Philipp Emanuel von Fellenberg
Philipp Emanuel von Fellenberg was a Swiss educationalist and agronomist. He was born at Bern, his father was of patrician family, a man of importance in his canton, his mother was a granddaughter of the Dutch admiral Van Tromp. From his mother and from Gottlieb Konrad Pfeffel, the blind poet of Colmar, he received a better education than falls to the lot of most boys, while the intimacy of his father with Pestalozzi gave to his mind that bent which it afterwards followed. In 1790 he entered the University of Tübingen, where he distinguished himself by his rapid progress in legal studies. On account of his health he afterwards undertook a walking tour in Switzerland and the adjoining portions of France and Tirol, visiting the hamlets and farmhouses, mingling in the labors and occupations of the peasants and mechanics, partaking of their rude fare and lodging. After the downfall of Robespierre, he went to Paris and remained there long enough to be assured of the storm impending over his native country.
This he did his best to avert, but his warnings were disregarded, Switzerland was lost before any efficient means could be taken for its safety. Fellenberg, who had hastily raised a levy en masse, was proscribed. Shortly afterwards, however, he was recalled by his countrymen, sent on a mission to Paris to remonstrate against the rapacity and cruelty of the agents of the French republic, but in this and other diplomatic offices which he held for a short time, he was witness to so much corruption and intrigue that his mind revolted from the idea of a political life, he returned home with the intention of devoting himself wholly to the education of the young. With this resolution he purchased in 1799 the estate of Hofwyl, near Bern, intending to make agriculture the basis of a new system which he had projected, for elevating the lower and rightly training the higher orders of the state, welding them together in a closer union than had hitherto been deemed attainable. For some time he carried on his labors in conjunction with Pestalozzi, but incompatibility of disposition soon induced them to separate.
The scheme of Fellenberg at first excited a large amount of ridicule, but it began to attract the notice of foreign countries. For forty-five years Fellenberg, assisted by his wife, who ran the side of the school devoted to girls, continued his educational labors, raised his institution to the highest point of prosperity and usefulness, he died in 1844. 1808: Landwirthschaftliche Blätter von Hofwyl. 5 Hefte. Aarau: Maurhofer & Dellenbach, 1808-1817 1813: Darstellung der Armen-Erziehungsanstalt in Hofwyl. Von ihrem Stifter E. v. F. Aus dem vierten Hefte der landwirthschaftlichen Blätter von Hofwyl besonders abgedruckt. Aarau 1813: Observations extraites des feuilles d’Hofwyl, sur les semoirs à grains de toute espèce et leur emploi. 1808: Vues relatives à l'agriculture de la Suisse et aux moyens de la perfectionner. Pictet. Genève 1811: Vorläufige Nachricht über die Erziehungsanstalt für die höheren Stände zu Hofwyl. 1830: Beleuchtung einer weltgerichtlichen Frage an unsern Zeitgeist. Bern: bei C. A. Jenni 1831: Sendschreiben an den Verfassungsrath des Kantons Bern...
April 1831. Bern: Gedruckt bei Carl Rätzer 1833: Der dreimonatliche Bildungskurs, Bern Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Fellenberg, Philipp Emanuel von". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this work in turn cites: Hamm, Wilhelm von Fellenberg's Leben und Wirken: zur Erinnerung für seime Freunde, Schüler und Verehrer Schöni, Franz Robert Der Stifter von Hofwyl, Leben und Wirken Fellenberg's. Bern, 1871 & Schaffhausen, 1874 H. Gilomen: Die Kinderkolonie Meikirch. Ein pädagogisches Experiment vor hundert Jahren. Beyer & Söhne, Langensalza 1929.. Kurt Guggisberg: Philipp Emanuel von Fellenberg und sein Erziehungsstaat. Lang, Bern 1953. Rudolf Wepfer: "Ich bin auch das Werk meiner selbst". Philipp Emanuel von Fellenberg. Biographische Skizze eines. Verl. Am Goetheanum, Dornach 2000. ISBN 3-7235-1086-8 Denise Wittwer Hesse: Die Familie von Fellenberg und die Schulen von Hofwyl. Erziehungsideale, "Häusliches Glück" und Unternehmertum einer Bernischen Patrizierfamilie in der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts.
Historischer Verein, Bern 2002. ISBN 3-85731-022-7
Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz was a Swiss-American biologist and geologist recognized as an innovative and prodigious scholar of Earth's natural history. Agassiz grew up in Switzerland, he received Doctor of Philosophy and medical degrees at Munich, respectively. After studying with Cuvier and Humboldt in Paris, Agassiz was appointed professor of natural history at the University of Neuchâtel, he emigrated to the United States in 1847 after visiting Harvard University. He went on to become professor of zoology and geology at Harvard, to head its Lawrence Scientific School, to found its Museum of Comparative Zoology. Agassiz is known for his regimen of observational data analysis, he made vast institutional and scientific contributions to zoology and related areas, including writing multi-volume research books running to thousands of pages. He is known for his contributions to ichthyological classification, including of extinct species, to the study of geological history, including to the founding of glaciology.
In the 20th and 21st centuries, Agassiz's resistance to Darwinian evolution, belief in creationism, the scientific racism implicit in his writings on human polygenism, have tarnished his reputation and led to controversies over his legacy. Louis Agassiz was born in Môtier in the Swiss canton of Fribourg; the son of a pastor, Agassiz was educated first at home, he spent four years of secondary school in Bienne, entering in 1818 and completing his elementary studies in Lausanne. Agassiz studied successively at the universities of Zürich and Munich. In 1829 he received the degree of doctor of philosophy at Erlangen, in 1830 that of doctor of medicine at Munich. Moving to Paris, he came under the tutelage of Alexander von Humboldt. Humboldt and Georges Cuvier launched him on his careers of zoology respectively. Ichthyology soon became a focus of his life's work. In 1819–1820, the German biologists Johann Baptist von Spix and Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius undertook an expedition to Brazil, they returned home to Europe with many natural objects, including an important collection of the freshwater fish of Brazil of the Amazon River.
Spix, who died in 1826, did not live long enough to work out the history of these fish, Martius selected Agassiz for this project. Agassiz threw himself into the work with an enthusiasm that would go on to characterize the rest of life's work; the task of describing the Brazilian fish was completed and published in 1829. This was followed by research into the history of fish found in Lake Neuchâtel. Enlarging his plans, in 1830 he issued a prospectus of a History of the Freshwater Fish of Central Europe, it was only in 1839, that the first part of this publication appeared, it was completed in 1842. In 1832, Agassiz was appointed professor of natural history at the University of Neuchâtel; the fossil fish in the rock of the surrounding region, the slates of Glarus and the limestones of Monte Bolca, soon attracted his attention. At the time little had been accomplished in their scientific study. Agassiz, as early as 1829, planned the publication of a work which, more than any other, laid the foundation of his worldwide fame.
Five volumes of his Recherches sur les poissons fossiles were published from 1833 to 1843. They were magnificently illustrated, chiefly by Joseph Dinkel. In gathering materials for this work Agassiz visited the principal museums in Europe, meeting Cuvier in Paris, he received much encouragement and assistance from him, they had known him for seven years at the time. Agassiz found; the fossils he examined showed any traces of the soft tissues of fish, instead, consisted chiefly of the teeth and fins, with the bones being preserved in comparatively few instances. He, adopted a classification that divided fish into four groups: Ganoids, Placoids and Ctenoids, based on the nature of the scales and other dermal appendages; this did much to improve fish taxonomy. Agassiz needed financial support to continue his work; the British Association and the Earl of Ellesmere—then Lord Francis Egerton—stepped in to help. The 1,290 original drawings made for the work were purchased by the Earl, presented by him to the Geological Society of London.
In 1836, the Wollaston Medal was awarded to Agassiz by the council of that society for his work on fossil ichthyology. Meanwhile, invertebrate animals engaged his attention. In 1837, he issued the "Prodrome" of a monograph on the recent and fossil Echinodermata, the first part of which appeared in 1838. Before Agassiz's first visit to England in 1834, Hugh Miller and other geologists had brought to light the remarkable fossil fish of the Old Red Sandstone of the northeast of Scotland; the strange forms of the Pterichthys, the Coccosteus and other genera were made known to geologists for the first time. They were of intense interest to Agassiz, formed the subject of a monograph by him published in 1844–45: Monographie des poissons fossiles du Vieux Grès Rouge, ou Système Dévonien des Îles Britanniques et de Russie ("Monograph on Fossil Fish of the Old Red Sandstone, or Devonian
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Frederick DuCane Godman
Frederick DuCane Godman DCL FRS FLS FGS FRGS FES FZS MRI FRHS was an English lepidopterist and ornithologist. He was one of the twenty founding members of the British Ornithologists' Union. Along with Osbert Salvin, he is remembered for studying the flora of Central America. Godman collected Hispano-Moresque and early Iranian pottery, his collection of more than 600 pieces was donated to the British Museum through the will of his younger daughter, Catherine Edith Godman, who died in 1982. Frederick DuCane Godman was born on 15 January 1834 and was one of the 13 children of Joseph Godman and Caroline Smith. Joseph Godman was a partner in the brewery firm Company. Frederick was sent to study at Eton College in 1844 but left three years due to poor health and was educated at home by private tutors. At the age of 18 he went with his tutor on a trip around the Mediterranean and the Black Sea visiting southern Spain and Constantinople. Godman joined Trinity Cambridge in 1853 where he met Alfred Newton and Osbert Salvin.
Both Salvin and Godman spent time learning to skin and mount birds at Baker's taxidermy shop on the Trumpington Road. They spent time in the field on the fens; the custom of these ornithological friends, to meet and talk over their recent acquisitions led to the idea of an organisation and the foundation of the British Ornithological Union. At a meeting in Newton's room in Magdalene College on 17 November 1858, a group that included Godman, Wilfred Simpson, John Wolley, Philip Sclater and others decided that "... an Ornithological Union of twenty members should be formed, with the object of establishing a new Journal devoted to Birds: that Lieut.-Colonel H. M. Drummond should be President, Professor Newton the Secretary of the Union, Sclater should edit the Journal: that the title of the Journal should be The Ibis." Godman inherited a fortune from his father. In 1857 Godman and his brother Percy visited Bodø in northern Norway, they published an account of their visit in the Ibis. In 1861 he joined Salvin in a trip to Belize via Jamaica.
Godman returned home via the Atlantic coast. In 1865, he made a trip to the Azores with his brother Captain Temple Godman. In 1871 he visited the Madeira Islands, he corresponded with Charles Darwin. He made many other trips including a trip to India in 1886 with his brother-in-law Henry John Elwes, they visited Bombay, Allan Octavian Hume at Simla and travelled east to Sikkim. He purchased a collection of butterflies from Robert Lidderdale. During this trip he had trouble walking at high altitudes, they returned through Sri Lanka. On he had a blood clot in the veins of his legs, leading him to move and live in the warmth of Mexico in 1885. Here he joined Elwes on a trip up Popacatapetl. Godman and Salvin decided to work on a project to document the fauna and flora of Central America in 1876; this monumental work Biologia Centrali-Americana was to grow into a 63 volume encyclopaedia on the natural history of Central America. Some of the botanical plates were painted by Salvin's wife. Salvin did not live to see it completed.
Godman relied on Salvin for much of the systematics involved. The work was made possible by a number of other collaborators including Richard Bowdler Sharpe and George Charles Champion; the associated collection was enormous and included collections made by others such as Henry Walter Bates that were purchased. Godman and Salvin collected numerous bird and butterfly specimens; these were presented to the British Museum including nearly 520,000 bird skins alone. Godman took an interest in plants, maintaining a large collection of rhododendrons and alpine plants in his garden and rockery near Horsham; this house where he lived is now South Lodge Hotel. Along with his brother Colonel Charles Bulkeley Godman, he took an interest in hunting with dogs and shooting. Godman collected Iznik pottery and Hispano-Moresque ware. Although he had visited Istanbul in 1852, the ceramics were purchased in England, he became well known as dealers would bring items to his home near Horsham. His collection included important dated works.
In 1873 he married Edith, the daughter of J. H. Elwes and after her death in 1875 married Alice, daughter of Percy Chaplin in 1891. Along with his second wife Dame Alice Mary Godman, he travelled to the West Indies and through Africa, he had two daughters through his second wife. Other works by Godman included The Natural History of the Azores and a two-volume Monograph of the Petrels with plates by J. G. Keulemans; the British Ornithologists' Union instituted the Godman-Salvin Medal for contributions to ornithology while a memorial to Godman and Salvin was constructed and is exhibited in the Natural History Museum. Both his daughters took an interest in natural history; the older daughter Eva Mary Godman was killed by a vehicle when she crossed a street to post a letter. His collection of more than 600 pieces of Islamic pottery was transferred to the British Museum through the will of his younger daughter Catherine Edith Godman, who died in 1982. Godman was secretary of the British Ornithological Union from 1870 to 1882 and again from 1889 to 1897, served as president from 1896 until 1913.
He was a fellow of the Zoological Society of London, member of
Orthoptera is an order of insects that comprises the grasshoppers and crickets, including related insects such as the katydids and wetas. The order is subdivided into two suborders: Caelifera – grasshoppers and close relatives. More than 20,000 species are distributed worldwide; the insects in the order have incomplete metamorphosis, produce sound by rubbing their wings against each other or their legs, the wings or legs containing rows of corrugated bumps. The tympanum or ear is located in the front tibia in crickets, mole crickets, katydids, on the first abdominal segment in the grasshoppers and locusts; these organisms use vibrations to locate other individuals. Grasshoppers and other orthopterans are able to fold their wings, they are grouped with similar "Orthopteroid" insect orders; the name is derived from the Greek ὀρθός orthos meaning "straight" and πτερόν pteron meaning "wing". Orthopterans have a cylindrical body, with elongated hindlegs and musculature adapted for jumping, they have mandibulate mouthparts for biting and chewing and large compound eyes, may or may not have ocelli, depending on the species.
The antennae have multiple joints and filiform type, are of variable length. The first and third segments on the thorax are larger, they have two pairs of wings. The forewings, or tegmina, are narrower than the hindwings and hardened at the base, while the hindwing is membranous, with straight veins and numerous cross-veins. At rest, the hindwings are held; the final two to three segments of the abdomen are reduced, have single-segmented cerci. and their wing type is tegmina. Orthopterans have incomplete metamorphosis; the use of sound is crucial in courtship, most species have distinct songs. Most grasshoppers lay their eggs on vegetation; the eggs hatch and the young nymphs resemble adults, but lack wings and at this stage are called'hoppers'. They may also have a radically different coloration from the adults. Through successive moults, the nymphs develop wings until their final moult into a mature adult with developed wings; the number of moults varies between species. The Orthoptera is divided into two suborders and Ensifera which have been shown to be monophyletic.
Taxonomists classify members of the Caelifera and Ensifera into infraorders and superfamilies as follows: Suborder Caelifera – grasshoppers, pygmy mole crickets and allies Infraorder Acrididea Superfamily Acridoidea – grasshoppers, locusts Superfamily Eumastacoidea – monkey or matchstick grasshoppers and allies Superfamily Locustopsoidea† Superfamily Pneumoroidea – bladder grasshoppers Superfamily Pyrgomorphoidea – gaudy grasshoppers Superfamily Tanaoceroidea – desert long-horned grasshoppers Superfamily Tetrigoidea – ground-hoppers or grouse locusts Superfamily Trigonopterygoidea – leaf grasshoppers Infraorder Tridactylidea Superfamily Dzhajloutshelloidea† Superfamily Regiatoidea† Superfamily Tridactyloidea – pygmy mole crickets and allies Suborder Ensifera – crickets Superfamily Grylloidea – crickets, mole crickets Superfamily Hagloidea – grigs and allies Superfamily Phasmomimoidea† Superfamily Rhaphidophoroidea – camel crickets, cave crickets, cave wetas Superfamily Schizodactyloidea – dune crickets Superfamily Stenopelmatoidea – wetas and allies Superfamily Tettigonioidea – katydids / bush crickets Several species of Orthoptera are considered pests of crops and rangelands or seeking warmth in homes by humans.
The two species of Orthoptera that cause the most damage are locusts. Locust are known for wiping out fields of crops in a day. Locust have the ability to eat up to their own body weight in a single day. Individuals gather in large groups called swarms, these swarms can range up to 80 million individuals that stretch 460 square miles. Grasshoppers can cause major agricultural damage but not to the documented extent as locust have; these insects feed on weeds and grasses, during times of drought and high population density they will feed on crops. They are known pest in soybean fields and will feed on these crops once preferred food sources have become scarce; the Orthoptera include. The list of dietary laws in the book of Leviticus forbids all flying insects that walk, but makes an exception for certain locusts. Strangely, the dragonfly and cranefly are not kosher; the Torah states the only kosher flying insects with four walking legs have knees that extend above their feet so that they hop. Thus nonjumping Orthoptera such as mole crickets are not kosher.
With new research showing promise in locating alternative biofuel sources in the gut of insects, grasshoppers are one species of interest. The insect's ability to break down cellulose and lignin without producing greenhouse gases has aroused scientific interest. Orthoptera portal List of Orthoptera recorded in Britain Orthopterida Female sperm storage Orthoptera Species File Online Orthoptera Image Gallery Australian Plague Locust Commission The Orthopterists' Society AcridAfrica, les acridiens d'Afrique de l'Ouest "Orthoptera". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. Birdwing Grasshoppers in Belize Sound recordings of Orthoptera at BioAcoustica
Natural History Museum of Geneva
The Natural History Museum of Geneva is a natural history museum in Geneva, Switzerland. Louis Jurine’s collections of Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Hemiptera are held by the museum; the museum contains a collection of intricate glass models of invertebrates by Leopold and Rudolf Blaschka and a two headed tortoise named Janus Aellen, W. 1970. 150 ans du Muséum d'Histoire naturelle de Genève. A. Kundig Genève. Sigrist, R. 1990. Les origines d'Histoire naturelle. La science genevoise face Genève. Mémoires de la SPHN, 45/1. Sigrist, R. 1995. Les origines du Muséum d'histoire naturelle: 1794–1820. Revue des Musées de Genève. 335, juin: 2–6. Official website