfordshire travels on the northern fringe of Greater London to Bignell's Corner, where it crosses the M25 and becomes a motorway, designated A1, which alternates with the dual carriageway A1 as it continues to Edinburgh; the London section of the road passes through part of the City of London and
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Hendon is a London urban area in the Borough of Barnet, 7 miles northwest of Charing Cross. Hendon was an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex and has been part of Greater London since 1965. Hendon had a population of 52,972 in 2011 which includes the West Hendon and Colindale wards that are separated from Hendon by the NW9 postcode area Hendon was a civil parish in the county of Middlesex; the manor is described in Domesday, but the name'Hendun' – meaning'at the highest hill' – is of earlier origin. Evidence of Roman settlement was discovered by members of the Hendon and District Archaeological Society and others; the Midland Railway and the Great Northern Railways were built through Hendon in the 1860s. The underground arrived at Golders Green to the south in 1907, the line being extended to Hendon Central and Edgware in 1923/24. Much of the area developed into a suburb of London and now the area is built-up with some countryside in the Mill Hill area, such as the Copthall Playing fields.
Hendon's industry was centred on manufacturing, included motor and aviation works, developed from the 1880s. In 1931 the civil parish of Edgware was abolished and its area was added to the great civil parish of Hendon. Hendon became an urban district in 1894. In 1932 the urban district became the Municipal Borough of Hendon; the municipal borough was abolished in 1965 and the area became part of the London Borough of Barnet. Hendon's main claim to fame is in the early days of flying and Hendon Aerodrome is now the RAF Museum; the area is associated with pioneer aviator Claude Grahame-White. Another part of the Aerodrome site is the Hendon Police College, the training centre for the Metropolitan Police; the Metropolitan Police Book of Remembrance is displayed in the entrance of Simpson Hall at the centre. There is a memorial garden, it is ancient parish. The name means the high place or down, Hendon's motto is Endeavour; the Burroughs is a civic centre for the London Borough of Barnet, the site of Middlesex University Business School.
The River Brent runs through Hendon. On 30 November 2009 the Environment Agency warned residents of flooding along River Brent from Hendon to Brentford, after a day of notably heavy rain. Several premises were temporarily flooded in Perivale. Hendon and District Archaeological Society has found a number of interesting Roman artifacts at Church End but nothing conclusive, the Saxon settlement near to St Mary's Church may not be a continuation of its Roman predecessor; the Domesday Survey mentions a priest, a church building was documented in 1157. The oldest fabric of the present church is 13th century; the 50 ft tower was much restored in the 18th century when the weathercock in the form of a "Lamb and Flag", the badge of St John, was added. However, the church is dedicated to an enigma that defies local historians to this day, it may be a sign of the cult of Mary Magdalene said to have been promoted by the Templars and their successors. Eastern extensions carried out between 1913–15 to designs by architect Temple Moore have expanded the church.
Sir Stamford Raffles, founder of Singapore in 1819, is buried in the church. Another grave of distinction in the churchyard is that of football manager Herbert Chapman who had great success in charge of Northampton Town, Leeds City, Huddersfield Town and Arsenal before his sudden death from pneumonia in 1934. Bram Stoker may well have had St Mary's graveyard in mind when he created the fictional "Kingstead", the uneasy resting place of Lucy Westenra, in his book Dracula. However, St Mary's graveyard is the resting place of a more benign spirit, Coventry Patmore's wife Emily, the model for the poem The Angel in the House, upon whom the Victorian ideal of domesticity "the Angel of the Hearth" is based. Adjacent to the church at the top of Greyhound Hill is the Greyhound pub, rebuilt in 1898. Called the Church House, it was used for vestry meetings from the 1600s to 1878. In 1676 the inn, by known as the Greyhound, burned down in a fire. In 1855 a fire brigade was established, renamed the Hendon volunteer fire brigade in 1866, a manual fire engine was kept in a building near the church.
Further west, adjacent to the Greyhound pub, is the oldest building in Hendon, a seventeenth-century farmhouse which became the former Church Farmhouse Museum, now part of the campus of nearby Middlesex University. The Claddagh Ring pub known as The Midland Arms, in Church Road, Hendon, is somewhat more than nine miles from Athenry; the sign is genuinely Irish, giving pleasure to a significant Irish community in this area. Another pub, the Midland Hotel, close to Hendon station, was opened in 1890 by The Midland Railway Company to provide liquid refreshment for commuters using the Midland Railway. At the time when both of these pubs were open The Midland Arms was known as The Upper Midland and The Midland Hotel was known as The Lower Midland; the Irish connection with Hendon goes back at least to the early 19th century when many of that country came here to make the hay, for which Hendon was famous. The Burroughs was a distinct hamlet until the 1890s, known from 1316 until the 19th century as'the burrows', which no doubt referred to the keeping of rabbit warrens.
After the UK outbreak of myxomatosis in the 1950s, rabbits were smoked out of the area using steam engines. During the 18th century, some of the immediate estate surrounding Hendon Place was auctioned off for large houses, with much of the land being used for building other mansions. Of these, Hendon Hall (now a hot
The A41 is a major trunk road in England that links London and Birkenhead, although it has now in parts been superseded by motorways. It passes through or near various towns and cities including Watford, Kings Langley, Hemel Hempstead, Solihull, West Bromwich, Newport, Whitchurch and Ellesmere Port, it follows part of the line of the old Roman road, Akeman Street and the eighteenth century Sparrows Herne turnpike. With the opening of the M40 extension in 1990 from junction 8 – linking with the M42 near Birmingham – much of the route was downgraded in importance; the sections between Bicester and the M42 near Solihull, West Midlands have been re-classified B4100, A4177 and A4141. The route begins near the Marble Arch end of Oxford Street in London's West End, at the junction with Portman Street/Gloucester Place – Baker Street/Orchard Street, it becomes a dual-carriageway on Finchley Road, through Swiss Cottage, along Hendon Way, intersects with the North Circular Road near Brent Cross shopping centre.
The road passes through Hendon and after the junction with the A5150. The A41 overlaps the A1 at Five Ways Corner with the section known as Watford Way, it passes through Mill Hill, separating with the A1 at Apex Corner roundabout After crossing the M1, near Elstree, it links the M1 at Junction 4, meets the A5 at a roundabout. The A41 continues alongside the M1 into Hertfordshire; this section is known as Elton Way, as far as the roundabout with the B462. The next section is dual-carriageway. Still running parallel to the M1, it intersects with Junction 5; the road continues north, passing over the River Colne, to the east of Watford, it is referred to as the "Watford Bypass", crossing the A412 near Garston at "the Dome roundabout". After passing under the junction with the A405, the A41 turns towards the west. At a roundabout, with the A411 to Watford to the south, the M25 spur straight ahead to join the M25 westbound at Junction 19, the A41 continues north through Langleybury, crossing the River Gade and the Grand Union Canal, to meet the M25 at Junction 20.
Here, a new dual-carriageway bypasses Kings Langley. The old route continues to south of Tring. North of the M25 the road is a near motorway standard "A" road with all junctions grade-separated via underpasses or flyovers, but curves and gradients a little steeper. There are no hard shoulders but frequent lay-bys, it climbs through the Chiltern Hills descends into the valley of the River Bulbourne crossing water meadows just outside Hemel Hempstead at Boxmoor. There are grade separated junctions with the A414, A4251 and A416; the route returns to open country north of here. It passes the National Film Archive. Before Tring, near Wigginton, it crosses Chiltern Way. An arched footbridge spans the road just near the summit before it passes just east of Tring and descends the Chiltern scarp into the Vale of Aylesbury; the Tring bypass was built in 1973 as the A41 motorway, the first section of the Watford-Tring Motorway, although this section was downgraded on 6 July 1987. The Tring bypass ends with the border of Hertfordshire, at the junction with the B4635, B4009 and B488.
The section to Tring was built in the early 1990s, although to a lower standard and only from the M25 junction 20. There were two sections – the 7-mile £23.9m Berkhamsted bypass, opened September 1993 and the 5-mile £32.7m Kings Langley bypass, opened August 1993. On 3 October 2003, the dual carriageway section was extended to the 3-mile £25m Aston Clinton Bypass, intended to be built at the same time as the two sections further south, it enters the district of Aylesbury Vale. It crosses the Grand Union Canal, there is a junction with the B489, finishes at a roundabout, becoming Aston Clinton Road; the road goes straight through Aylesbury, a bottleneck. It meets the A4157 at a junction as Tring Road, the next roundabout is near Aylesbury Grammar School and a Tesco, it meets the A418 ring-road and becomes Exchange Street meets the A413 from Wendover at a roundabout and becomes Friarage Road, passing close to a Morrisons and the railway station. The A418 turns to the left and A41 continues straight ahead to become Gatehouse Road at the next roundabout, it leaves to left as Bicester Road near the Applegreen Aylesbury Service Station.
After four roundabouts, it crosses the River Thame. It meets a roundabout with access for the new Berryfields development as well as Aylesbury Vale Parkway before passing under a railway line through Waddesdon passes close to Westcott near the former airfield of RAF Westcott. At Kingswood, it passes the Crooked Plough and Anchor pubs, it enters Oxfordshire and the district of Cherwell, at Blackthorn it crosses the River Ray and meets a low bridge, a 14-foot limit but due to bridge strikes, the road was lowered and the bridge now has a 15-foot limit. Plans for an Aylesbury bypass exist and are well supported locally but no government decision has been made; the £5.7m 2-mile first stage of the Bicester bypass opened in November 1990, with the 2-mile £3.9m second stage opened in May 1993, has many roundabouts. Since 1993, the road now heads south-west where it becomes part of the M40 at junction 9, meeting with the A34 (which ov