Frederiksberg Palace is a Baroque residence, located in Frederiksberg, adjacent to the Copenhagen Zoo. It commands an impressive view over Frederiksberg Gardens designed as a palace garden in the Baroque style. Constructed and extended from 1699 to 1735, the palace served as the royal family’s summer residence until the mid-19th century. Since 1869, it has housed the Royal Danish Military Academy; as crown prince, Frederick IV had broadened his education by travelling in Europe. He was impressed by the architecture in Italy and, on his return to Denmark, asked his father, Christian V, for permission to build a summer palace on Solbjerg as the hill in Valby was known; the original building designed by Ernst Brandenburger, was completed in 1703 for Frederick IV as a small, one-storey summer residence. The first major extension, when it was converted into a three-storey H-shaped building, was completed in 1709 by Johan Conrad Ernst, giving the palace an Italian Baroque appearance, it was Lauritz de Thurah who executed the third and final extension from 1733 to 1738 when the palace received extensions to the lateral wings encircling the courtyard.
Frederick IV spent many happy years at the palace. In 1716, he received the Russian czar Peter the Great at Frederiksberg Palace and in 1721, shortly after the death of his first wife, Queen Louise, he married his mistress Anne Sophie Reventlow there. Christian VII, married to the English princess Caroline Matilda spent some time in the palace, their son, to become Frederick VI, loved the palace and lived there both as crown prince and as king. After Frederick VI's dowager wife Queen Marie died at the palace in March 1852, the building lay empty and fell into disrepair. In 1868, it was transferred to the War Ministry and the following year it became the Officers Academy; the building has twice undergone significant restoration work, first from 1927 to 1932 and from 1993 to 1998. During the construction of the original palace building, it was decided that there should be a chapel in the east wing; this explains why there is no indication of the chapel from the outside. It covers the space behind the six central windows on the ground floor.
Wilhelm Friedrich von Platen and Ernst Brandenburger designed the chapel in the Baroque style. It was inaugurated on 31 March 1710; when the palace was taken over by the Officers Academy, the chapel's furnishings, including the impressive pulpit, were transferred elsewhere. However, they can still be seen there today; the palace and the chapel can be visited. They contain imposing stucco work, ceiling paintings, an elegant marble bathroom with a secret access staircase, the Princesses' pancake kitchen. In 1854, British MP S. M. Peto gave an altar window to the King of Demark for the chapel. Since 1932, the chapel has been used as the local parish church; the palace overlooks Frederiksberg Gardens which dates back to the first palace in 1703. At that time, it was designed by H. H. Scheel with the assistance of garden architect J. C. Krieger as a symmetrical Baroque garden with waterfalls and rows of linden trees along the palace terrace. From 1795 to 1804, it was redesigned by Peter Pedersen as an English landscape garden with the winding paths, lakes and canals which can be seen today.
It was during this period that the Apis Temple were added. List of castles and palaces in Denmark Tourism in Denmark Media related to Frederiksberg Slot at Wikimedia Commons
Hirschholm Palace known as Hørsholm Palace, was a royal palace located in present-day Hørsholm municipality just north of Copenhagen, Denmark. It was rebuilt in the Baroque style in the 1740s and, one of the finest buildings of its time, it became known as the "Versailles of the North", it developed a notorious reputation in connection with its role in the affair between Johann Friedrich Struensee and Queen Caroline Mathilda in the 1770s. After that it fell into disrepair and was demolished in 1809-13; the palace was designed by Lauritz de Thurah for King Christian VI and his consort Queen Sophie Magdalene, was intended as their summer residence. Hirschholm Palace was built on a site, used since the Middle Ages. From around 1100 there was a fortification at site known as Hørningsholm. In 1391 the estate became crown land. At the end of the 16th century Frederik II and Christian IV built a royal hunting castle lodge on the site; the estate, which covered a large area was called the Noble Estate of Hørsholm, was endowed to various noblemen and members of the royal court.
By the middle of the 17th century a royal tradition had developed whereby the ruling king bestowed Hørsholm Palace to his consort, it was used as a summer residence. The estate was now being managed directly by the royal house, income went to the Queen. Frederick IV’s consort Queen Louise owned Hørsholm Palace between 1700 and 1721, she added a number of farm buildings to the estate. The de Thurah-designed baroque palace was completed in 1744, was one of the most impressive building works of that period, it was referred to as "The Versailles of the North". When the king died in 1746 it became Sophie Magdalene’s residence as Queen Dowager, she carried out a number of change on the estate that pointed towards the agricultural reforms that would come to play a big role in the country during the coming decades. Thurah’s drawings of the palace were published in Den Danske Vitruvius in 1746-1749; the Dowager Queen died in 1770, the palace was taken over by King Christian VII who used it as a summer residence for his family and court.
On 17 June 1771 the royal family and court took summer residence at the Palace, on 7 July Caroline Mathilde gave birth to her second child, Princess Louise Augusta, whose father was certainly Struensee. That summer has come to be referred to as the "Hirschholm Summer" in Danish history. After that summer, after the arrest of Struensee and the Queen on 17 January 1772, the subsequent execution of Struensee, the banishment and imprisonment of the Queen, the palace stood empty until 1810. At that time Frederik VI had the now dilapidated palace torn down for use as build materials for the rebuilding of Christiansborg Palace, which had burned to the ground in the fire of 1794. In 1822-23 a small church designed by architect Christian Frederik Hansen was built on the grounds of the demolished palace; the park surrounding the church, located on a small island in a lake, still bears some evidence of the original palace garden. A number of the farm buildings Louise had built in the early 18th century still exist.
Some of them house the Danish Museum of Forestry. The Hørsholm Local Museum has a permanent exhibit about the palace, the royal affair and its consequences. List of castles and palaces in Denmark Hørsholm Local Museum Images
Carlo Maratta or Maratti was an Italian painter, active in Rome, known principally for his classicizing paintings executed in a Late Baroque Classical manner. Although he is part of the classical tradition stemming from Raphael, he was not exempt from the influence of Baroque painting and in his use of colour, his contemporary and friend, Giovanni Bellori, wrote an early biography on Maratta. Born in Camerano part of the Papal States, Maratta went to Rome in 1636, accompanied by, Don Corintio Benicampi, secretary to Taddeo Barberini, he became an apprentice in the studio of Andrea Sacchi. It was at this time that the debate between Sacchi and Pietro da Cortona took place at the Accademia di San Luca, the artists academy in Rome. Sacchi argued that paintings should only have a few figures which should express the narrative whereas Cortona countered that a greater number of figures allowed for the development of sub themes. Maratta's painting at this time was allied with the classicism of Sacchi and was far more restrained and composed than the Baroque exuberance of Pietro da Cortona’s paintings.
Like Sacchi, his paintings were inspired by the works of the great painters from Parma and Bologna: Annibale Carracci, Guido Reni, Francesco Albani and Giovanni Lanfranco. He developed a close relationship with Sacchi till the death of his master in 1661, his fresco of'Constantine ordering the Destruction of Pagan Idols' for the Baptistery of the Lateran, based on designs by Sacchi, gained him attention as an artist but his first prominent independent work was the'Adoration of the Shepherds' for San Giuseppe di Falegnami. Another major work from this period was'The Mystery of the Trinity Revealed to St. Augustine' painted for the church of Santa Maria dei Sette Dolori. Pope Alexander VII commissioned many paintings from him including The Visitation for Santa Maria della Pace and the Nativity in the gallery of the Quirinal Palace where he worked under the direction of Cortona who selected him for this task, his pictures of the late 1650s exhibit light and movement derived from Roman Baroque painting, combined with classical idealism.
From 1660, he built up a private client base amongst wealthy patrons of Europe, establishing the most prominent art studio in Rome of his time and, after the death of Bernini in 1680, he became the leading artist in Rome. In 1664, Maratta became the director of the Accademia di San Luca and, concerned with elevating the status of artists, promoted the study and drawing of the art of Classical Antiquity. During the 1670s he was commissioned by Pope Clement X to fresco the ceiling of the salone in the Palazzo Altieri. Unlike Giovan Battista Gaulli’s nave fresco in the nearby church of the Gesu, being painted at the same time, Maratta did not employ illusionism, his major works of this period included: The Appearance of the Virgin to St. Philip Neri now in the Pitti Palace in Florence, it was not, as his critics claimed, numerous depictions of the Virgin that earned him the nickname Carluccio delle Madonne or ‘Little Carlo of the Madonnas', but his gifted interpretation of this theme. Other works included an altarpiece, The Death of St Francis Xavier in the San Francesco Xavier Chapel in the right transept of the Church of the Gesu.
Maratta was a well-known portrait painter. He painted Cardinal Antonio Barberini, Pope Clement IX and a self-portrait, he painted numerous English sitters during their visits to Rome on the Grand Tour, having sketched antiquities for John Evelyn as early as 1645. In 1679 or 1680, a daughter, was born to Maratta by his mistress, Francesca Gommi, he recognized her as his daughter in 1698 and upon becoming a widower in 1700, Maratta married the girl's mother. His daughter's features were incorporated into a number of Maratta's late paintings. In 1704, Maratta was knighted by Pope Clement XI. With a general decline in patronage around the beginning of the eighteenth century and due to the economic downturn, Maratta turned his hand to painting restoration, including works by Raphael and Carracci, his sculptural designs included figures of the Apostles for San Giovanni in Laterano. He continued to run his studio into old age when he could no longer paint. Maratta died in 1713 in Rome, was buried there in Santa Maria degli Angeli.
List of Carlo Maratta pupils and assistants Birth of the Virgin, 1643–45, Church of Saint Clare, Nocera Umbra. Juno Beseeching Aeolus to Release the Winds Against the Trojan Fleet, 1654–1656, Ackland Art Museum, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; the Triumph of Clemency, 1673–1675, Palazzo Altieri, Rome. The Virgin and Child in Glory, c.1680, Spanish Royal Collection, National Museum, Madrid St John the Baptist Explaining the Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception to Sts Gregory and John Chrysostom, 1686, Cybo Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome. Portrait of Clement IX Rospigliosi, 1669, Pinacoteca Gallery, Vatican Museums, Rome. Saint Joseph and the Infant Christ, Dunedin Public Art Gallery, Dunedin. Assumption of an Enthroned Virgin, Santa Maria in Vepretis, San Ginesio Chaney, Edward; the Evolution of English Collecting. Yale University Press. Finn, Alex. A Kiss in Time. N.k
Louis August le Clerc
Louis August le Clerc known as Louis-Augustin le Clerc, was a French-born sculptor working in Denmark. He was born in Metz, France to copperplate engraver Sebastian le Clerc and his wife Charlotte van den Kerckhove, he was summoned to Denmark at the age of 47, lived out the rest of his life there as a royal sculptor to the Danish Court and as professor at the Royal Danish Academy of Art. He helped introduce French Rococo artistic ideals to Denmark, he studied at the French Academy of Art, the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture under sculptor Charles-Antoine Coysevox. There he won two prizes for his work, he traveled to Ansbach in Bavaria and Brühl near Cologne in 1734-1735. In Ansbach he worked for the Margrave Carl Wilhelm Friderich. In Brühl he worked for Cologne’s Archbishop and German Empire Prince Elector Clemens August von Wittelsbach. Here he assisted Bavarian Court master builder, architect François de Cuvilliés 1734-1735 on the Elector’s hunting lodge Falkenlust, on the grounds of Augustusburg.
These buildings are now considered the most important buildings of the late Baroque and Rococo in all of the Rhineland. They were declared a World Heritage Site in 1984 by UNESCO. Figure groups in wall niches in the upper vestibule sculpted by le Clerc are still extant, he was summoned to Denmark in the summer of 1735 by King Christian VI to help with the interior decoration of Christiansborg Palace. He arrived that same year along with his wife, Caroline Wilhelmine Isabella, was named royal sculptor to the Danish Court in December of that same year, he was, along with Elias David Häusser and Nicolai Eigtved, one of the primary figures involved in the creation of Christiansborg. He was named head of the sculpture and stone work at the palace in 1737. Most of the work he did at Christiansborg, was lost, having been destroyed in the fire of 1794. Existing still to this day are wood carved vases in Christiansborg’s horse stalls, relief medallions on the side of the Marble Bridge that leads to the castle’s main entrance.
Four perspective drawings he made of Christiansborg 1746-1747 are in the collection of the Engraving Museum in Copenhagen. Destroyed work from the castle includes the cornices and frames of the windows. In 1739 he created a fountain in the King’s Garden at Rosenborg Castle representing a boy with a swan; the sandstone original was replaced by a bronze figure featuring a similar motif. After Hendrick Krock’s death in 1738 le Clerc, along with the Venetian history painter Hieronimo Miani, took over the leadership of the burgeoning Royal Danish Academy of Art known as the Drawing and Painting Academy, he served as leader of the Academy 1740-1748. His first wife died on January 22, 1741, he married his second wife Jacobine Louise Lefèvre a year on January 30, 1742. He continued alone in the role of Academy director after Miani left Denmark in 1745, until architect Nicolai Eigtved took full control over the Academy. In 1746 Frederik V, the successor king to Christian VI, came to the throne; as the king was an absolute king, the Academy’s protector, changes in government could, did, mean major changes to organizations dependent on royalty’s good graces.
While le Clerc had been favoured by King Christian VI, who appreciated his artistic abilities, Frederik V favoured other artists. Frederik V affirmed his support for the Academy by issuing a royal resolution on February 12, 1748. In addition to a financial commitment there were specified organizational changes. At the same time le Clerc was named professor to the Academy, one of the first artists to be so named. Frederik V established the current Academy of Art in 1754, he was made a member of the Academy that same year, named professor. Le Clerc did not play a significant role in other than as a teacher. After Frederik V had summoned another French-born sculptor Jacques Saly to Denmark in 1752 to create a monumental equestrian statue of himself for the courtyard of Amalienborg Palace, le Clerc’s importance went down and his production became small, he continued as professor at the Academy until his death. His artistic skills were not employed much in his years, he died in Copenhagen, in his house on Brolæggerstræde, on March 8, 1771.
He was buried in the Reformed Cemetery in Copenhagen. Most of his work has been lost to the ravages of time due to the disastrous fire at Christiansborg. In addition to the few extant pieces noted, there is still work of le Clerc’s in the Knight’s Hall in Moltkes Palace, one of the four buildings at the Amalienborg Palace complex, but before the great fire destroyed so much of his work, the tides had shifted against him. Rococo, as an artistic ideal, had been discredited, Frederik V, the successor king to le Clerc’s great patron, chose to favour other artists. In addition, some drawing of his work are still in existence, his portrait of Carl Gustaf Pilo is in the keepsake of the Academy. KID Kunst Index Danmark Danish Biographical Encyclopedia