Oude Kerk, Amsterdam
The Oude Kerk is Amsterdam’s oldest building and oldest parish church, founded circa 1213 and consecrated in 1306 by the bishop of Utrecht with Saint Nicolas as its patron saint. After the Reformation in 1578 it became a Calvinist church, it stands in De Wallen, now Amsterdam's main red-light district. The square surrounding the church is the Oudekerksplein. By around 1213, a wooden chapel had been erected at the location of today's Oude Kerk. Over time, this structure was replaced by a stone church, consecrated in 1306; the church has seen a number of renovations performed by 15 generations of Amsterdam citizens. The church stood for only a half-century. Not long after the turn of the 15th century and south transepts were added to the church creating a cross formation. Work on these renovations was completed in 1460, though it is that progress was interrupted by the great fires that besieged the city in 1421 and 1452. Before the Alteratie, or Reformation in Amsterdam of 1578, the Oude Kerk was Roman Catholic.
Following William the Silent’s defeat of the Spanish in the Dutch Revolt, the church was taken over by the Calvinist Dutch Reformed Church. Throughout the 16th-century battles, the church was looted and defaced on numerous occasions, first in the Beeldenstorm of 1566, when a mob destroyed most of the church art and fittings, including an altarpiece with a central panel by Jan van Scorel and side panels painted on both sides by Maarten van Heemskerck. Only the paintings on the ceiling, which were unreachable, were spared. Locals would gather in the church to gossip, peddlers sold their goods, beggars sought shelter; this was not tolerated by the Calvinists and the homeless were expelled. In 1681, the choir was closed-off with an oak screen. Above the screen is the text, The prolonged misuse of God's church, were here undone again in the year seventy-eight, referring to the Reformation of 1578. In that same year, the Oude Kerk became home to the registry of marriages, it was used as the city archives.
The chest was kept safe in the iron chapel. The bust of famous organist and composer Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck celebrates the lifetime he spent playing in the church, his early career began at the age of fifteen when he succeeded his deceased father Pieter Swybertszoon as the Oude Kerk’s organist. He went on to compose music for all 150 Psalms and secured an international reputation as a leading Dutch composer, his music would be played over the city from the church’s bell tower. He is buried in the church. Rembrandt was a frequent visitor to the Oude Kerk and his children were all christened here, it is the only building in Amsterdam that remains in its original state since Rembrandt walked its halls. In the Holy Sepulchre is a small Rembrandt exhibition, a shrine to his wife Saskia van Uylenburgh, buried here in 1642; each year on 9 March, at 8:39 am, the early morning sun illuminates her tomb. An early spring breakfast event is held annually; the church covers an area of some 3,300 m2. The foundations were set on an artificial mound, thought to be the most solid ground of the settlement in this marshy province.
The roof of the Oude Kerk is the largest medieval wooden vault in Europe. The Estonian planks date to boast some of the best acoustics in Europe; the Oude Kerk contains 12 misericords. The floor consists of gravestones; the reason for this is. Local citizens continued to be buried on the site within the confines of the church until 1865. There are 2500 graves in the Oude Kerk, under which are buried 10,000 Amsterdam citizens, including: Jacob van Heemskerck, naval hero Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck and organist Adriaen Block and explorer Catharina Questiers and dramatist Jacob de Graeff Dircksz. Amsterdam regent Andries de Graeff, Amsterdam regent Cornelis de Graeff, Amsterdam regent Catharina Hooft, woman of the Dutch golden age Pieter Lastman, painter Willem van der Zaan, Admiral Laurens Bake, poet Abraham van der Hulst, Admiral Saskia van Uylenburgh, Wife of Rembrandt Cornelis Hooft, statesman Jan Jacobszoon Hinlopen, merchant Kiliaen van Rensselaer, owner of the only successful patroonship in New Netherland, Rensselaerswyck.
Frans Banning Cocq, burgomaster of Amsterdam and central figure in Rembrandts masterpiece The Night Watch Nicasius de Sille, Ambassador Caspar Commelijn, botanist Jan van der Heyden and print maker Johannes Hudde, burgomaster of Amsterdam and mathematician Lucretia Wilhelmina van Merken and poet The Oude Kerk holds four pipe organs, the old church organ built in 1658 and the cabinet organ built in 1767. The third was built by the German Christian Vater in 1724 and is regarded as one of the finest Baroque organs in Europe, it was acknowledged by the church Commissioners as "perfect". The organ was dismantled whilst renovations were made to the church tower in 1738, upon reassembling it, Casper Müller made alterations to give the organ more force, it became to acknowledge the improvement of sound. The fourth was constructed for the church by Organi Puccini of Pisa in 2010. Beginning in spring of 2019 the restored Vater-Müller organ will again be played; the Oude Kerk is now a centre for contemporary heritage.
Artists including Marinus Boezem, Christian Boltanski, Janet Cardiff and George Bures Miller were commissioned by the Oude
The Senses (Rembrandt)
The Senses is a series of five oil paintings, completed c. 1624 or 1625 by Rembrandt, depicting the five senses. The whereabouts of one, representing the sense of taste, is unknown. Another, representing smell, was only re-identified in 2015. Rembrandt was only around eighteen years old. In about the 1720s the four known paintings were extended, but only one, retains the additions and those are now concealed by its frame, so that it appears to retain its original format. Three of the extant paintings, those belonging to the Leiden Collection, were reunited for the first time in public at the Getty Center, in Los Angeles, United States from May to August 2016, all four were shown from September to November 2016 at the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, England; the fifth painting was represented by an empty frame. The full set includes: A Pedlar Selling Spectacles Three Singers Unconscious Patient Stone Operation The paintings are rendered in oil, on oak panels, measure 21 by 18 centimetres; each of the known paintings depicts three people.
A Pedlar Selling Spectacles shows an elderly couple buying a pair of pince-nez spectacles from a pedlar. The work is in the collection of Leiden, in the Netherlands; the scene plays on the Dutch idiom "selling someone glasses" meaning to deceive them. An x-ray shows that the panel was used for a painting of a female nude. Three Singers depicts his elderly parents, singing in candlelight, it refers to various Dutch proverbs which contrast the strong voices of young people with those of the elderly, which are more unsteady. The work is in the private Leiden Collection of United States, it was owned by Baron Willem van Dedem, who had it conserved and the extensions removed, thereby resolving its attribution. Unconscious Patient depicts a woman attempting to revive a man with smelling salts, as a barber-surgeon watches. Long missing, it was identified when offered for auction in New Jersey, United States, in 2015, with an estimate of $US500-800, titled "Oil on Board, Triple Portrait with Lady Fainting" and catalogued as "Continental School, 19thC.
Appears unsigned", with no named artist, as having "paint loss, some restoration to paint, wood cracks". It sold, to the Leiden Collection, for an unknown sum, after achieving $870,000 at the auction, was subsequently cleaned, revealing its "brilliant palette, descriptive brushwork, arranged figures"; this is in fact the only one of the known paintings to be signed, with the monogram RHF. Stone Operation shows a man being operated on by a barber-surgeon watched by the latter's assistant; this work is again in the Leiden Collection. "Stone removal" operations were offered to patients as supposed cure for headaches. Rembrandt is alluding to the Dutch idiom "meaning to fool someone, it is possible. The whereabouts of this work, what it depicts, are unknown
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was a Dutch draughtsman and printmaker. An innovative and prolific master in three media, he is considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art and the most important in Dutch art history. Unlike most Dutch masters of the 17th century, Rembrandt's works depict a wide range of style and subject matter, from portraits and self-portraits to landscapes, genre scenes and historical scenes and mythological themes as well as animal studies, his contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age, when Dutch art, although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was prolific and innovative, gave rise to important new genres. Like many artists of the Dutch Golden Age, such as Jan Vermeer of Delft, Rembrandt was an avid art collector and dealer. Rembrandt never went abroad, but he was influenced by the work of the Italian masters and Netherlandish artists who had studied in Italy, like Pieter Lastman, the Utrecht Caravaggists, Flemish Baroque Peter Paul Rubens.
Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters. Rembrandt's portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible are regarded as his greatest creative triumphs, his self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity. Rembrandt's foremost contribution in the history of printmaking was his transformation of the etching process from a new reproductive technique into a true art form, along with Jacques Callot, his reputation as the greatest etcher in the history of the medium was established in his lifetime and never questioned since. Few of his paintings left the Dutch Republic whilst he lived, but his prints were circulated throughout Europe, his wider reputation was based on them alone.
In his works he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience. Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization"; the French sculptor Auguste Rodin said, "Compare me with Rembrandt! What sacrilege! With Rembrandt, the colossus of Art! We should prostrate ourselves before Rembrandt and never compare anyone with him!" Vincent van Gogh wrote, "Rembrandt goes so deep into the mysterious that he says things for which there are no words in any language. It is with justice that they call Rembrandt—magician—that's no easy occupation." Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on 15 July 1606 in Leiden, in the Dutch Republic, now the Netherlands. He was the ninth child born to Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn and Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuijtbrouck, his family was quite well-to-do. Religion is a central theme in Rembrandt's paintings and the religiously fraught period in which he lived makes his faith a matter of interest.
His mother was Roman Catholic, his father belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church. While his work reveals deep Christian faith, there is no evidence that Rembrandt formally belonged to any church, although he had five of his children christened in Dutch Reformed churches in Amsterdam: four in the Oude Kerk and one, Titus, in the Zuiderkerk; as a boy he attended Latin school. At the age of 14, he was enrolled at the University of Leiden, although according to a contemporary he had a greater inclination towards painting. After a brief but important apprenticeship of six months with the painter Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam, Rembrandt stayed a few months with Jacob Pynas and started his own workshop, though Simon van Leeuwen claimed that Joris van Schooten taught Rembrandt in Leiden. Unlike many of his contemporaries who traveled to Italy as part of their artistic training, Rembrandt never left the Dutch Republic during his lifetime, he opened a studio in Leiden in 1625, which he shared with friend and colleague Jan Lievens.
In 1627, Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou in 1628. In 1629, Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman Constantijn Huygens, who procured for Rembrandt important commissions from the court of The Hague; as a result of this connection, Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until 1646. At the end of 1631 Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam rapidly expanding as the new business capital of the Netherlands, began to practice as a professional portraitist for the first time, with great success, he stayed with an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburgh, in 1634, married Hendrick's cousin, Saskia van Uylenburgh. Saskia came from a good family: her father had been a lawyer and the burgemeester of Leeuwarden; when Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan, she lived with an older sister in Het Bildt. Rembrandt and Saskia were married in the local church of St. Annaparochie without the presence of Rembrandt's relatives. In the same
A tronie is a common type, or group of types, of works common in Dutch Golden Age painting and Flemish Baroque painting that shows an exaggerated facial expression or a stock character in costume. It is related to the French word “tronche”, slang for “mug” or head; the term'tronie' is not defined in art historical literature. Literary and archival sources show that the term'tronie' was not always associated with people. Inventories sometimes referred to flower and fruit still lifes as'tronies'. More common was the meaning of face or visage; the term referred to the entire head a bust, in exceptional cases the whole body. A tronie could be two-dimensional, but made of plaster or stone. Sometimes a tronie was a likeness, the depiction of an individual, including the face of God, Mary, a saint or an angel. In particular a tronie denoted the characteristic appearance of the head of a type, for example a farmer, a beggar or a jester. Tronie sometimes meant so much as a grotesque head or a model such as the type of an ugly old person.
When conceived as the face of an individual and of a type a tronie's aim was to express feelings and character in an accurate manner and must therefore be expressive. In modern art-historical usage the term tronie is restricted to figures not intended to depict an identifiable person, so it is a form of genre painting in a portrait format. A painted head or bust only, if concentrating on the facial expression, but half-length when featured in an exotic costume, tronies might be based on studies from life or use the features of actual sitters; the picture was sold on the art market without identification of the sitter, was not commissioned and retained by the sitter as portraits were. Similar unidentified figures treated as history paintings would be given a title from the classical world, for example the Rembrandt painting now known as Saskia as Flora; the genre started in the Low Countries in the 16th century where it was inspired by some of the grotesque heads drawn by Leonardo. Leonardo had pioneered drawings of paired grotesque heads whereby two heads in profile, were placed opposite each other in order to accentuate their diversity.
This paired juxtaposition was adopted by artists in the Low Countries. In 1564 or 1565 Joannes and Lucas van Doetecum are believed to have engraved 72 heads attributed to Pieter Brueghel the Elder that followed this paired arrangement; this paired model was still being used by some artists in the 17th century. For instance, the Flemish artist Jan van de Venne, active in the first half of the 17th century painted a number of tronies juxtaposing different faces. Several Rembrandt self-portrait etchings are tronies, as are paintings of himself, his son and his wives. Three Vermeer paintings were described as "tronies" in the Dissius auction of 1696 including the Girl with a Pearl Earring and the Washington Young Girl with a flute. Frans Hals painted a number of tronies, which are now among his best-known works, including the two tronies known as Malle Babbe and the Gypsy Girl. Adriaen Brouwer was one of the most successful practitioners of the genre as he had a talent for expressiveness, his work gave a face to lower-class figures by infusing their images with recognizable and vividly expressed human emotions—anger, joy and pleasure.
His Youth Making a Face shows a young man with a satirical and mocking gesture which humanises him, however uninviting he may appear. Brouwer's vigorous application of paint in this composition, with his characteristically short, unmodulated brushstrokes, increases the dramatic effect. Genre painters returned to the old theme of the allegory of the five senses and created series of tronies depicting the five senses. Examples are Lucas Franchoys the Younger's A man removing a plaster, the sense of touch and Joos van Craesbeeck's The Smoker which represents taste; the tronie is related to, has some overlap with, the "portrait historié", a portrait of a real person as another historical or mythological, figure. Jan de Bray specialised in these, many portraitists sometimes showed aristocratic ladies in particular as mythological figures. Joseph Ducreux - French 18th century portraitist whose less formal works use extreme expressions Franz Xaver Messerschmidt - Austrian sculptor best known for his extreme "character heads" Hirschfelder, Dagmar: Tronie und Porträt in der niederländischen Malerei des 17.
Jahrhunderts. Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 2008. ISBN 978-3-7861-2567-9 Gottwald, Franziska: Das Tronie. Muster - Studie - Meisterwerk. Die Genese einer Gattung der Malerei vom 15. Jahrhundert bis zu Rembrandt, München/Berlin: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2009. ISBN 978-3-422-06930-5 Hirschfelder, Dagmar / Krempel, León: Tronies. Das Gesicht in der Frühen Neuzeit, Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 2013. Good discussion with special reference to Vermeer
The Westerkerk is a Reformed church within Dutch Protestant church in central Amsterdam, Netherlands. It lies in the most western part of the Grachtengordel neighborhood, next to the Jordaan, between the Prinsengracht and Keizersgracht; the Westerkerk was built between 1620 and 1631 in Renaissance style according to designs by architect Hendrick de Keyser. He is buried in the church he designed earlier: the'Zuiderkerk'; the building of the Westerkerk was finished and completed by his son Pieter de Keyser and inaugurated on June 8, 1631. The church has a width of 29 meters; the high nave is flanked by the two lower aisles. The three-aisled basilica has a rectangular plan with two transepts of equal dimensions; as a result, the plan for this church was given the form of two Greek crosses connected with each other.. Several older churches in Amsterdam, such as Oude Kerk and Nieuwe Kerk, were built before the Reformation and were converted to Protestantism during the Reformation in 1578; the Westerkerk was one of the first purposely built Protestant churches.
The Noorderkerk and Zuiderkerk preceded the Westerkerk. Today the Westerkerk remains the largest church in the Netherlands, built for Protestants, is still in use by the PKN There was no organ when the Westerkerk was consecrated on Whit Sunday the 8th of June in 1631. According to Calvinism, playing instrumental music inside the church was still considered'profane' in those days, it took many years of consultation until an organ was allowed. At first there was still talk of moving the small organ used in the Nieuwe- or the'Oudekerk' but the pipes of this'Oudekerk' choir organ were moved to the'Zuiderkerk'. In 1681 the Westerkerk decided on commissioning organ builder Roelof Barentszn Duyschot for the construction of a new organ. Before it was finished he died and in 1686 the new organ was finished by his son Johannes Duyschot. In 1727 it was enlarged with an extra third keyboard by Christiaan Vater who learned his profession at Arp Schnitger. Many alterations were done on the organ in the course of time.
In the 19th century in 1895 a rebuild of the inside of the organ took place by Daniel Gerard Steenkuyl. Lucky enough many of the old pipes and the wind chests were re used. In 1939, the keyboard was equipped with electric tracker action and a swell work was added, it was not what this organ was intended to be in action. The organ was doubled in size, but was too big for its case. So between 1989 and 1992 the organ was reconstructed by Flentrop organ builders in Zaandam to its former mechanical action again more or less like Christiaan Vater made it in 1727. Today the'bovenwerk' is still complete with stops by Vater. An exception is the'baarpyp', made by Steenkuyl in 1896 and the'Dulciaan', made by Flentrop in 1992; the front pipes were made in 1842 by Hermanus Knipscheer. In the situation after 1992, less than half of the pipes are historic and re-used in the'hoofdwerk' and the'Rugwerk'; the keyboards and stop triggers beside it of this just mechanical baroque organ are located in the main case behind this'rugwerk'.
For this kind of baroque organs, it is characteristic that many of the stops the principals, are doubled in the trebles. This was set up to create more power in leading the congregation in their psalm singing. For complex organ works one or two stop assistants are necessary for triggering these stops. In the summer season from April till the end of October there is a weekly free lunchtime concert on Friday at 1pm. In August there is a free concert every day for a week'Geen dag zonder Bach' and the'Grachten' festival. A noncommittal money collection is held after the concert at the exit; the money is used for the costs of the maintenance of the organs. Music by Johann Sebastian Bach is performed weekly in the divine Sunday services. Bach was born in 1685, a year before the organ was finished but as far as we know, he never visited Amsterdam, his music sounds. See the site of Westerkerk for the Lunchtime concert schedule. Organist/choirmaster in the Westerkerk is Jos van der Kooy. Couplers and shutters: Shutters for all manuals and pedals.
Couplers: I/II, II/I, III/II, I/P, II/P, III/P Td = Treble is doubled The inside of the organ shutters of the'hoofdwerk' was painted by Gerard de Lairesse. On the left panel we see the dancing and playing King David in front of the Ark of the Covenant. On the right panel we see the Queen of Sheba presenting gifts to King Solomon. Both stories in the book of Kings in the old testament of the Bible. Gerard de Lairesse was born in Liège in French Belgium in 1640 and he moved to Amsterdam in 1664. In the second half of the 17th Century, he was one of the most popular painters in the Netherlands. At this moment, the shutters of the Duyschot organ can be seen on a retrospective of the work of Gerard de Lairesse at the National Museum Twente in Enschede; the outside paintings of these panels or shutters were lost in the 19th century when the church wanted to sell them. The grisailles on the'rugwerk' panels were painted by Gerard de Lairesse; the inside of the'rugwerk' shutters have paintings of old musical instruments.
The complete organ was cleaned and re-painted in 1992 in its original state of colour in 1686. The small organ on the east side of the church was built
Rembrandt (1936 film)
Rembrandt is a 1936 British biographical film made by London Film Productions of the life of 17th-century Dutch painter Rembrandt van Rijn. The film was produced and directed by Alexander Korda from a screenplay by June Head and Lajos Bíró based on a story by Carl Zuckmayer; the music score was by the cinematography by Georges Périnal. Charles Laughton as Rembrandt van Rijn Gertrude Lawrence as Geertje Dircx Elsa Lanchester as Hendrickje Stoffels Edward Chapman as Carel Fabritius Walter Hudd as Frans Banning Cocq Roger Livesey as Beggar Saul John Bryning as Titus van Rijn Sam Livesey as Auctioneer Herbert Lomas as Gerrit van Rijn Allan Jeayes as Dr. Tulp John Clements as Govaert Flinck Raymond Huntley as Ludwick Abraham Sofaer as Dr. Menasseh Laurence Hanray as Heertsbeeke Austin Trevor as Marquis de Grand-Coeur Edmund Willard as Van Zeeland Leonard Sharp as Burgher at Auction Alexander Korda had worked with Laughton on the critically successful The Private Life of Henry VIII. Laughton's wife, Elsa Lanchester, has a role in the film as Hendrickje, Rembrandt's maid who became his lover.
The New York Times wrote, "Charles Laughton and Alexander Korda have produced a great, rich, glowing motion picture in "Rembrandt," which opened yesterday at the Rivoli, a picture signed all over with distinction, like one of the master's own canvases". Sombre, it lacks a tight plot, but appeals through its vivid characterisation, superb Vincent Korda sets, Georges Périnal's lovely camerawork." Jerry Vermilye The Great British Films, Citadel Press, 1978, pp 32–35 ISBN 0-8065-0661-X Rembrandt on IMDb Rembrandt at AllMovie Rembrandt at the TCM Movie Database Rembrandt at the American Film Institute Catalog Rembrandt at the BFI's Screenonline
The Stoning of Saint Stephen
The Stoning of Saint Stephen is the first signed painting by Dutch artist Rembrandt, painted in 1625 at the age of 19. It is kept in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon; this work is inspired by the martyrdom of Saint Stephen, recounted in Acts 7. This young deacon in the Christian community of Jerusalem was sentenced to death by stoning; the painting was influenced by the art of Adam Elsheimer. It represents the moment when Stephen was stoned outside the city by his many tormentors, he utters his last words to Christ as the light around him shows that the heavens are open; the painting is divided into two distinct zones with a diagonal creating an effect of chiaroscuro: on the left, a man on horseback is in the shadow, on the right and his persecutors are in the light. Saul of Tarsus can be seen seated in the background holding in his lap the coats of the stoners; some inaccuracies in the drawing can be seen. The character behind Stephen seems to be a self-portrait done into a wider composition, as Spanish painter Diego Velázquez did in Las Meninas.
John Durham suggests that Rembrandt "presents himself as a somewhat alarmed presence, a participant who may be having second thoughts about what was taking place." At Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon