United States Army Corps of Engineers
The United States Army Corps of Engineers is a U. S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering and construction management agencies. Although associated with dams and flood protection in the United States, USACE is involved in a wide range of public works throughout the world; the Corps of Engineers provides outdoor recreation opportunities to the public, provides 24% of U. S. hydropower capacity. The corps' mission is to "Deliver vital military engineering services. Other civil engineering projects include flood control, beach nourishment, dredging for waterway navigation. Design and construction of flood protection systems through various federal mandates. Design and construction management of military facilities for the Army, Air Force, Army Reserve and Air Force Reserve and other Defense and Federal agencies. Environmental regulation and ecosystem restoration.
The history of United States Army Corps of Engineers can be traced back to 16 June 1775, when the Continental Congress organized an army with a chief engineer and two assistants. Colonel Richard Gridley became General George Washington's first chief engineer. One of his first tasks was to build fortifications near Boston at Bunker Hill; the Continental Congress recognized the need for engineers trained in military fortifications and asked the government of King Louis XVI of France for assistance. Many of the early engineers in the Continental Army were former French officers. Louis Lebègue Duportail, a lieutenant colonel in the French Royal Corps of Engineers, was secretly sent to America in March 1777 to serve in Washington's Continental Army. In July 1777 he was appointed colonel and commander of all engineers in the Continental Army, in November 17, 1777, he was promoted to brigadier general; when the Continental Congress created a separate Corps of Engineers in May 1779 Duportail was designated as its commander.
In late 1781 he directed the construction of the allied U. S.-French siege works at the Battle of Yorktown. From 1794 to 1802 the engineers were combined with the artillery as the Corps of Artillerists and Engineers; the Corps of Engineers, as it is known today, came into existence on 16 March 1802, when President Thomas Jefferson signed the Military Peace Establishment Act whose aim was to "organize and establish a Corps of Engineers... that the said Corps... shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York and shall constitute a military academy." Until 1866, the superintendent of the United States Military Academy was always an officer of engineer. The General Survey Act of 1824 authorized the use of Army engineers to survey canal routes; that same year, Congress passed an "Act to Improve the Navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers" and to remove sand bars on the Ohio and "planters, sawyers, or snags" on the Mississippi, for which the Corps of Engineers was the responsible agency.
Separately authorized on 4 July 1838, the U. S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers consisted only of officers and was used for mapping and the design and construction of federal civil works and other coastal fortifications and navigational routes, it was merged with the Corps of Engineers on 31 March 1863, at which point the Corps of Engineers assumed the Lakes Survey District mission for the Great Lakes. In 1841, Congress created the Lake Survey; the survey, based in Detroit, Mich. was charged with conducting a hydrographical survey of the Northern and Northwestern Lakes and preparing and publishing nautical charts and other navigation aids. The Lake Survey published its first charts in 1852. In the mid-19th century, Corps of Engineers' officers ran Lighthouse Districts in tandem with U. S. Naval officers; the Army Corps of Engineers played a significant role in the American Civil War. Many of the men who would serve in the top leadership in this institution were West Point graduates who rose to military fame and power during the Civil War.
Some of these men were Union Generals George McClellan, Henry Halleck, George Meade, Confederate generals Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, P. G. T. Beauregard; the versatility of officers in the Army Corps of Engineers contributed to the success of numerous missions throughout the Civil War. They were responsible for building pontoon and railroad bridges and batteries, the destruction of enemy supply lines, the construction of roads; the Union forces were not the only ones to employ the use of engineers throughout the war, on 6 March 1861, once the South had seceded from the Union, among the different acts passed at the time, a provision was included that called for the creation of a Confederate Corps of Engineers. The progression of the war demonstrated the South's disadvantage in engineering expertise. To overcome this obstacle, the Confederate Congress passed legislation that gave a company of engineers to every division in the field. One of the main projects for the Army Corps of Engineers was constructing railroads and bridges, which Union forces took advantage of because railroads and bridges provided access to resources and industry.
One area where the Confederate engineers were able to outperform the Union Army was in the ability to build fortification
Lake Jackson (Sebring, Florida)
Lake Jackson, covering 3,212 acres, is located within the city of Sebring, Florida. Sebring is the county seat of Highlands County. Lake Jackson, a healthy freshwater lake, is 25 feet at its deepest. Most of the area is shallow; the water is clear as compared to most lakes and the shores are sandy. The lake has various boat ramps, including the popular public ramp at Veterans Beach on the lake's west side. Most ramps are private and there are many private beaches. Three public swimming beaches exist. One at Veterans Beach, at the north end of Lake Jackson, Hidden Beach, near Faith Lutheran Church, City Pier Beach is located just to the west of downtown Sebring. City Pier Beach was closed for five years but reopened in 2013, it remains an active public beach. Crescent Beach is a small community beach located at the end of Crescent Drive just off of S. E. Lakeview Dr. A public fishing dock is to the north side of the swimming beach near the downtown; the shore is surrounded by homes. A large condominium, The Fountainhead, is on the east side.
The only areas not surrounded by residential property are the southwest side, bordered by U. S. Highway 27, an area on the north cove containing a large orange grove; the lake is round, with the exception of the north cove, a smaller rounded area. Lake Jackson is connected to Little Lake Jackson by a short canal. Due to the death of novelist Rex Beach in his lakefront home, the lake was renamed Rex Beach Lake in his honor, but the name did not last. Florida Lakewatch
Technical Division, Air Training Command
Technical Division, Air Training Command is an inactive United States Air Force unit. It was assigned to the Air Training Command, stationed at Illinois, it was inactivated on 14 November 1949. Technical training in the Air Service began about the same time as pilot training. In order to keep its airplanes operational, there was a need for skilled mechanics and other technicians. At first, men who possessed some mechanical experience received training at civilian trade schools and state universities. Problems arose and the expense led the Army set up two mechanic schools, one at Kelly Field and another in a large building in St Paul, Minnesota that the War Department took over. During World War I, the school at Kelly Field had trained over 2,000 more mechanics. Though the school in St Paul closed after the end of the war, Kelly remained in operation and trained some 5,000 more mechanics before January 1921; when the supply depot at Love Field, closed in 1921 and moved to Kelly, the Air Service mechanics's school was forced to move to Chanute Field, Illinois.
In 1922, the school was expanded when the photography school at Langley Field and the communications school at Fort Sill, both joined the mechanics course at Chanute, congregating all technical training in the Air Service at that location. The facility at Chanute was re-designated as the Air Corps Technical School in 1926, with the former separate schools becoming "Departments". In 1930, two more Departments were established at Chanute, the Department of Clerical Instruction and the Department of Armament. Technical training expanded in 1938 at Lowry Field, when the Photography and Clerical instruction were moved from Chanute to the new facilities in Denver. In 1939, Scott Field, came under the Air Corps Technical School when the Department of Basic Instruction, responsible for the basic training of all new recruits, was established at Scott, it moved to Chanute in 1940. On 1 June 1939, the Air Corps Technical School at Chanute Field was elevated to the Command level, being re-designated as Air Corps Technical Training Command.
With the expansion of the Air Corps after May 1940, technical training was expanded rapidly. By early November 1941, students were entering technical training at the rate of 110,000 per year, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor the student flow rose sharply: 13,000 men entered technical training schools in January 1942 and 55,000 in December 1942. To accommodate this rapid growth in students, additional installations were established. New technical training bases included Keesler Field and Sheppard Field, both activated in 1941 with a mission of technical training; because technical schools did not require flying facilities, the Army Air Forces took over a total of 452 hotels, as well as warehouses, convention halls, athletic fields, parking lots, various other structures to accommodate student classroom space. The number of hotels at the peak of training included 337 in Florida; the heavy burden of the expanded program for technical training had forced the Air Corps to establish the Air Corps Technical Training Command on 1 March 1941.
Temporary headquarters for the new command was established at Chanute Field on 26 March. Further decentralization was achieved by grouping the technical schools into two districts. In a functional arrangement which placed basic military and aviation mechanic training under one command and remaining specialties under another, the first district included Scott Field, Lowry Field, Fort Logan; this organization was abandoned on 1 November 1941 when Air Corps Technical Training Command revised the two districts and announced that four technical training districts would be established on a geographical basis to manage the expansion. These were: First Technical Training District, Greensboro Center, North Carolina Second Technical Training District, St. Louis, Missouri Third Technical Training District, Oklahoma Fourth Technical Training District, ColoradoLater, in November 1942, a Fifth Training District with headquarters at Miami Beach, was created to supervise the numerous technical training activities in Florida.
On 31 July 1943, the Army Air Forces reorganized AAF Training Command with the establishment of subordinate commands, three for flying training and three for technical training. The five districts that had belonged to Technical Training Command were realigned. First District at Greensboro became the Eastern Technical Training Command Second District in St Louis was renamed the Central Technical Training Command Fourth District in Denver was renamed the Western Technical Training Command The Third District at Tulsa, Oklahoma was divided between WTTC and CTTC; the Fifth District in Miami Beach was absorbed into the ETTC. Requirements in the combat theaters for graduates of technical training schools and pilots proved to be smaller than expected, so the Army Air Forces reduced the size of these training programs in January 1944; the Central Technical Training Command in St. Louis was discontinued 1 March 1944. All schools in the central command, with the exception of Keesler Field, became part of the eastern command.
Keesler went to the western command. The headquarters of Eastern Technical Training Command moved from Greensboro
Royal Air Force Station Polebrook or more RAF Polebrook is a former Royal Air Force station located 3.5 miles east-south-east of Oundle, at Polebrook, England. The airfield was built on Rothschild estate land starting in August 1940, it was from Polebrook that the United States Army Air Forces' Eighth Air Force carried out its first heavy bomb group combat mission on 17 August 1942, from which Major Clark Gable flew combat missions in 1943. RAF Polebrook was the first airfield to be completed out of a number in the Northamptonshire/Huntingdonshire area which were laid down for RAF Bomber Command during late 1940 and early 1941. Like other airfields in the construction program at the time, Polebrook was built by George Wimpey & Co. Limited; the initial construction was of three runways, the concrete runway lengths were 08-26 at 1,280 yards, 14-32 at 1,200 yards and 02-20, 1,116 yards. In addition, thirty square hardstands most on the eastern side, were reached by long access tracks; the weapons store was unusual in.
One Type J and two Type T-2 hangars were erected on the technical site outside the northern perimeter with the domestic sites dispersed in woodland beyond. One of the first units to operate from the airfield was No. 90 Squadron RAF, which carried out operational trials from June 1941 to February 1942. Several of the hardstands and taxiways were still under construction. No. 90 Squadron was equipped with the American B-17C, called "Fortress 1" by the RAF. Although the US Army Air Forces did not consider the B-17C as being combat ready, the RAF was sufficiently desperate in 1941 that these planes were pressed into front-line service; the Fortresses were used for high-altitude attacks in daylight, the first operation from Polebrook being flown on 8 July 1941 when three Fortresses were dispatched on a raid to Wilhelmshaven. Engine trouble forced one of the planes to divert to a second target, but the other two went on to attack the naval barracks at Wilhelmshaven from an altitude of 30,000 feet.
The planes were not able to hit anything from such extreme altitudes. In addition, their crews found that the temperatures at this altitude were so cold that their defensive machine guns froze up when they tried to fire them. However, all planes returned safely to base, their last raid launched from Polebrook was on 2 September 1941. RAF Fortresses had flown 22 attacks against targets such as Bremen, Emden, Kiel and Rotterdam. A total of 39 planes had been dispatched, out of which eighteen planes had aborted and two had been forced to bomb secondary targets because of mechanical problems. Eight Fortresses had been lost in accidents. Discouraged by these losses, the RAF decided to abandon daylight bombing raids over Europe. Although two Fortresses were missing from operations, the only loss resulting from a raid flown from Polebrook involved a badly battle-damaged aircraft that crash landed at a south-coast airfield; as a result of RAF experience with the Fortress, it was determined that there was a need for vast improvements in defensive gunnery, a need for operating the Fortresses in greater numbers in tighter formations for better defensive firepower, a need for better and more intensive crew training.
Their British crews were quite pleased with the Fortress I, regarding it as easy to fly maneuverable, aerodynamically stable in the bomb run. While at Polebrook, No. 90 was the sole operational squadron assigned to No. 8 Group RAF and, before it was disbanded on 12 February 1942, its remaining aircraft and crews were only involved in experimentation and training. The short runways at Polebrook were found to be unsatisfactory for the operation of the heavy-loaded, four-engine B-17. In 1942 the airfield was improved to Class A airfield standards; the main runway was extended to the secondary runways to 1,400 yards each. In addition, additional hardstands were constructed, increasing the total number from 30 to 50; this enlargement resulted in the unusual situation that the ammunition storage area was inside the extended perimeter track. The living and communal sites were dispersed in woodlands north of the airfield, they provided accommodations to about 2,000 personnel. From 12 December 1943 to 12 June 1945, Polebrook served as headquarters for the 94th Combat Bombardment Wing of the 1st Bombardment Division.
It was designated USAAF Station 110. On 28 June 1942, RAF Polebrook was turned over to the United States Army Air Forces and the airbase became the base of the 97th Bombardment Group, the first USAAF heavy bomber organization to arrive in the UK; the 97th BG was assigned at RAF Bassingbourn. Its operational squadrons were divided between Polebrook and RAF Grafton Underwood: 340th Bombardment Squadron 341st Bombardment Squadron 342nd Bombardment Squadron 343rd Bombardment Squadron Combat operations by the USAAF began on 17 August 1942, when the 97th BG flew the first Eighth Air Force heavy bomber mission of the war, attacking the Rouen-Sotteville marshalling yards in France; the lead aircraft of the group, Butcher Shop, was piloted by the Group Commander, Colonel Frank A. Armstrong, squadron commander Major Paul W. Tibbets. In the leading aircraft of the second flight, Yankee Doodle, flew General Ira C. Eaker, the commanding general of the Eighth Air Force Bomber Command; the 97th BG conducted a total of 14 miss
United States Army Air Forces Contract Flying School Airfields
During World War II civilian flying schools, under government contract, provided a considerable part of the flying training effort undertaken by the United States Army Air Forces. With the consolidation of pilot training by the United States Army Air Corps in 1931, nearly all flying training had taken place at Randolph Field, near San Antonio, Texas. During the 1930s, Randolph had produced about 500 new pilots per year, adequate for the peacetime air corps. With war clouds gathering in Europe after the 1938 Munich Agreement, General Henry H. Arnold, the Chief of Staff of the Air Corps, realized that the Army was going to have to increase the number of its pilots in case of a general war breaking out again; as a result and his command staff developed a plan to supplement the training at Randolph with military pilot training conducted by the civil flight schools in the United States. In late 1938, eleven flight schools were contacted by the United States Army Air Corps by Arnold without any funding or Congressional Authorization.
Arnold asked if they would, at their own expense, set up facilities to house and train Army pilots. He promised that the Army would pay the schools $1,170 for each pilot that completed a primary flight training course, $18 per flight hour for each student that washed out. Arnold received a commitment from eight accepting his proposal. In April 1939, Congress authorized $300 million for the Air Corps to procure and maintain 6,000 aircraft. In the authorization, the Air Corps was authorized to enroll Army Flight Cadets in civilian training schools. Moving forward, in June 1939, the War Department approved Arnold's request to organize nine civilian flight schools to train Army pilots. Flight training would begin at most of these schools in July 1939. After the spring offensive by Nazi Germany and the Fall of France in May, 1940, the Army, Arnold increased the rate of pilot training from 4,500 to 7,000 pilots per year; each of the nine Contract Pilot Schools were requested to open an additional school to accommodate this increase.
In August 1940, the rate of pilot training was ordered increased to 12,000 per year. All civil flying instructors had to be certified by the CAA, as well as the ground school instructors and aircraft mechanics. Flying instructors had to undergo a two-week Army refresher program. In order to exempt the instructors and mechanics from the wartime draft, all were enlisted into the Army as privates in the Army Reserve; each CPS was commanded by an Army officer, who supervised all aspects of the program as well as insuring that military discipline was maintained. A few Air Corps pilots conducted all check rides. However, the existing CPS contractors were unable to expand to train this increased number. In response, the Air Corps issued a request for bid to all of the 38 Civil Aeronautics Administration approved flying schools in the country outlining the specifications for Army pilot training. From the schools responding to the RFB, the Air Corps selected eleven new contractors for Army primary flight training.
With the war in Europe expanding, the threat of war with the Japanese Empire becoming more and more a possibility, the Chief of Staff of the Army directed Arnold to increase pilot training to 30,000 per year. To meet this new rate, the CPS concept was again expanded by converting three of the Level 1 primary CPS schools to Level 2 basic flying training and expanded the number of CPS contractors. However, in the strictest sense, these schools were not owned or leased by the USAAF, for the most part, they were not designated or activated as Army Air Fields. In official Army directories, they were listed by the name of the civilian flying school, the name of the airport on which it operated, or sometimes just by the city name. In addition to the Air Corps demands for civil flying schools to train military pilots, in late 1940, President Franklin Roosevelt accepted a proposal from British Prime Minister Winston Churchill that the United States train Royal Air Force pilots at civilian flying schools.
The first RAF flight cadets began training in the United States in June 1941. The Army Air Corps maintained a small liaison detachment at each of these schools, however the RAF provided a cadre of officers for military supervision and training, while flight training was conducted by contract flying schools. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and both Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany's declaration of war against the United States in December 1941, plans were made by the Army to increase the training rate to 50,000 70,000 and 102,000 pilots per year; the Defense Plant Corporation purchased all of the CFS's and leased the facilities back to the civilian contractors. This made them government property, although they continued to be operated by the civilian contractors; the DFC funded the construction of all future CPSs. The CFS's were assigned to the various Flying Training Commands, each had a designated USAAF Flying Training Detachment assigned for supervision and liaison with the command.
According to the contract, the government supplied students with training aircraft, flying clothes and equipment. Schools furnished instructors, training sites and facilities, aircraft maintenance and mess halls. To the flying cadets, the CPSs were just another training assignment—although the flight instructors were civilian contractors, the cadets still experienced the discipline and drudgery of military life. Due to the wartime pressure to produce pilots the AAF paid scant attention to their military training; the atmosphere of the civilian-operated primary schools was not conducive to the
Maxwell Air Force Base
Maxwell Air Force Base known as Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base, is a United States Air Force installation under the Air Education and Training Command. The installation is located in Montgomery, Alabama, US. Occupying the site of the first Wright Flying School, it was named in honor of Second Lieutenant William C. Maxwell, a native of Atmore, Alabama; the base is the headquarters of Air University, a major component of Air Education and Training Command, is the U. S. Air Force's center for Joint Professional Military Education; the host wing for Maxwell-Gunter is the 42d Air Base Wing. The Air Force Reserve Command's 908th Airlift Wing is a tenant unit and the only operational flying unit at Maxwell; the 908 AW and its subordinate 357th Airlift Squadron operates eight C-130H Hercules aircraft for theater airlift in support of combatant commanders worldwide. As an AFRC airlift unit, the 908th is operationally gained by the Air Mobility Command. Gunter Annex is a separate installation under the 42 ABW.
Known as Gunter Field, it became known as Gunter Air Force Station when its runways were closed and its operational flying activity eliminated. It was renamed Gunter Air Force Base during the 1980s; as a hedge against future Base Realignment and Closure closure actions, Gunter AFB was consolidated under Maxwell AFB in March 1992 to create a combined installation known as Maxwell/Gunter AFB. Maxwell AFB is the site of Federal Prison Camp, Montgomery, a minimum security facility for male inmates. Toward the end of February 1910, the Wright Brothers decided to open one of the world's earliest flying schools at the site that would subsequently become Maxwell AFB; the Wrights taught the principles of flying, including take-offs, balancing and landings. The Wright Flying School closed on May 26, 1910; the field served as a repair depot during World War I. In fact, the depot built the first plane made in Montgomery and exhibited it at the field on September 20, 1918. Repair activity at the depot was curtailed at the end of the war.
The Aviation Repair Depot's land was leased by the U. S. Army during World War I, purchased on January 11, 1920 for $34,327. Diminished postwar activity caused the U. S. War Department in 1919 to announce that it planned to close thirty-two facilities around the country, including the Aviation Repair Depot. In 1919, the Aviation Repair Depot had a $27,000 monthly civilian payroll, was a vital part of the city's economy; the loss of the field would have been a serious blow to the local Montgomery economy. The field remained open into the early 1920s only because the War Department was slow in closing facilities. After this initial reprieve, the War Department announced in 1922 that facilities on the original closure list would indeed close in the near future. City officials were not surprised to hear that Aviation Repair Depot remained on the list, because 350 civilian employees had been laid off in June 1921. On November 8, 1922, the War Department redesignated the depot as Maxwell Field in honor of Atmore, Alabama native, Second Lieutenant William C.
Maxwell. On 12 August 1920, engine trouble forced Lieutenant Maxwell to attempt to land his DH-4 in a sugarcane field in the Philippines. Maneuvering to avoid a group of children playing below, he struck a flagpole hidden by the tall sugarcane and was killed instantly. On the recommendation of his former commanding officer, Major Roy C. Brown, the Montgomery Air Intermediate Depot, Alabama, was renamed Maxwell Field. In 1923, it was one of three U. S. Army Air Service aviation depots. Maxwell Field repaired aircraft engines in support of flying training missions such as those at Taylor Field, southeast of Montgomery. Maxwell Field, as most Army air stations and depots developed during World War I, was on leased properties with temporary buildings being the mainstay of construction; these temporary buildings/shacks were built to last two to five years. By the mid-1920s, these dilapidated wartime buildings had become a national disgrace. Congressional investigations showed that the manning strength of the U.
S. Army's air arm was deficient; these critical situations led to the Air Corps Act of 1926 and the two major programs that transformed Army airfields. The Air Corps Act changed the name and status of the Army Air Service to the U. S. Army Air authorized a five-year expansion program. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, this program and its companion, the 1926 Army Housing Program, produced well-designed, permanent buildings and infrastructure at all Army airfields retained after World War I. Taking up the cause of Maxwell Field was freshman Congressman J. Lister Hill, a World War I veteran who served with the 17th and 71st U. S. Infantry Regiments. He, as well as other Montgomery leaders, recognized the historical significance of the Wright Brother's first military flying school and the potential of Maxwell Field to the local economy. In 1925 Hill, a member of the House Military Affairs Committee, affixed an amendment to a military appropriations bill providing $200,000 for the construction of permanent buildings at Maxwell Field.
This amendment did not have the approval of the War Department nor the Army Air Corps, but as a result of this massive spending on Maxwell Field, the War Department kept it open. Hill recognized that to keep Maxwell Field open, it needed to be fiscally or militarily valuable to the War Department. In September 1927, Hill met with Major General Mason M. Patrick, chief of the Army Air Corps, his assistant, Brigadier General James E. Fechet, to discuss the placement of an attack group at Maxwell Field. B
J. Hardin Peterson
James Hardin Peterson was a U. S. Representative from Florida. Peterson was born in South Carolina, his family moved to Lakeland, Florida, in 1903, he attended the public schools there. Peterson graduated from the University of Florida College of Law in 1914, he was a law clerk in the General Land Office the same year. He entered private practice in Lakeland in 1915. Peterson was city attorney of Lakeland, Florida, in 1916, 1917, 1919–1932, of Frostproof, Florida from 1918 to 1929, of Lake Wales, Florida from 1920 to 1930, of Eagle Lake, Florida from 1923 to 1933. Peterson served as a chief yeoman in the United States Navy from 1917 to 1919, during World War I. Peterson served as prosecuting attorney and county solicitor of Polk County, Florida from 1921 to 1932, he served as special counsel for the state Department of Agriculture from 1930 to 1932. Peterson was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives from Florida's 1st congressional district in the 1932 election, defeating Herbert J. Drane, who had served in the United States Congress since 1917.
He served in the eight succeeding Congresses. Peterson served as chairman of the Committee on Public Lands during the 78th, 79th, 81st Congresses). Peterson was not a candidate for renomination in 1950 to the 82nd Congress. After leaving Congress, he resumed the practice of law in Lakeland, he served as special counsel for the Territorial Government of Guam, chairman of Commission on Federal Application of Laws to Guam, chairman and vice chairman of the board of directors of the First State Bank of Lakeland. Peterson died in Lakeland in 1978, was interred in Roselawn Cemetery. List of members of the House Un-American Activities Committee United States Congress. "J. Hardin Peterson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. J. Hardin Peterson at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov